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the Foreigner, (for whatsoever is somewhere gotten, is somewhere loft); there be but three Things which one Nation selleth unto another; The Commodity as Nature yieldeth it; the Manufacture ; and the Vecture or Carriage. So that if these three wheels
Wealth will flow as in a Spring-tide. And it cometh many times to pass that Materiam superabit Opus ; that the Work, and Carriage, is more worth than the Material, and enricheth a State more : as is notably seen in the Low-Countrymen, who have the best Mines, above ground, in the World.
Above all things, good Policy is to be used, that the Treasure and Monies, in a State be not gathered into few Hands : for, otherwise, a State may have a great Stock, and yet starve. And Money is like Muck, not good except it be spread. This is done, chiefly, by suppressing, or at the least, keeping a strait Hand upon the Devouring Trades of Ufury, Ingrofing great Pasturages, and the like.
For Removing Discontentments, or at least, the danger of them ; there is in every State (as we know) two Portions of Subjects; the Nobles, and the Commonalty. When one of these is Discontent, the danger is not great; for Common People are of flow Motion, if they be not excited by the Greater Sort; and the Greater Sort are of small strength, except the Multitude be apt and ready to move of themselves. Then is the danger, when the Greater Sort do but wait for the Troubling of the Waters, amongst the Meaner, that then they may declare themselves. The Poets feign, that the rest of the Gods, would have bound Jupiter ; which he hearing of, by the Counsel of Pallas, sent for Briareus, with his hundred Hands, to come in to his Aid. An Emblem, no doubt, to shew, how safe it is for Monarchs to make sure of the good Will of Common People.
To give moderate Liberty, for Griefs and Discontentments to evaporate (so it be without too great Insolency or Bravery), is a safe Way. For he that turneth the Humours back, and maketh the Wound bleed inwards, endangereth malign Ulcers, and pernicious Imposthumations.
The Part of Epimetheus might well become Prometheus, in the case of Discontentments ; for there is not a better provision against them. Epimetheus, when Griefs and Evils flew abroad, at last shut the lid, and kept Hope in the Bottom of the Vessel. Certainly, the politic and artificial Nourishing, and Entertaining of Hopes, and Carrying Men from Hopes to Hopes, is one of the best Antidotes, against the Poison of Discontentments. And it is a certain Sign, of a wise Government, and Proceeding, when it can hold Men's hearts by Hopes, when it cannot by Satisfaction: and when it can handle things, in such manner, as no Evil shall appear fo peremptory, but that it hath some Outlet of Hope: which is the less hard to do, because both particular Persons, and Factions, are apt enough to flatter themselves, or at least to brave, that which they believe not.
Also, the Foresight, and Prevention, that there be no likely or fit Head, whereunto Discontented Persons may resort, and under whom they may join, is a known, but an excellent Point of Caution. I understand a fit Head, to be one that hath Greatness and Reputation ; that hath Confidence with the Discontented Party; and upon whom they turn their Eyes; and that is thought discontented in his own particular ; which kind of Persons are either to be won, and reconciled to the State, and that in a fast and true manner; or to be fronted with some other of the same Party, that may oppose them, and so divide the reputation. Generally, the Dividing and Breaking of all Factions and Combinations, that are adverse to the State, and setting them at distance, or at least distrust amongst themselves, is not one of the worst Remedies. For it is a desperate Cafe, if those, that hold with the Proceeding of the State, be full of Discord and Faction; and those that are against it, be entire and united.
I have noted that some witty and sharp Speeches, which have fallen from Princes, have given fire to Seditions. Cæfar did himself infinite Hurt, in that Speech ; Sylla nescivit Literas, non potuit di&tare : for it did utterly cut off that Hope, which Men had entertained, that he would, at one time or other, give over his Dictatorship. Galba undid himself by that Speech ; Legi à se Militem, non emi : for it put the Soldiers out of Hope of the Donative. Probus likewise, by that Speech ; Si vixero, non opus erit ampliùs Romano Imperio militibus. A Speech of great Despair for the Soldiers : and
many the like. Surely, Princes had need, in tender Matters, and Ticklish Times, to beware what they say ; especially in these short Speeches, which Ay abroad like Darts, and are thought to be shot out of their secret Intentions. For as for large Discourses, they are flat Things, and not so much noted.
Lastly, let Princes, against all Events, not be without some Great Person, one or rather more, of Military Valour near unto them, for the Reprefsing of Seditions, in their beginnings. For without that, there useth to be more trepidation in Court, upon the first Breaking out of Troubles, than were fit. And the State runneth the danger of that, which Tacitus faith ; Atque is habitus Animorum fuit, ut pefimum facinus auderent Pauci, Plures vellent, Omnes paterentur. But let fuch Military Persons be Assured, and well reputed of, rather than factious, and popular ; holding also good Correspondence with the other Great Men in the State; Or else the Remedy is worse than the Disease.
XVI. Of Atheism.
HAD rather believe all the Fables in the Legend, and the Talmud, and the Alcoran, than that this universal Frame
is without a Mind. And therefore, God never wrought Miracle, to convince Atheism, because his Ordinary Works convince it. It is true, that a little Philosophy inclineth Man's Mind to Atheism; but depth in Philosophy bringeth Men's Minds about to Religion : for while the Mind of Man, looketh upon Second Causes Scattered, it may sometimes rest in them, and go no further : but when it beholdeth the Chain of them, confederate and linked together, it must needs fly to Providence and Deity. Nay, even that School, which is most accused of Atheism, doth most demonstrate Religion ; that is, the School of Leucippus, and Democritus, and Epicurus. For it is a thousand times more credible, that four Mutable Elements, and one Immutable Fifth Effence, duly and Eternally placed, need no God; than that an Army, of Infinite small Portions, or Seeds unplaced, should have produced this Order, and Beauty, without a Divine Marshal. The Scripture faith ; The Fool hath said in his Heart, there is no God: It is not said ; The Fool hath thought in his Heart : fo as, he rather saith it by rote to himself, as that he would have, than that he can thoroughly believe it, or be persuaded of it. For none deny there is a God, but those, for whom it maketh that there were no God. It appeareth in nothing more, that Atheism is rather in the Lip, than in the Heart of Man, than by this ; that Atheists will ever be talking of that their Opinion, as if they fainted in it, within themselves, and would be glad to be strengthened, by the Consent of others : nay more, you