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or the like) as they become more able to annoy them, than they were. And this is, generally, the Work of Standing Counsels to foresee, and to hinder it. During that Triumvirate of Kings (King Henry the Eighth of England, Francis the First King of France, and Charles the Fifth Emperor), there was such a Watch kept, that none of the Three could win a Palm of Ground, but the other two would straightways balance it, either by Confederation, or, if need were, by a War: and would not, in any wise, take up Peace at Interest. And the like was done by that League (which, Guicciardini faith, was the Security of Italy) made between Ferdinanda King of Naples ; Lorenzius Medicis, and Ludovicus Sforza, Potentates, the one of Florence, the other of Milan. Neither is the Opinion, of some of the Schoolmen, to be received ; That a War cannot justly be made, but upon a precedent Injury, or Provocation. For there is no Question, but a just Fear of an imminent Danger, though there be no Blow given, is a lawful Cause of a War.

For Wives; There are cruel Examples of them. Livia is infamed for the poisoning of her Husband : Roxalana, Solyman's Wife, was the Destruction of that renowned Prince, Sultan Mustapha ; and otherwise troubled his House, and Succession : Edward the Second of England, his Queen had the principal hand in the Deposing and Murder of her Husband. This kind of Danger is then to be feared, chiefly, when the Wives have Plots, for the raising of their own Children, or else that they be Advoutresses,

And ge

For their Children; The Tragedies likewise of Dangers from them, have been many. nerally, the Entering of Fathers into Suspicion of their Children, hath been ever Unfortunate. The Destruction of Muftapha, (that we named before) was so fatal to Solyman's Line, as the Succession of the Turks, from Solyman, until this day, is sufpected to be untrue, and of strange Blood; for that Selymus the Second, was thought to be suppofititious. The Destruction of Crispus, a young Prince, of rare Towardness, by Constantinus the Great, his Father, was in like manner fatal to his House; for both Constantinus and Constance, his Sons, died violent deaths; and Constantius his other Son, did little better ; who died, indeed, of Sickness, but after that Julianus had taken Arms against him. The Destruction of Demetrius, Son to Philip the Second, of Macedon, turned upon the Father, who died of Repentance. And many like Examples there are : but few, or none, where the Fathers had good by such Distrust; except it were, where the Sons were up, in open Arms against them, as was Selymus the First against Bajazet: and the three Sons of Henry the Second, King of England.

For their Prelates ; When they are proud and great, there is also Danger from them: as it was in the times of Anselmus, and Thomas Becket, Archbishops of Canterbury; who with their Crosiers did almost try it with the King's Sword; and yet they had to deal with stout and haughty Kings; William Rufus, Henry the First, and Henry the Second. The Danger is not from that State, but where it hath a Dependence of foreign Authority ; or where the Churchmen come in, and are elected, not by the Collation of the King, or particular Patrons, but by the People.

For their Nobles; To keep them at a distance, it is not amiss; But to depress them, may make a King more Absolute, but less Safe ; and less able to perform any thing that he desires. I have noted it, in my History of King Henry the Seventh, of England, who depressed his Nobility; whereupon, it came to pass, that his Times were full of Difficulties, and Troubles ; for the Nobility, though they continued loyal unto him, yet did they not co-operate with him, in his Business. So that in effect, he was fain to do all things himself.

For their Second Nobles; There is not much Danger from them, being a Body dispersed. They may sometimes discourse high, but that doth little Hurt: besides, they are a Counterpoise to the Higher Nobility, that they grow not too Potent : and lastly, being the most immediate in Authority with the Common People, they do best temper Popular Commotions.

For their Merchants ; They are Vena Porta ; and if they flourish not, a Kingdom may have good Limbs, but will have empty Veins, and nourish little. Taxes, and Impofts upon them, do seldom good to the King's Revenue ; for that that he wins in the Hundred, he loseth in the Shire; the particular Rates being increased, but the total Bulk of Trading rather decreased.

For their Commons ; There is little Danger from them, except it be, where they have Great and Potent Heads; or where you meddle with the Point of Religion ; or their Customs, or Means of Life.

For their Men of War; It is a dangerous State, where they live and remain in a Body, and are used to Donatives; whereof we see Examples in the Janizaries, and Pretorian Bands of Rome : but Trainings of Men, and Arming them in several places, and under several Commanders, and without Donatives, are Things of Defence, and no Danger.

Princes are like to Heavenly Bodies, which cause good or evil Times ; and which have much Veneration, but no Reft. All precepts concerning Kings, are in effect comprehended in those two Remembrances : Memento quod es Homo; And Memento quod es Deus, or Vice Dei : The one bridleth their Power, and the other their Will.

xx. Of Counsel.


HE greatest Trust, between Man and

Man, is the Trust of giving Corenfel.
For in other Confidences, Men com-

mit the parts of life; their Lands, their Goods, their Children, their Credit, some particular Affair: but to such, as they make their Counsellors, they commit the whole. By how much the more, they are obliged to all Faith and Integrity. The wiseft Princes need not think it


Diminution to their Greatness, or Derogation to their Sufficiency, to rely upon Counsel. God himself is not without: but hath made it one of the great Names, of his blessed Son; The Counsellor. Solomon hath pronounced, that In Counsel is Stability. Things will have their first, or second Agitation; if they be not tossed upon the Arguments of Counsel, they will be tossed upon the Waves of Fortune ; and be full of Inconstancy, doing and undoing, like the Reeling of a drunken Man. Solomon's Son found the Force of Counsel, as his Father saw the Necessity of it. For the beloved Kingdom of God was first rent, and broken by ill Counsel; upon which Counsel there are set, for our Instruction, the two Marks, whereby Bad Counsel is, for ever, best discerned : that it was young Counsel, for the Persons; and violent Counsel for the Matter.

The ancient Times do set forth in Figure, both the Incorporation, and inseparable Conjunction of Counsel with Kings ; and the wise and politic use of Counsel by Kings : the one, in that they say, Jupiter did marry Metis, which signifieth Counsel; whereby they intend, that Sovereignty is married to Counsel : The other, in that which followeth, which was thus: They say after Jupiter was married to Metis, the conceived by him, and was with Child; but Jupiter suffered her not to stay, till the brought forth, but eat her up; whereby he became himself with Child, and was delivered of Pallas Armed, out of his Head. Which monstrous Fa

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