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as the interregnum. Over the north-door is written, Ne subeat glis serdus, a mistake for surdus ; and over a door on the north-side, Ne intret amicus hirudo. At the back part of the house are four English lines, too coarse to be admitted here. In the hall, over the fire-place,
Maxima Domus utilitas ; et pernicies, lgois et Lingua." Over the south-door,
Hic Locus odit, amat, ponit, conservat, honorat
Nequitiem, pacem, crimina, jura, probosztwhich also is on the Town-house at Delft, in Holland, and also on the Town-house at Glasgow, in Scotland, with bonos instead of probos. Below the above lines, Confide. Deo, Diffide tibi. On a pillar on the left hand of the south-door, Patria Domus. On a pillar on the right hand of the same, Optima Celum. On the south-front,
Omnipotens faxet, stirps Sanderlandia sedes
Ebibat, et totum testudo perambulet orbem! 6 How vain are our wishes, and how uncertain the continuance of earthly things, may hence be seen, when either the writer of these, or his son, alienated this very estate which the then owner so earnestly wished might coltinue in the family for ever! Over the principal gate,
Nunquam hanc pulset portam qui violat æquum.g On the same is a cherub sounding a trumpet; and in a scroll,
Fama virtutum, tuba perennis.ll Arms belonging to the pedigree: For Sunderland, Parted per pale, Or and azure, three tioncells passant, counter-changed: thus it is in a window at High-Sunderland; but the coat is generally depicted with the lioncells guardant. ' For Langdale, Sable, a chevron between three estoils argent. For Saltonstall, Or, a bend between two eaglets displayed, sable. Thus it is at High-Sunderland, and thus I saw it borne, in 1766, by Samuel Saltonstall, Esq. alderman of Pontefract; but Thoresby, p. 236, has given us a coat of this family in which the bend is gules."
I am, Yours, &c.
• Houses when large, yield comfort: fires and tongues carry destruction with them.
bates loves punishes + This place
preserves honours 2 profligacy peace
crimes justice the good. The Almighty grant, that the family of SUNDERLAND may peaceably possess this wension and preserve the rights of its ancestors, till the ant drink up the waters of the med, and the tortoise traverse the whole world.
Ś Never may he who violates justice seek to enter this gate.
sions in Derbyshire, made chiefly for the purpose of Picturesque Obser
vations. By E.Rhodes.' DERBYSHIRE was new to my companion; and, feeling ourselves now completely within the boundaries of the Peak, we paused awhile to contemplate the country around us.
Strangely insensible to the beauties of nature must that man be who can approach these hoary hills with indifference ; who can, unmoved by deep and undefined emotions, trace the varying, 'and sometimes -graceful outline of form which they exhibit; mark the subtle admixture of light and tint that play upon their surfaces when near, and the soft blue misty colouring which pervades them in distance, Yet the mountains of Derbyshire, remotely seen, are not always distinguished by this pleasing and shadowy hue. When the black clouds that crown the summits portend a storm, they occasionally wear a darkercolour, and display a more awful aspect. Even at sunset, I have sometimes beheld them invested with a dark purple tint, so firm
and deeply toned, that, with the exception of the great landscape painter, Turher, who delights in the strong opposition of light and shadow, and in those sublime effects which gloom and storm produce, but few artists could be found hardy enough to transmit to canvas so striking and singular an appearance, unless they hesitated not to incur the imputation of having
O’erstept the modesty of Nature.” Every turn in the road now varied the picture, and every object that pre sented itself attracted attention, and charmed by its novelty. The abrupt knoll, the rocky projection, and the broken foreground, are not often defective in picturesque beauty; and, when combined with the heathy hills of Derbyshire, they sometimes produce a landscape in which the parts have a dependance on each other, where the same general character prevails, and where nothing glaringly incongruous intervenes to disturb the harmony of the composition
On a flat plot of ground, contiguous to the situation we now occupied, several piles of stones formerly stood, which were rudely built in a conical form, without lime or cement: they were removed about fifty years ago, and used for the purpose of repairing the road, when it was discovered that they contained urns, or vessels of earthern ware, in which some human bones were deposited: they were placed at regular distances, and, in connection with each other, they described nearly a circle: they were the cemeteries of the ashes of the dead ; and one cannot but regret that their hallowed character, and their antiquity, have not preserved them from violation. I recollect once observing some uncouth heaps of stones of a similar construction, in a wild and very singular dell in the neighbourhood of Bretton, about half way besween Highlow and Eyam: they greatly excited my curiosity; but, at that time, I had neither the means nor the opportunity to ascertain their contento, and information is extremely difficult of attainment in the Peak of Derbyshire,
The Lows and Barrows, that so frequently occur in this now cheerless and denuded district, may probably justify the supposition, that it was once inhabited by a more numerous population, and that these naked hills and barren moors have heretofore been fertile places, à conjecture which may require more particular attention, when traversing those parts of Derbyshire, where these burial places of the earliest ages are more frequently found. ... The road from the summit of the East-Moor is carried with a gentle de scent along the brow of the hill to a steep rocky knoll, which may be regarded as the commencement of that lofty ridge of mountains denominated Froggat Edge: thence it proceeds to Stoney Middleton, after first crossing the Derwent, near the village of Calver. : The view from this rocky elevation, in grandeur and sublimity, is unsurpassed in Derbyshire: indeed it would be difficult to find in one short mite of road, in any other part of the kingdom, a succession of scenery more richly and beautifully varied than is here presented. The hills, which form the capacious dale of the Derwent, even when 'individually considered, are noble objects; they are beautiful in outline, and, in connexion with each other, they exhibit all the grace and majesty which rock, and wood, and heath, and verdure, can possibly possess, when spread over a long chain of hills, sometimes rising boldly and abruptly into lofty and magnificent masses, at others declin ing into easy dales. The banks of the Derwent, from Stoke upwards, and throughont the whole of its windings, as far as the eye can trace its course, is every where luxuriantly wooded. Oni one side of the river the highest eminences are turreted with broken craggs of rock, which is the grand mark; ing feature of every lofty projection from Froggat: to Mill-stone Edge, and from thence to the vicinity of Hathersage; beyond whịch the blue misty hills of the Peak present a succession of faint and shadowy outline, scarcely distinguishable from the clouds of heaven, of which they appear to form a part.
He who undertakes, in passing through a country, to describe the scenes he admires, and who hopes to excite a correspondent picture in the minds of his readers, will often have to lament the inefficieney of the means he is under the necessity of employing. The pencil, by an accurate delineation of fornis, may speak to the eye, and the canvas may glow with the vivid tints of nature ; but it is not through the medium of words, with whatever feliçity they may be selected and combined, that an adequate idea of the finest feaiures of a landscape can be communicated. The language of description is likewise só very confined, and it phrases so extremely few, that similar appearances will often suggest a similarity of expression; hence the choicest terms become tireseme from repetition, and the impression they produce faint and imperfect.
Geology of Derbyshire. No part of the kingdom is better calculated to facilitate the study of mineralogy, and geology, than the Peak of Derbyshire : it is here that nature, in a peculiar way, lays bare her operations. The various strata here exhi. bited, in some places highly elevated, in others greatly depressed and broken into rents and chasms, by frequent dislocations, unfold the interior formation of the earth we inhabit, and carry the mind back to that era of time
when it was shaken and tumbled together, and the hills and dalés assumed their present.form and positions.
Whitehurst, in his theory of the formation of the earth, has deduced his most powerful arguments from the strata of Derbyshire, which he contends, exhibit irrefragable testimony of their volcanic origin. St. Fond, who entertained a different opinion, professes his astonishment that a man so gifted as Whitehurst should discover any proofs in support of his peculiar theory, in a country where, as he remarks, " every thing is evidently of an aqueous origin."
Thus it is that the disciples of Werner and Hutton, the Neptunists and the Volcanists of the present Geological school, support their different theories from appearances strikingly similar, if not essentially the same. The basaltic stratum which, in various places alternates with calcareous rock, and which is provincially called toadstone, has furnished Whitehurst with his most triumphant arguments : that it is obviously and indisputably lava, be maintains, cannot be denied. 'Wherever it occurs it occupies and fills up the
space that intervenes between the different limestone strata ; and the manner in which it cuts off or intercepts the metallic veins is, in his opinion, conclusive on the subject. 11. It may be here remarked that though the toadstone of Derbyshire differs materially in its external appearance, it has one general prevailing character by which all its varieties are decidedly marked. So indeed has lava. It breaks with an equal fracture in all directions : so does volcanic lava. It is likewise of various colours: so are the lavas of Etna and Vesuvius. There is certainly a striking similarity in their internal strueture and appearance, and both are said to resist equally the action of acids.
I have attentively examined more than a hundred specimens of lava, now in my possession, and have repeatedly compared them with the toadstones of Derbyshire, without being able to detect any thing like 'à characteristic difference; and I have now by me a tablet composed of nine varieties of each, which forcibly illustrates their general affinity.
The lavas of Etna exhibit every degree of compactness and hardness, from the close texture of granite and marble to the most porous. The interior of the molten mass, being generally. in a more fluid state, when hot and flowing, differs in appearance from that which floated on the surface, and the part which appears to have been iti immediate contact with the earth is, in many instances, but little more compact than half burnt clay. I have indeed observed only one specimen of lava that does not closely correspond with some one or other of the toadstones of Derbyshire : it is of a dark bluish-green colour, intermixed with streaks of a dirty earthy yellow, and it contains a great number of quartz crystals of various sizes, sometimes closely imbedded in the surrounding matter; and sometimes congregated together in small caverns.
Stoke Hall. The following morning we visited Stoke; the sun that set so gloriously the preceding evening, and seemed to give
“ The promise of a golden day to-morrow,”
was partially obscured with clouds when he arose. A brisk wind prevailed, which we did not regret, as it imparted to the scenery around us a pleasing variety, and impressed upon the mind a new train of images. At intervals .the sun shone brightly in the heavens ; the clouds were driven rapidly along by the violence of the gale; every object was at one moment strongly illuminated, then instantaneously dark with shadow. The quickness of the change, the freshness of the breeze, the elastic motion of the branches of the trees as they strained and struggled with the blast, the rustling of the leaves, all conspired to produce a very interesting, and occasionally a sublime effect.
Motion, amidst the eternal repose of fixed objects in nature, is always pleasing to the eye, and frequently exhilarating to the mind. The course of clouds, changing place, and shape, and colour continually; the flight of birds, whether suddenly startled from the bushes, sailing loftily and slowly in the air, or darting to and fro near the earth; the visible lapse of waters in the variable bed of a river: the fluttering of the foliage of hedge-row trees, or the verdant undulations of a sea of wood tossing in the gale and shifting its lights and shadows in the sun ; the revolutions of a water-wheel or a wind
the alternate glimpse and disappearance of carriages on an interrupted line of road; the progress of solitary passengers seen here and there in contrary directions; the rambling of animals, herds on the mountains, sheep on their walks ;-all these various forms of motion, if such they may be called, either present life, or resemble it, and excite peculiar feelings of sympathy, euriosity, and pleasure.
These, it is true, are but the adventitious adornments of a landscape; they are, nevertheless, some of its richest and most attractive appendages. Rocks, hills, and woods ; dales, plains, and mountains ; are fixed and permanent; their forms and their positions change not. Unvisited by life and motion, they repose in undisturbed tranquillity, and their stillness is often grand and awful; but their most picturesque effects are transient and incidental.
The romantic beauties of Stoke have often excited the admiration of travellers. It is indisputably one of the most delightful mansions in the north of Derbyshire ; and though not sufficiently capacious for the purposes of magnificence and splendour, it might yet be selected as a fit and happy home for the comforts and elegancies of life. Its exterior architecture is neat and simple-neither poor for want of ornament nor gaudy with profusion; and it stands on a graceful eminence near the brink of the river, finely embosomed in some of the most lovely wood-scenery in Derbyshire. The Derwent, as it passes the grounds of Stoke, is a noble stream; black with shadow,
it moves majestically along, its dark surface occasionally relieved by the transparent reflection of the foliage which overhangs its banks.
This beautiful place was formerly the residence of Orlando Bridgmar, Esq. now Lord Bradford, of wheston Hall, in Staffordshire. It is at present occupied by Robert Arkwright, Esq. á grandson of the late Sir Richard Arkwright, a man who was the artificer of his own fortune, and who by his great mechanical talents and persevering industry, raised himself from an obscure and humble situation in life, and became the founder of a highly respectable family, and a benefactor to the cominerce of his country.