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shafts are placed far below it. Moreover these shafts, being engaged only on the alternate piers, are very far apart, and hence were probably intended to support only transverse arches, although the present vault springs from the same level. Altogether this church so little known throws most interesting light not only upon the neighboring church of Notre Dame, but upon the entire transitional movement.

St. Jean, with the exception of the Romanesque nave, the chapel of the XV century and the tower of the XVI century, is said to date from the XII and XIV centuries.


ST. LEU D'ESSERENT, Oise. Abbaye belonged to the monks of Cluny. There is no documentary evidence for the date of the church, which, however, must have been erected in the last half of the XII century. The oldest portion is undoubtedly the narthex between the two western towers, only one of which has ever been finished. Since the transverse ribs of this porch are loaded to raise the surface of the vaults, and give them a more acutely pointed form a strange expedient, which finds, I believe, analogy only at Bury-this part of the edifice must be assigned to c. 1150. The choir comes next in point of age, and doubtless dates from c. 1180; it is supplied with an ambulatory - apparently about contemporary and is flanked by two towers, both, unlike the western tower, without spire. The chevet is vaulted with a radiating rib vault of the type used at Noyon. To the westward of the chevet is a bay characterized by very heavy piers, which support two lateral towers. This bay is covered with a quadripartite vault, but the following two bays are united under a single sexpartite vault. Here ends the choir; as at Mantes, Sens, and Senlis there are no transepts. The nave consists of six bays covered with quadripartite rib vaults; it is evidently later (c. 1205) than the choir, for the clearstory windows are filled with plate tracery, while those of the choir are lancets. The general design of the interior is notable for the absence of a triforium an omission the more remarkable that there is a well-developed gallery. Externally the flying buttresses, although placed too low to secure the greatest efficiency, are supplied with double struts throughout. In the choir they have no gables, but in the nave this feature is added. (Woillez; Von Bezold.)

SENLIS, Oise. Église Cathédrale (Ill. 181, 189) is said to have been erected slowly between the years 1155 and 1191.1 Although the edifice was entirely reconstructed above the triforium level and a bay of the nave was torn down to make room for transepts which did not exist in the original edifice when the vaults were raised in the flamboyant period, the primitive dispositions may still be made out. Since the system was alternate, - the heavier supports were piers, the lighter columns the vaults must have been sexpartite. The intermediate system consisted of three shafts carried on the abaci of the capitals; the five shafts of the alternate system were continuous. It is certain that there was a high gallery; but whether or not a triforium existed above this is doubtful. Externally the southwestern spire is one of significant, but after a careful examination on the spot I failed to detect any indication of a break in the masonry such as to warrant the assertion that the intermediate piers had originally no shafts. 1 Lefèvre-Pontalis, Arch. Rel., p. 88, citing Gallia Christiana X, Instrumenta, col. 224.

the supreme achievements of Gothic architecture, while the sculptures of the west portal are of exquisite beauty. (Von Bezold; Moore, 92.)

REIMS, Marne. St. Remi. (Ill. 183.) Airard commenced to rebuild the abbey church of St. Remi in 1005. "Therefore he summoned men who were said to be skilled in architecture and he commenced to lay in dressed blocks the foundations of the future temple. This church was a more grandiose and ambitious construction than any which is recorded as ever having been attempted in the kingdom of Gaul, and consequently for Airard and the men of his time impossible of execution. Thus when, after he had administered for nearly twenty-eight years his pastoral office, he was overtaken by old age and died [1033], he left unfinished the work which he had begun." But his successor, Thierry, "who purposed to accomplish as many projects as possible for the good of his monastery, took thought of the reconstruction of the church, which his predecessor [Airard] had begun, how he might place upon it the hand of completion. But, since the work had been commenced in too difficult and impracticable manner, and since in his own judgment (when he debated whether he should finish what had been undertaken) it seemed better to abandon what had already been constructed by Airard, therefore he followed the advice of those who were accounted wiser among his own monks and of the elders of the diocese of Reims, and reluctantly proceeded to destroy the work which had been begun. This, accordingly, he tore down almost entirely, leaving only certain foundations which it seemed to the architects could be advantageously used for the new building; and he began to rebuild the house of God on a plan less pretentious it is true, but not without dignity as the church itself bears witness to those who have seen it. And this reconstruction was happily begun in the fifth year of his office [1038]. . . Several of the kindly family of the Church promptly came to the aid of the abbot, and furnished his carts and oxen with loads worthy for so great work as had been begun; and thus the foundations were placed in those parts where they did not already exist, the columns taken from the construction of Airard were carefully set up, above them the arches were diligently erected, and the building commenced to take form beneath the hands of the workmen. Now when the [outside] walls of the side aisle had been completed, and the clearstory of the inner temple [i.e., the nave] had been raised above them, the old church, dedicated in ancient times (it is said) by the archbishop Hincmar, was torn down to the ground, and a mean temporary covering was erected over the choir of the brothers, that they might chant the praises of God free from the disturbance of wind and rain. And over the tomb of St. Remi was built a crypt, small indeed and all unworthy of the holy body, but still beautiful and supported on columns and arches. . . . Subsequently [1041] Thierry died and Herimar was elected by the almost unanimous voice of all the brothers to succeed him; and Herimar was ordained by the worthy Wido, archbishop of Reims. The new

Quapropter viris qui architecturae periti ferebantur ascitis, futuri templi fabricam ex quadris lapidibus erigere coepit a fundamentis, multo quidem operosiorem illis, quas praenotatum est in Gallico regno renovatas, et ambitiosiorem: ideoque sibi et illius aevi hominibus inconsummabilem. Nam ubi per viginti et octo fere annos pastorale officium administravit, senio confectus, coeptoque operi finem non imponens vita decessit. -- Anselmi, Itin. Leonis IX.

abbot did not suffer the memorable work begun by his predecessor to remain long interrupted, but he resumed the construction of the right transept, which had already been considerably advanced, and then attacked the left transept, of which up to this time only the foundations and a stairway leading to the upper stories had been erected. Moreover he caused the crypt which (as has been told above) had been built over the tomb of St. Remi and which by its small size seemed out of keeping with the loftier work, to be torn down, and he caused another more worthy to be built. Finally timber was brought from the wood near the monastery of Orbais, the roof of the temple was erected, and thus the entire building appeared most seemly in all its parts."1 The consecration was celebrated with much pomp in 1049, as Anselm goes on to describe in detail. But a misfortune soon overtook the monastery: "In the year 1098 and in the time of Burchard, the monastery of St. Remi was injured by fire, and was restored in the year 1100 by Duke Guy, as the following inscription proves: - 'Because our new church, which had been consecrated not long before by Pope Leo, was saved from the fire which burned a great part of our monastery in the year 1098, and because the monastery was restored at the expense of Duke Guy, our abbot has placed this statue of the Blessed Virgin in the chapel of the novices, in the year 1100.'"'*


1 Qui [Theodoricus] quam plurima ecclesiasticae utilitati profutura decerneret disponere, deliberavit reparationi ecclesiae suae quam suus praedecessor inceperat, manum perfectionis imponere. Verum, quia grave nimis et inexplebile sibi illud erat incoeptum, deliberatio quoque sua, si id intenderet implere, videbatur non habitura effectum, quocirca eorum qui inter sibi commissos prudentiores habebantur et seniorum Remensis provinciae consilio usus, difficulter aggressus est inchoatum diruere opus; quo poene diruto et fundamentis quibusdam relictis, quae architectis visa sunt necessaria fore futuris aedificiis, divinam domun coepit faciliori quidam structura, sed non indecentiore construere ut aspectum adhibentibus facile est cernere. Qua incoepta feliciter anno quinto suae ordinationis accensi sunt plures catholici. . . . Nonnulli etiam de ecclesiastica familia suum auxilium prompter impenderunt benevolentia, suisque plaustris et bobus tantis incoeptis competentia advexerunt onera; sicque fundamentis, in quibus locis non erant, locatis, et columnis ex destructo priori aedificio competenter dispositis, arcus super eas diligenter voluti consurgere, et basilicae fabrica inter manus artificum coepit clarescere. Tunc jam vestibulorum parietis undique erectis, et interioris templi fastigiis altius elevatis, vetusta ecclesia ab Hincmaro archiepiscopo, ut dictum est, antiquitus dedicata, est eversa funditus, et vilis interim tecti coöpertoriolum fabricatum super chorum fratrum, ubi absque inquietudine ventorum et pluviarum divinis possent vocare laudibus. Supra vero sepulchram B. Remigii crypta constructa est, licet parva, ideoque tota sancto corpori incongrua, pulchre tamen, columnis et arcubus fulta. . . . Hic ergo [Herimarus] loco defuncti patris subrogatus, fratrum poene omnium unanimi sententia, ordinatu memorati Widonis Remorum archipraesulis, non diu passus est interruptum pendere memorabila coeptum sui antecessoris; sed primo quidem dextram basilicae crucem, maxima ex parte jam inchoatam, et sinistram, nihil adhuc praeter fundamenta habentem, cum cocleis, quibus ad superiora esset ascensus, fecit aedificari. Cryptam autem, quae super B. Remigii sepulchram constructa fuerat, quia ut superius relatum est, quae parvitate sua alterius operis incongrua videbatur, dirui et aliam ementiorem fecit restitui. Deinde trabibus de saltu juxta Orbacis monasterium sito advectis, fastigia ejusdem consequuntur templi, sicque decentissima domus tota apparuit in partibus suis. Anselmi [fl. c. 1060], Itinerarium Leonis. Published in Bollandes, vol. October 1st, and cited by Poussin, p. 105. A summary of this account is given by Mabillon, Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti, lib. LIX, tome IV, p. 503.

2 Anno Ch. 1098. Burchardi tempore, et quidem hoc ipso anno, incendio deformatum fuit S. Remigii monasterium, quod Guido Trimoliensis anno M C suis impensis instauravit, ut se


From this it seems clear that the church was not seriously damaged in 1098, nor did the building of 1049 undergo serious modification before the last half of the XII century. Pierre de Celles, abbot from 1162-81, writing c. 1170, has left us some account of the reconstruction which then took place: — "Wishing to build anew the choir of our monastery, with the help of God we put our hand courageously to the work, and we undertook to make our church, which had lacked a fitting chevet, noble in its head as well as in its belly."1 His successor, Simon, ordained in 1182 by William I, archbishop of Reims, did much building, and freed his monastery from various burdens. He died July 24th, 1198, and was buried in the nave of the church. The last verses of his enigmatical epitaph run as follows: "he built the church, he ruled the monks, he distributed what was to be given, he baptized the chosen, he earned salvation." A passage in Dom Marlot,3 however, makes it probable that Simon had nothing to do with the reconstruction of the choir, which was doubtless completed before he came to office, so that his building activities must have been confined to the two westernmost bays of the nave. There is only one text bearing upon the later history of the structure, and that is of a much later time: -"Robert of Lenoncourt. . . finished the south façade of St. Remi in 1506, and gave to that church silver vessels and sacred utensils." 4 From this selection of the unusually numerous texts bearing upon the history of St. Remi, it is evident that the edifice begun in 1005 was never finished but torn down and recommenced on a more modest scale in 1038; that this building was completed and consecrated in 1049; that the choir was rebuilt in 1170-81; and that the south transept was rebuilt in 1506. On the internal evidence of the monument itself, it is equally evident that most of the façade, the two western bays of the nave, and the nave vaults (now replaced by a wooden imitation) are about contemporary with the choir, and may be considered the work of Simon (1182-98). Thus quens inscriptio docet: -“Anno Domini millesimo nonagesimo octavo, cum incendio consumptum fuisset magna ex parte monasterium nostrum, ob servatam ecclesiam nostram novam, quae non multo ante dedicata fuerat a domino papa Leone, et restauratum monasterium sumptibus ducis Guidonis, dominus abbas noster hanc Deiparae virginis effigiem in oratorio novitiorum posuit anno millesimo centesimo." Mabillon, Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti, lib. LXIX, tome

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V, p. 397; Gall. Chris. IX, col. 227-234, cit. Inkersley.

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1 Caput monasterii renovare volentes, cum Dei adjutorio manum ad fortia mittimus, nobilem ecclesiam nostram tam in fronte quam in ventre, qui caput secundum se deerat, fabricandam suscepimus. Pierre de Celles IX, Epis. 4. It seems to be on the basis of this passage that the authors of Gallia Christiana have founded the account which may be found in Vol. IX, col. 23 of that work. One detail is however added: "he restored the exterior gables where are the bells" et fastigium exterius, ubi sunt campanilia, renovavit.

2 Syllabus Abbatum XXXIII. Simon, benedictus anno 1182 a Guillelmo I Archiepiscopo et Cardinale, multa aedificavit, monasteriumque suum variis exemit oneribus. Obiit IX Cal. Aug. anno 1198 tumulatusque est in navi ecclesiae cum epitaphio cujus sunt ultimi versus: Erexit, rexit, dispersit, respersit, emit

Ecclesiam, monachos, danda, cavenda, Deum.

3 II, 456, cit. Lefèvre-Pontalis.

- Gall. Chris., vol. IX, col. 236, cit. Inkersley.

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4LXXX. Robertus III de Lenoncourt. His adde quod frontem ecclesiae S. Remigii meridionalem complevit anno 1506, basilicamque illam tam vasis argenteis quam sacra supellectile ditavit. Gall. Chris. IX, col. 147, cit. Inkersley, 119.

St. Remi is a surely dated and important example of the style of three crucial periods of architectural history: the Romanesque of the first half of the XI century, the transition, and the flamboyant style. Of the building begun in 1005 some traces remain; notably the west side of the north transept is unquestionably part of this edifice, for it is obviously more primitive in style than the east side of the same transept, which must have formed part of the reconstruction of 1038. The basilica projected in 1005 was intended to have double side aisles, very deep transepts, and a nave of the same length as the present one. The interior design consisted of a series of rather narrow bays, separated by enormously heavy columns. The archivolts both of the main arcade and of the triforium gallery were of a single unmoulded order. The capitals (most of which were never carved) were of a Corinthianesque type with acanthus-leaves and volutes scratched on the surface. The reconstruction of 1036 made many changes, of which the most noticeable were the suppression of the outer side aisles, the doubling of the archivolts, the replacing of the old columns by compound piers, and the widening of the bays. The present subdivision of the gallery openings is an addition of 1170; in 1049 there was doubtless a single unmoulded arch of one order in each bay. The clearstory of Thierry was small, and the galleries, like the nave, were roofed in wood. When the nave was covered with quadripartite rib vaults in 1182–98, the present system was grafted on to the ancient Romanesque structure. The peculiar design that at present characterizes the two western bays of the nave is probably due to the fact that the space left between the last bay of the work of 1049 and the towers (whose lower parts perhaps date from 1005) was wider than a single bay of the nave, but not as wide as two. In the reconstruction of 1170, therefore, the system of these bays was made sexpartite. Except for the omission of the wall rib, this is logically carried out. For the rest, the design is similar to that of the choir except that the double clearstory which characterizes the rest of the nave is retained. The choir is one of the loveliest examples of transitional architecture. Of the double aisles of the ambulatory, only the inner one is carried around the chevet. The ambulatory vaults are like those of Notre Dame of Châlonssur-Marne (p. 203), save that the plan of the chevet is circular instead of polygonal; each bay is divided into three compartments, one rectangular, two triangular, by columns placed in the openings of the radiating chapels. The design of the main choir is in four stories, but the predominance of horizontal lines is avoided by combining the lofty gallery and the triforium with the three lancets of the clearstory by means of continuous mouldings. Five shafts rising from the abaci of the capitals support the quadripartite vaults. The flying buttresses are primitive in style, but M. LefèvrePontalis believes that they must be later than the original structure in as much as they cut across certain string-courses. This proof seems conclusive; yet since the buttresses are obviously primitive in style, and since it is difficult to understand how the vaults could have stood for even a few years without some such abutment, these features must have been added soon after 1181. A peculiarity of the exterior decoration of this church is the fluting of the columns. (Poussin; Bazin.)

St. Jacques is said to date from 1183, except the choir which is a construction of 1548. (Guide Joanne.)

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