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rendered at discretion. On the following day the Castles of St. Jeronimo and Gloria capitulated with honourable conditions, and the British forces were put in full possession of Porto Bello and its dependencies. w The loss sustained in killed and wounded did not exceed twenty men, of which three were killed and five wounded on board Wernon's ship. The intelligence of this important conquest, effected with unprecedented ease and expedition, was received in England with the liveliest emotions of joy: both houses of Parliament voted their thanks to the admiral for his conduct, and the Corporation of London presented him with the freedom of the city in a gold box. The name of Vernon excited a degree of enthusiasm unparalleled on any other occasion; medals were struck in his honour, and his effigy was displayed throughout the kingdom. In his conduct towards the vanquished foe, the admiral was as distinguished for his humanity, as he had been for his gallantry in attacking them. The soldiers and seamen were strictly prohibited from plundering the inhabitants of the town; and, to reward their merit, he distributed among them 10,000 dollars, which had been sent to Porto Bello, for the payment of the garrison, a few days before the place fell into the hands of the English. As it had never been the intention of government to retain Porto Bello, which from its unhealthiness was termed by the Spaniards the grave of the new world, the admiral directed the ordnance found in the castles and fort to be spiked and destroyed, except forty pieces of brass cannon, ten field-pieces, four mortars, and eighteen patteraroes, all of the same metal, which were taken on board the fleet, and held as trophies of the victory, on account of their intrinsic value. The fortifications were then blown up, and completely ruined, that the place might no longer afford an asylum to the guarda costos, whose chief point of rendezvous it had been for a series of years, to annoy the British commerce in that quarter by incessant depredations. These different services performed, the admiral sailed from Porto Bello on the 13th of December, and shortly afterwards arrived in safety at Jamaica. Having refitted his ships, Vernon, anxious of an opportunity of again distinguishing himself, sailed from Port Royal on the 25th of February, 1740, and on the 1st of March, made the highlands of St. Martha, on the Spanish main, whence he bore away for Carthagena. On the 3d, in the evening, he anchored with his squadron before the town, in nine fathom water, in the open bay called Playa Granda. On the 6th he began a bombardment; and in three days discharged about three hundred and fifty bombs, which destroyed several edifices, and did considerable damage to the town; but the force he had with him being inadequate to a regular attack, he bore away with the fleet to Porto Bello. Having repaired his damages, and completed the water of his squadron, the next object of his attack was the Castle of Chagre, situate at the entrance of the river of that name, a few leagues distant from Porto Bello. He passed up with the tide, on the 18th of the month, and spent only two days in bombarding the castle, when it surrendered at discretion, and he blew up the fortifications. The plate, merchandize, &c., which were of great value, were taken on board the squadron, and on the 30th he returned to Porto Bello, and thence to Jamaica, where the fleet lay for some time inactive, being in want of stores and supplies from Europe. The easy reduction of Porto Pello determined the government at home to send out such a reinforcement to the West Indies as should enable Vernon to attack the most formidable of the Spanish settlements in the New World. A fleet consisting of twenty-five sail of the line, under the command of Rear-admiral Sir Chalomer Ogle, with a proportionate number of frigates, and . a large body of transports, having on board upwards of ten thousand land forces, was accordingly dispatched from England to his support. The military were conducted by Lord Cathcart, a nobleman of high character and great military experience, but who died, unhappily for the expectations of his country, soon after his arrival in the West Indies. The vacant rank thus devolved on General Wentworth, an officer without judgment or experience, and utterly unqualified for the important post of a commander-in-chief. His armament joined Admiral Vernon, at Jamaica, on the 9th of January, 1741, and the force under his direction then amounted to thirty-one sail of the line. With this fleet, the most powerful that had ever been collected in the American seas, he sailed from Jamaica on the 28th . of January. The first object was to proceed off Port Louis, in the island of Saint Domingo, in order to ascertain the strength and intentions of a French squadron, which was supposed to be at anchor in that harbour, and against which the admiral thought
it necessary to be on his guard, as he had strong reason to be. lieve the disposition of the French cabinet was unfavourable to the interests of Great Britain. Arrived off the isle of Vache, about two leagues from Port Louis, on the 12th of February, he learnt that the French squadron had sailed for Europe, in great distress for provisions, and with a dreadful mortality raging through the crew. The receipt of this intelligence led to a council of war, composed of Admirals Vernon and Sir Chaloner Ogle, and Generals Wentworth and Guise, in which it was resolved that, after having taken in water and wood in Tiberoon Bay, they should proceed to Carthagena, on which place they resolved to make a vigorous attack both by sea and land. The fleet anchored on the 4th of March in Playa Granda Bay, where Vernon made the necessary dispositions for landing the troops and conducting the attack, and issued his instructions to the rear-admiral and captains of the squadron. On the 9th, the admiral, with his own division, and that of Sir Chalomer Ogle, followed by all the transports, got under weigh, and brought to under the fort of Bocca Chica, which defends the entrance of the harbour. The following description of Carthagena will probably render an account of the operations which took place against it more intelligible. Carthagena la Neuva, or New Carthagena (so called to distinguish it from Carthagena in Old Spain), lies south of Jamaica, on the continent of Spanish America, to the east of the gulf of Darien, in lat. 10°. 26. N. long. 75 W. Its foundations were only laid in 1532, and in about eight years it became a stately, rich, and well-inhabited city. It has one of the noblest basins, or harbours, in the world, being some leagues in circumference, and land-locked on all sides. The entrance is defended by the strong castle of Bocca Chica, and three lesser forts. Between this harbour and the town run two necks of land, on which are the strong fortresses of Castillo Granda, and fort Manzanella, which defend the lesser harbour that touches on to the town. There is, likewise, fort St. Lazar, which protects the town on the land side, and though the sea beats against the walls, there can be no approach to them, in consequence of the formidable violence of the surf, save directly through the harbours already described. The first successes of the assailants promised a speedy and honourable termination of their enterprize. In less than an hour the enemy were driven
by the fire of the shipping from the forts of Chamba, St. Jago, and St. Philip, which mounted in all forty guns, and in the evening a detachment of grenadiers was landed, which took possession of them. The next day, the regiments of Harrison and Wentworth, and six regiments of marines, were landed without opposition, and by the 15th, all the artillery and stores of the army were-brought on shore. The following day, the general informed the admiral that his camp was much incommoded by the fire from a fascine battery on the west shore of Barradera • side, and Captains Watson and Boscawen, having under them Captains Law and Coats, with 300 soldiers, and a detachment of seamen, were therefore ordered to destroy it. This party was surprised upon landing by a masked battery of five guns, which immediately commenced a heavy fire on them: but they soon obtained possession of it; and then they proceeded to storm the battery. Of this, too, they soon made themselves master, with very inconsiderable loss, although it mounted twenty 24-pounders, and was guarded by a proportionate number of men. Having spiked the cannon, and destroyed the platforms and carriages, the detachment returned with, some prisoners to the fleet, and Wernon was so pleased with the spirit and boldness evinced on this occasion, that he gave a reward of a dollar to each common man. This success proved an inexpressible relief to the army, and the general began to bombard the castle of Bocca Chica, against which, on the 22d, he opened a battery of twenty 24-pounders. On the 23d, Commodore Lestock was ordered in, to batter the castle on the west side with five ships; a service which he performed with the greatest bravery, though exposed to a very hot fire, by which the gallant Lord Aubrey Beauclerk," captain of the Prince Frederic, was killed. A tolerable breach being made in the castle, the general determined to carry it by assault, and accordingly the necessary preparations were made for that purpose. On the 25th, at midnight, the troops marched to the attack, and no sooner entered the breach, than the enemy, to their great surprise, fled from the castle without firing a gun. Captain Knowles, of the Litchfield, observing the dismay and confusion of the Spaniards, immediately landed his men, and stormed Fort St. Joseph, the garrison of which deserted their guns with like precipitation. The enemy, alarmed at these successes, prepared to sink some of their ships in the channel, leading into the inner harbour, in order to prevent the nearer approach of the British fleet, which
* * This young nobleman has a monument in the north cross aisle of Westminster Abbey. The design is plain, consisting only of a pedestal and pyramid, into which is sunk a niche, which contains a neat bust. The inscriptions are in poetry and in prose:
While Britain boasts her empire o'er the deep,
Sweet were his manners as his soul was great, And ripe his worth, though immature his fate; Each tender grace that joy and love inspire, Living, he mingled with his martial fire; Dying he bid Britannia's thunder roar, * , And Spain still felt him when he breath’d no more. Lord Aubrey Beauclerk was the youngest son of Charles, Duke of St. Albans, by Diama, daughter of Aubrey de Vere, Earl of Oxford. He went early to sea, and was made a cominander in 1731. In 1740 he was sent upon that memorable expedition to Carthagena, under the command of Admiral Vernon, in his Majesty’s ship the Prince Frederick, which, with three others, were ordered to cannonade the Castle Bocca Chica. One of these being obliged to quit her station, the Prince Frederick was exposed not only to the fire from the Castle, but to that of Fort St. Joseph, and to two ships that guarded the mouth of the harbour, which he sustained for many hours that day, and part of the next, with uncommon intrepidity. As he was giving his command upon deck, both his legs were shot off; but such was his magnanimity, that he would not suffer his wounds to be dressed till he had communicated his orders to the First Lieutenant, which were—To fight his ship to the last extremity. Soon after this he gave some directions about, his private affairs, and then resigned his soul with the dignity of a hero and a Christian. Thus was he taken off in the thirty-first year of his age; an illustrious commander of superior fortitude and clemency, amiable in his person, steady in his affections, and equalled by few in the social and domestic virtues of politeness, modesty, candour, and benevolence. He married the widow of Colonel F. Alexander, a daughter of Sir H. Newton, Knt. Envoy Extraordinary to the Court of Florence and the Republic of Genoa, and Judge of the High Court of Admiralty.