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Faber, John, a German catholic divine doctor in theology, and took an active part in and controversial writer in the 16th century, the disputes of the Catholics with the Lutherwas born at Hailbron, on the Necker, about ans, and Sacramentarians, as those were called the year 1500. We learn no farther particulars who adopted the doctrine of Carolostadt and concerning the circumstances of his life, than Zuingle respecting the eucharist. The abithat he became a member of the dominican lities which he displayed, and his ardent zeal order at Wimpfen ; was created a doctor in for the catholic faith, induced the bishop of theology at Cologne ; and afterwards resided at Constance to appoint him his official in the year Augsburg, where he acquired high reputation 1518, and in the following year his vicar-gein his communion by his pulpit services, and neral. In the latter character he attended an various theological publications, particularly assembly appointed by the senate to be held at some polemical treatises against the Protestants. Zurich, in the year 1523, to enquire into the Of the time of his death we have no certain truth of the opinions which were at that time information. His works were : “ Libellus quod propagating by Zuingle and his fellow-reformFides esse possit sine charitate,” 1548, 4to.; ers in that canton. Several topics in dispute “ Enchiridion Bibliorum,” 1549, 4to.; “ Fruc- between the Catholics and their opponents were tus quibus dignoscuntur Hæretici,” esteemed discussed at this assembly, which Faber warmly curious and interesting by the Catholics, on ac- contended ought to be tried by an appeal to count of the stories which it details concerning tradition, the authority of the church, and the 'Luther; “ Testimonium Scripturæ & patrum canons of the councils, while his adversaries B. Petrum Apost. Romæ fuisse," 1553, 4to. ; would admit of no other test of truth but the “ A Treatise on the Mass, and the real Presence Scriptures. It was at this assembly that Faber of Jesus Christ in the Sacrament of the Eucha- is reported incautiously to have exclaimed, when rist,” &c. 1555, 4to.; a German “ Illustration of hard pressed by his opponents' continued appeal the Prophecy of Joel,” 1557; a collection of to the Gospel, “ that the world might very “ Christian Prayers,” compiled from the Scrip- well live in peace without the Gospel.” · The tures and the works of St. Augustin, &c. result of the meeting was an edict issued by the. Moreri.-M.

senate, favourable to the opinions of the reformFABER, John, a German catholic divine, ers, against which Faber entered his unavail.. surnamed after the title of one of his most ce- ing protest

. In the year 1526, the Swiss ronlebrated controversial works, Malleus Hæreti- tons, with the exception of Zurich, appointed corum, or the Mallet of Heretics, was born at an assembly to be held at Baden, at which the Leutkirchen, a town in Suabia, towards the most learned catholic divines were invited to latter end of the 15th century. After distin- attend, and a safe conduct was offered to Zuinguishing himself by the progress which he gle, and as many of the reformers as chose to made in academic studies, at different German accept of it, in order to enter on a public disuniversities, he was admitted to the degree of putation concerning the questions in debate be



tween them. Oecolampadius and some others some of the philological and ecclesiastical writof his party accordingly appeared at Baden, ings of the times, particularly in the “ Cenwhere the celebrated Eckius principally sus- turiæ Magdeburgenses,” he published a Gertained the contest with them, and the Catholics man translation of Luther's Latin “ Remarks obtained a decree condemning the doctrines of on the Book of Genesis," and also of “ The Luther and Zuingle, and ordaining that in Chronicle of Krantzius.” He was likewise the every canton superintendants should be appoint- author of a work entitled “ Collectanea de ed, who should, with the magistrates and other novissimis & Statu Animarum Seperatarum,” officers, prevent all innovations, and inform chiefly compiled from the writings of Luther, against and punish all offenders. At this as to whose opinions he was zealously attached, sembly Faber was designed to enter the lists and the works of other authors. But his fame against Zuingle; but as the latter did not deem with posterity principally rests on his “ Theit prudent to go to Baden, their debates were saurus Eruditionis Scholasticæ," a work of confined to the press, whence they issued dif- great labour and learning, which was published ferent publications in defence of their respeċ- by him in the year 1571. After the author's tive tenets. During the year last mentioned death that work received at different times conFaber was appointed confessor to Ferdinand, siderable additions from the labours of other king of the Romans, and afterwards emperor, learned men, and appeared in its most complete who sent him as his envoy to the court of form at the Hague, in 1735, in two volumes folio. Henry VII. king of England. In the year Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist. Saxii. Onomast. 1531, the learning and labours which he had Pars III.-M. displayed in support of the catholic cause were FABIAN, ROBERT, an English historian, or rewarded by his advancement to the bishopric rather chronicler, was born in London in the of Vienna. Alluding to the principal ground fifteenth century. He was brought up to comof this promotion, Erasmus said, “ that Luther, merce, in which he became sufficiently eminent notwithstanding his poverty, found means to to be chosen sheriff of the city in 1493. He enrich his enemies." . After presiding over the ranks among the few men of learning who have see of Vienna for more than ten years, Faber graced the magistracy of the English metropolis, died in the year 1542. He was the author of though his scholarship seems not to have risen numerous works, historical, controversial, and higher than a slight acquaintance with the Latin practical, which were collected together, and and French languages, besides his own.

His published at different periods during his life-time, particular study was history, and he employed at Cologne, in three volumes folio. His“ Malleus himself in compiling a chronicle, which was Hæreticorum” procured the author no little re- printed after his death. It is entitled “ A Conputation at Rome, where it was received with cordance of Stories," and contains seven parts, great applause, and underwent different impres- of which the first six bring the history of Engsions; and his account of his disputation with fand from the fabulous Trojan Brutus to wil. the Zuinglians at Baden, was translated from liam the Conqueror ; the seventh carries on the the original German into Latin by Thomas English and parallel French histories down to Murner, and published at Lucern, in 1528, the reign of Henry VII. The merit of this under the title “ Causa Helvetica, Orthodoxæ compilation is very small ; all the earlier parts Fidei.” Dupin. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.-M. being copied without any judgment from Geof

FABER, Basil, a learned German in the frey of Monmouth and the old historians, good! Jouth century..was born at Sorau, in Lower and bad ; and the latter being filled with the

Lisatia,: 7:ihe yer 1520. After having re- most trifling occurrences as well as the most . seived a preparatory education in his native important. He is copious in the affairs of LonFace; he purvied his studies in different German don, and records many particulars not to be met universities, and particularly in that of Wit- with elsewhere; whence JohnStow calls his work Lembergi :Ýhere his proficiency in literature “ a painful labour, to the great honour of the gainet him ithe applause and esteem of the city and the whole realm.” According to Mr. professors. About the year 1550 he was ap- Warton, Fabian “ is equally attentive to the pointed rector of the seminary at Nordhausen; Mayors of London and the Monarchs of Engafterwards of that at Tennstadt; then of the land, and seems to have thought the dinners at seminary at Quidlinburg ; and lastly of the Guildhall, and the pageantries of the city comAugustinian college at Erfurt. He died in the panies, more interesting transactions than our year 1576. Besides the share which he sus- victories in France, and our struggles for public tained in common with other learned men in liberty at home.” To each of his books are

prefixed a metrical prologue and other pieces in and by a seditious harangue engaged the soldiers verse, which practice has given him a place to protect him. When Papirius arrived, armed among the early English poets; but it would with all the authority of the state, and by tem, not be easy to find a more uncouth rhymster. per inclined to preserve the military discipline According to bishop Tanner's judgment, how- in all its rigour, he commanded his lictors to ever, he was “ Poeta haud infelicis ingenii.” seize the master of the horse, and proceed to He died in 1512. His Chronicle was first his execution. Fabius took refuge among the printed in 1516, folio, and several subsequent legions, and a tumult arose, which continued editions were made of it. Nicholson's Hist. Libr. till the night. On the next day he made his Warton's Hist.of Eng. Poetry. Biog. Britan.-A. escape to Rome, whither the dictator followed

FABIANUŠ, pope, or bishop of Rome in him, still resolved upon his punishment. His the third century, was a native of that city, or father appealed for him to the people, and enof some place in the neighbourhood, and chosen deavoured to gain over the assembly by invecto succeed Anterus in the year 236. He pre- tives against the severity of Papirius, and a dissided over the Roman church for fourteen years, play of his son's services. The dictator supand fell a martyr to the christian cause under ported the cause of discipline and the laws with the Decian persecution, in the year 250. His so much energy, that the people, though in. conduct during his episcopate appears to have clined to favour Fabius, were thrown into perbeen highly praise-worthy, and by St. Cyprian plexity. At length, instead of assuming the he is called “ an excellent man, the glory of decision of the point, they joined in interceswhose death had answered the purity, holiness, sion with the dictator for pardon of an acknowand integrity of his life.” The following mar- ledged criminal. Satisfied with having thus Yellous tale is related by Eusebius concerning established the force of his authority, he con. his election : that when the people and clergy sented to forgive the offence; and Fabius was were assembled to fill the vacant see, a dove, dismissed amid the acclamations of the whole appearing unexpectedly, settled, to the surprise Roman people. It is unpleasing to relate that of all present, upon the head of Fabianus, who after this event Fabius was the perpetual foe of was not so much as thought of, being but a Papirius. At the next election he was chosen layman ; at which prodigy the whole assembly one of the consuls, and with his colleague obcried out with one voice, “Fabianus is our bishop, tained a great victory over the Samnites. The and, crowding around him, placed him without Samnite war continuing with dubious success, delay in the episcopal throne. We leave it, Fabius was created dictator B.C. 313. His without any remark, to the judgment of our master of the horse was killed in an action with readers. To Fabianus, according to Tillemont the enemy; but the Samnites were afterwards and some other learned moderns, a considerable defeated, and the town of Saticula was taken. part of Gaul was indebted for its conversion to He was a second time consul B.C. 303, when Christianity, by the care which he took to send he had the management of the war against the able bishops into different parts of that country, Etruscans, who had laid siege to Sutrium. who gained numerous proselytes, and established He defeated them, and afterwards penetrated churches at Toulouse, Arles, Tours, Paris, into their country through the Ciminian forest, Narbonne, Clermont, and Limoges. Euseb. which had hitherto been deemed impassable. Hist. Eccl. lib. vi. cap. 29. Platina de l'it. On his return, after having laid waste the adPont. Moreri. Bower.-M.

jacent district, he met two tribunes of the peoFABIUS MAXIMUS, Q. surnamed Rul- ple who had been sent to forbid hiin to unLIANUS, an eminent Roman commander of the il- dertake so hazardous an expedition, but who Justrious Fabian family, was master of the horse were rejoiced to find that he had opened a way to the dictator Papirius Cursor, B.C. 324. to farther conquests. The Etruscane collected Papirius, in a campaign against the Samnites, a great army, and returned to the camp before returning to Rome on account of some religious Sutrium, where they offered battle to the Ro. ceremony, left express orders with Fabius not

mans. Fabius fell upon thein in the night by surto fight in his absence. Notwithstanding this prise, andamost entirely destroyed their army,and prohibition, he made use of a favourable occa took their camp. He was continued in the comsion, and gave the enemy a signal defeat. Con- mand next year, and gained a complete victory scious of having deserved the dictator's resent over the Umbrians, the allies of the Etruscans. ment, he burnt all the spoils that they might He afterwards, in an extremely hard-fought not grace his triumph, communicated to the battle, overthrew an army of the latter nation. senate, and not to him, the news of his succuss, which had made a vow to conquer or die. Equal

success attended him when he was a third time consulate, for which office he probably thought consul. He entered Umbria, and struck such him not adequately qualified; as, indeed, he terror into the people, that he put an end to a had passed his youth in notorious intemperance. war which they had rashly undertaken against Gurges was, however, chosen, and marching the Romans. Commanding the next year as against the Samnites, underwent a defeat from pro-consul against the Samnites, he gave them them. The veteran father then offered to serve a complete defeat, and caused a large body of as lieutenant under his son ; and proceeding captives to pass under the yoke. He served the to the army, he gave battle to the elated enemy. important Office of censor B.C. 304, with P. By his conduct and valour, he not only rescued Decius Mus for his colleague. In this station he his son from imminent danger, but entirely reformed an abuse introduced by Appius Clau- routed the Samnites with great slaughter, and dius, who, in order to obtain influence in elec- took prisoner their general Pontius Herennius. tions, had distributed a great number of freed- Farther successes were obtained by the Fabii in men and persons of the meanest condition among this campaign, for which the son, as consul, was the country tribes. Fabius caused all these to decreed å triumph. The joyful father followed be incorporated into four tribes called the urban, the triumphal car on horseback, and was gratiand thus almost destroyed their influence. This fied with Rearing their joint praises in the acclaact was so acceptable to all the most considerable mations of the people. This was the conclucitizens, thatit conferred upon Fabius the appel- sion of his military exploits. He was a second lation of Maximus, which was perpetuated in his time nominated dictator, B.C. 287, for the purbranch of the family. On a renewal of the pose of completing a reconciliation between the Samnite and Etruscan war, Fabius was a fourth plebeians and the patricians. He soon after died, time made consul, which honour he accepted full of glory, and was honoured with a public only upon the condition of nominating a col- funeral. Livy. Univers. Hist.-A. league, who was Decius Mus. He was op FABIUS MAXIMUS, Q. surnamed Verposed to the Samnites, over whom he obtained a RUCOSUS, and also CUNCTATOR, was either the victory by means of a skilful stratagem. The grandson or the great-grandson of the precedpatrician party were greatly desirous of creating ing. He displayed from his infancy the rudihim consul the next year, along with Appius, ments of that temper which ever characterised in order to exclude a plebeian from that dignity; him-gravity, patience, mildness, together with but Fabius, thinking it contrary to the law that a slowness of parts which subjected him to the he should be chosen at a comitia in which he imputation of stupidity, but which did not prehimself presided, would not agree to the design. clude his acquisition of sound sense, and civil In the year following, however, he was elected and military knowledge. He was consul for the to a fifth consulate along with his former colleague first time B.C. 233, when he obtained a tria Decius. The Romans were at that time alarmed umph for a victory over the Ligurians. We with intelligence that the Etruscans, Umbrians, find nothing more related of him, except that Gauls, and Samnites, had formed a confederacy he had been a second time consul, when upon against them. Fabius was sent to command in the great alarm excited at Rome on account of Etruria, and his first care was to restore confi- the victory gained by Hannibal at the lake dence and courage to the Roman army, which Thrasymenus, B.C. 217, he was nominated by had lost its spirit under Appius. The number the senate pro-dictator, the laws not allowing of foes was so great, that both consuls with him the full title of dictator, since the nominatheir joint forces marched against them. Fabius, tion of the surviving consul was

not waited for. by sending a detachment to lay waste Etruria, It appears that the character of Fabius for cool. drew off part of the hostile army, and then ness and caution, joined to military skill, was brought the Gauls and Samnites to an engage- that which especially caused the safety of the ment. It was in this great action that the se state to be committed to him on this dangerous cond Decius Mus (see his article) devoted him- emergence. The people, however, gave him . self for his country. The battle, after great for a master of the horse, Minucius Rufus, a exertions, terminated in favour of the Romans; zealous partisan of their own, and a man of a and Fabius, on his return, was honoured with different disposition. Fabius began his adminia triumph. Three years afterwards, he gave a stration by assuming those external marks of signal proof how much the love of his country dignity which might inspire unusual reverence predominated in him over other affections, by for his high office. Then having restored tranopposing, when prince of the senate, the pro- quillity and confidence to the minds of the pubmotion of his own son, Fabius Gurges, to the lic by some extraordinary acts of religion, he

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