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appear above ground in February, but few flowers, except the snowdrop, are to be found. This ‘icicle changed into a flower' is sometimes fully opened from the beginning of the month.
Pheasant-shooting usually terminates about the 1st, and partridge-shooting about the 15th, of this month.
The few fine days towards the latter end of February afford many opportunities of cultivating our knowledge of Nature, even in her minutest works. The results of a morning's walk at this season are given at length in T. T. for 1817, p. 53. .
In this month early potatoes are set, hedges repaired, trees lopped, and wet lands drained. Poplars, willows, osiers, and other aquatics, are planted.
Storms at sea, accompanied with very heavy gales of wind which continue for three or four days, often occur in the month of February.
'Tis pleasant, by the cheerful hearth to hear
• In continuation of the remarks on the phenomena of northern climates to be found in our preceding volumes, we now add some interesting extracts relative to Lapland, from Dr. CLARK E's recent volume of Travels in that country, Sweden, Norway, &c. · The Midnight Sun. At Enontekis in Lapland, during the space of three weeks in every year, the minister informed Dr. Clarke, that he is able to light
his pipe at midnight with a common burning glass; and, when clouds do not intervene, he may continue this practice for a longer time: but the atmosphere becomes clouded as the season advances. From the church, near his house, it is visible above the horizon at midnight during seven weeks in each year; but the pleasure of this long day is dearly purchased by an almost uninterrupted night for the rest of the year; a continual winter, in which it is difficult to dispense with the use of candles during the space of three hours in each day. The minister's garden contained the greatest rarities in all Lapland; there were peas in blossom, which it was feared would never attain maturity; carrots, spinach, potatoes, turnips, parsley, and a few lettuces. He could not preserve the potatoes through the winter, and had the greatest difficulty to save enough even for seed. The tops of these plants, when boiled, were considered a delicate vegetable by the family'.
Climate.-The climate, although extremely frigid, is not unwholesome. The coldest summer was that of 1790, when not a sheaf of barley or any kind of grain was harvested: even in the August of that year, the snow remained unmelted, and, in the same month, fresh snow began to fall. The annual depth of the snow varies from 3 to 4 feet English. According to an average formed upon eight years' observation, either rain or snow falls every three or four days throughout the year. The clouds, especially in autumn, are very tempestuous. The appearance exhibited by the Aurora Borealis is beyond description magnificent; it serves to illuminate their dark skies in the long night of winter, but, what is most remarkable, this phenomenon is not confined to the Northern parts of the hemisphere, but that its
· Clarke's Travels, vol. v, p. 372.
appearance to the South of the Zenith is no uncommon occurrence'. .
A LAPLAND CALENDAR. January.—The most intense cold took place between the 3d and the 7th. The greatest depth of snow, 14 of a Swedish ell. : February.-Snow falling, with violent wind, from the 9th to the 13th.
March.-Extreme cold from the 8th to the 13th.
April. The first rook seen on the 15th. Several rooks made their appearance on the 23d. The ways become passable : wild geese begin to appear.
May.The partridge (charadrius apricarius Linn.) and the motacilla (oenanthe Linn.) appeared on the 5th. The season for travelling in sledges ended on the 8th. The rivulets began to flow on the 9th. First rain appeared on the 11th; and at the same time the lumme (colymbus lumme) made its appearance. The ice began to break up on the 14th. Swallows appeared on the 15th. The ice disappeared on the 17th; the spring floods in the rivers then at their height. Upon the 18th sowing began, the plains beginning to look green. The last snow fell on the 19th. Upon the 23d, planted potatoes. Cuckoo heard on the 25th; and perch began to spawn. Birch-leaves began to appear on the 27th, and the plains to exhibit an uniform green colour. The last spring frost happened on the night of the 30th.
June. The earth white with snow on the 4th. Pasturage commenced in the forests on the 7th, Snow and heavy hail on the 13th. The first summer heat on the 16th. First thunder on the 18th; at this time sowed the kitchen garden. Mosquitos in vast num- '
· Clarke's Travels, vol. v, p. 385, 6. Lieut. Chapell, in his Voyage to Hudson's Bay, says, the Aurora Borealis in the Zenith resembled, as to its shape, an umbrella, pouring down streams of light from all parts of its periphery, which fell vertically over the hemisphere in every direction,
bers on the 22d. Inundations from the highest mountains on the 26th ; at this time the leaves of the potatoe-plants perished with cold.
July.First ear of barley on the 26th. Haymaking began on the 30th. The first star visible on the 31st, denoting the re-approach of night.
August.-First frosty night towards the 17th. Harvest began on the 20th. Birch-leaves begin to turn yellow on the 23d.
September.--Hard frost towards the 6th. Swallows disappear on the 11th. Ground frozen, and ice upon the banks, on the 12th. First snow fell on the 21st, and remained upon the mountains. Cattle housed on the 24th. Lakes frozen on the 26th.
October.Leaves of birch and osier not altogether fallen on the 3d. Lakes frozen on the 5th; the river, on the 6th. Upon the 9th, not a rook to be seen. The earth again bare on the 22d; and the ice not firm on the 26th. Durable frost and snow on the 27th.
November.-Upon the 19th, travelling in sledges commenced.
December.-The greatest degree of cold from the 16th to 22d inclusive. The depth of the snow now equalled i Swedish ell and 18 inches.-(Dr. Clarke's Travels in Sweden, &c. vol. v, p. 411 et seq.)
AMONG the Romans, March, from Mars, was the first month, and marriages made in this month were accounted unhappy.
In MARCH 1821.
, 1.–SAINT DAVID. SAINT David was the great ornament and pattern of his age. He continued in the see of St. David's many years; and having founded several monasteries, and been the spiritual father of many saints, both British and Irish, he died about the year 544, at a very advanced age. The leek worn on this day by Welshmen is said to be in memory of a great victory obtained by them over the Saxons; they, during the battle, having leeks in their hats, to distinguish themselves, by order of St. David.'
2.-SAINT CHAD. · St. Ceadda or Chad was educated in the monastery of Lindisfarne, under St. Aidan; was afterwards Bishop of Lichfield, and died in the great pestilence of 673.-See further particulars of this Bishop in T. T. for 1815, p. 76. 4.-QUINQUAGESIMA SUNDAY. See SEPTUAGE
SIMA, p. 40.
6.-SHROVE TUESDAY. This is called “Fastern's Een' and Pancake Tuesday. Shrove is the preterite of shrive, an antiquated word, which signifies to hear or make confession. See T. T. for 1814, p. 35, and for 1815, p. 45. The Popish Carnival commences from Twelfth-day, and usually holds till Lent. At Rome, the Carnival lasts for nine days, and it is nowhere seen in such perfec