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to the Royal Closet for the Duchess of York to ascend, the morning proceedings did not take place there, but a temporary building was erected on the outside, in Privy Gardens, where accommodation was provided for eighty men and eighty women, and about fifty spectators. Two cod, two salmons, eighteen red herrings, eighteen pickled herrings, with four loaves, were given to each person in a wooden bowl. After the fish and bread had been distributed, three pounds and a half of beef and one loaf were given to each person. The Subalmoner, and the Lord High Almoner's Secretary, attended to inspect the distribution; and after all the poor persons bad received their provisions, the Subalmoner proposed the health of the king, which was drunk in ale, in wooden cups. In the afternoon the ceremonies and additional royal bounties were resumed in the chapel. The gentlemen of the Chapel Royal attended to perform the service. Soon after three o'clock the ceremonies commenced by a procession entering the chapel, of eight yeomen of the guard and à yeoman usher, one of the yeomen carrying on his head a large gold dish, in which were 160 red kid bags, which ought to have contained
Os. in gold, but had a one pound bank note instead; and also white kid bags, tied to the others with white leather strings, about two feet long, in which were ld. 2d. 3d. and 4d. silver pieces, amounting to 6s. 8d., being as many pence as the king was years old. The dish containing these bags was placed on a table, which was covered with a white cloth, in front of the altar. The remainder of the procession consisted of the sub-dean of the Chapel Royal, the sub-almoner, the lord high almoner's secretary, the groom of the almonry, two boys and two girls, selected from St. Margaret's National School, for their good behaviour, by the sub almoner; these, with the gentlemen, were decorated with cambric muslin scarfs and sashes, carrying
bouquets of flowers, and were preceded by a gentleman verger of the Chapel Royal.
After the first lesson, the gentlemen who formed the procession ascended into the gallery, and distri. buted to the eighty men shoes and stockings by the hands of the sub-almoner. The gentlemen of the choir then sang an appropriate piece. After this, cloth for a coat, and linen for a shirt, were distributed in a similar manner. Additional music succeeded, and the red bags, containing the £1 notes and the small silver coinage, were then distributed to the men, and afterwards, in a similar manner, to eighty women. An anthem was then sung, an appropriate thanksgiving and prayer read, and the king's health was drunk in claret; out of wooden cups, by the gentlemen who performed the service and composed the procession, and the numerous assemblage of those who had partaken of the royal bounty.
For further customs on this day, see T. T. for 1815, p. 86; T. T. for 1819, p. 93; and our last vo, lume, p. 76.
20.-GOOD FRIDAY. This day commemorates the sufferings of Christ, as a propitiation for our sins. Holy Friday, or the Friday in Holy Week, was its more antient and general appellation; the name Good Friday is peculiar to the English church. It was observed as a day of extraordinary devotion. Buns, with crosses upon them, are usually eaten in London and some other places on this day, at breakfast.
The following account of the representation of the crucifixion on this day, in Portugal, as given by Mr. Whitfield, is very curious: We had not waited long (says Mr. W.), in the church belonging to the convent of St. de Beato, at Lisbon, before the curtain was drawn up: immediately, upon a high scaffold, hung in the front with black baize, and behind with purple damask laced with gold, was exhibited to our view an image of the Lord Jesus, at full length, crowned with thorns, and nailed on a cross, between two figures of like dimensions, representing the two thieves. At a little distance, on the right hand, was placed an image of the Virgin Mary in plain long ruffles, and a kind of widow's weeds. The veil was of purple silk, and she had a wire glory round her head. At the foot of the Cross lay, in a mournful pensive posture, a living man, dressed in woman's clothes, who personated Mary Magdalen; and, not far off, stood a young man, in imitation of the beloved disciple. He was dressed in a loose green silk vesture and bob-wig. His eyes were fixed on the cross, and his two hands a little extended. On each side, near the front of the stage, stood two centinels in buff, with formidable caps and long beards; and, directly in the front, stuod another yet more formidable, with a large tatget in his hand: we may suppose him to be the Roman centurion. To complete the scene, from behind the purple hangings came out about twenty little purple-vested winged boys, two by two, each bearing a lighted wax taper in his hand, and having a crimson and gold cap on his head. At their entrance upon the stage, they gently bowed their heads to the spectators, then knelt and made obeisance, first to the image on the cross, and then to that of the Virgin Mary. When risen, they bowed to each other, and then took their respective places over against one another, on steps assigned for them on the front of the stage. Opposite to this, at a few yards distance, stood a black friar in a pulpit hung with mourning. For a while he paused; and then, breaking silence, gradually raised his voice till it was extended to a pretty high pitch, though I think scarcely high enough for so large an auditory. After he had proceeded in his discourse about a quarter of an hour, a confused noise was heard near the great front door; and, turning my head, I saw four long-bearded men,
two of whom carried a ladder on their shoulders; and after them followed two more, with large gilt dishes in their hands, full of linen, spices, &c. : these were the representatives of Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea. On a signal given from the pulpit, they advanced towards the steps of the scaffold; but, upon their first attempting to mount it, at the watchful centurion's nod, the observant soldiers made a pass at them, and presented the points of their javelins directly to their breasts. They are repulsed. Upon this, a letter from Pilate is produced: the centurion reads it, shakes his head, and (with looks that bespoke a forced compliance) beckons the centinels to withdraw their arms. Leave being thus obtained, they ascend, and, having paid their homage by kneeling first to the image on the cross, and then to the Virgin Mary, they retired to the back of the stage. Still the preacher continued declaiming, or rather, as was said, explaining the mournful scene. Magdalen persists in wringing her hands, and variously expressing her personated sorrow; while John (seemingly regardless of all besides) stood gazing on the crucified figure. By this time it was nearly three o'clock, and the scene was drawing to a close. The ladders are ascended, the superscription and crown of thorns taken off; long white rollers put round the arms of the image; and then the nails knocked out which fastened the hands and feet. Here Mary : Magdalen puts on a most languishing look, and
John, if possible, stands more thunderstruck than before. The orator lifts up his voice, and almost all the hearers expressed their concern, by weeping, beating their breasts, and smiting their cheeks. At length, the body is gently let down; Magdalen eyes it, and, gradually rising, receives the feet into her wide spread handkerchief; while John (who hitherto had stood as motionless as a statue), as the body came nearer the ground, with an eagerness that bespoke the intense affection of a sympathizing friend, runs towards the cross, seizes the upper part of it into his clasping arms, and, with his disguised fellow mourner, helps to bear it away. Great preparations are made for its interment. It was wrapped in linen and spices, &c., and, being laid upon a bier richly hung, was carried round the churchyard in grand procession. The image of the Virgin Mary was chief mourner; and John and Magdalen, with a whole troop of friars with wax tapers in their hands, followed. Determined to see the whole, I waited its return, and, in about a quarter of an hour, the corpse was brought in, and deposited in an open sepulchre prepared for the purpose; but not before a priest, aocompanied by several of the same order, in splendid vestments, had perfumed it with incense, sang to, and knelt before it. John and Magdalen attended the obsequies, but the image of the Virgin Mary was carried away, and placed in the front of the stage, in order to be kissed, adored, and worshipped by the people.'- Buck's Anecdotes, vol. ii, p. 204. : For an account of ceremonies in various places on this day, consult T. T. for 1815, p. 88; T. T. for 1817, pp. 89-91; and our last volume, p. 77..
: 21.- EASTER EVE. Particular mortifications were enjoined to the earliest Christians on this day. From the third century, the fast was indispensible and rigid, being protractod always to midnight, sometimes to cock-crowing, and sometimes to the dawn of Easter-day; and the whole of the day and night was employed in religious affairs.
22.-EASTER DAY, or EASTER SUNDAY. Much difference of opinion prevailed in the Eastem and Western churches respecting the precise time of observing Easter; till, in 325, the Council of Nice declared that the feast should be kept by all