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ican models, nearly all the buildings recently constructed consisting of separate class rooms, with a ball for general assembly. The size of the buildings depends necessarily upon the location. In London from 500 to 1,500 children are provided for in a single edifice.
All new scliool premises and enlargements must conform to a schedule published by the department. This schedule prescribes the general plan of buildings, the proportions of school rooms, the minimum size of class rooms (18 feet by 15), the surface space per scholar-10 square feet in rooms not providing accommodation for more than 60 children, the height, i. e., 12 feet from floor level to ceiling for an area of 360 superficial square feet, 13 feet for a superficial area of 360 to 600 square feet, and 14 feet for an area above 600 square feet. The schedule also indicates the preferred modes of lighting, ventilating, warming, and furnishing, and gives explicit directions respecting sanitary arrangements. A playground is required for every school, and in the case of a mixed school separate playgrounds for the boys and the girls.
Half-timers.--Arrangements are made by which children who must work may attend school as balftimers. A separate register must be kept for these, the attendance of a : half-timer" for two consecutive hours being counted as an attendance and a half.
Holidays.—The usual holidays for board schools are two weeks at Christmas; at Easter from Good Friday to the Saturday in the next week, both days inclusive; at Whitsuntide one week, and in summer three weeks, to commence on the first Monday in August.
School age.-There is no express definition of school age in England by statute, but as a rule the following attendances are not recognized for grants: (a) Attendance of a child under 3 years of age; (b) of any scholar who has passed in the three elementary subjects in the seventh standard, unless the inspector has previously permitted such scholars to be reëxamined in that standard ; (c) of any scholar in an evening school under fourteen or over twenty-one, but children under fourteen who are by the department deemed to be exempt from the legal obligation to attend school are recognized as scholars in an evening school.
Compulsory attendance.—The period of compulsory attendance at school is nominally from five to thirteen years of age, but attendance may not be enforcer against any child of ten years or upwards, who has obtained a certificate of proficiency, or of previous due attendance at a “certified efficient school,” or who is employed and attending school in accordance with the factory acts; further, the local authorities may, under certain conditious, temporarily exempt a child over eight years of age, “ for the necessary operations of husbandry and the ingathering of crops,” for a period not exceeding six weeks in a year. The execu. tion of the compulsory clauses of the education acts is left entirely to local managers. So far the measures employed have failed of the de
For interesting description of typical board schools, see series of articles in the “ Schoolmaster” for 1890.
sired effect. In London the evils of irregular attendance have become alarming; for two years a committee of the school board have had the subject under consideration to devise measures of reform. The appointment of a special magistrate to hear school-board cases is specially urged by them. The Liverpool board employs one set of visitors to look after absentees exclusively.
The fixed limits of compulsory attendance have in reality but little significance, on the one hand because of the general institution of infant schools which receive special grants, and on the other because of the proviso exempting children of ten years of age who have passed in the fourth standard. As already stated, it is expected that pupils shall reach the standard at ten years of age. Two-thirds of the pupils fulfill this expectation. The statistics show that a little more than one-third of this number are seen no more at school, while of the remaining twothirds about one in eight reaches the seventh or highest standard. The code for 1890 fixes twelve years and the sixth standard for exemp. tions.
VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS. Coeducation. The extent to which coeducation is practiced in the English schools may be seen from the fact that of 22,414 departments for older pupils, 4,194 were for boys, 3,822 for girls, and 14,398 were mixed.
Daily sessions and attendance.-The length of a school day and the hours of opening and closing are not uniform. The maximum session is apparently three hours. In London the forenoon session is from 9 to 12, and the afternoon from 2 to 4:30.
In making up the daily register no attendance for less than an hour and a half in each session can be counted for a child in an infant class or less than two hours for an older pupil.
THE ANNUAL GRANT. The most peculiar feature of the elementary system, as well as the most important condition affecting the course and conduct of studies, and the organization of the schools, is the mode of distributing the annual grant. This feature has, however, been much modified by the Code of 1890, as a consequence of the representation made before the Commission on the Operations of the Education Acts. These modifications reduce the amount of the grant conditional upon the results of individual examination and allow much greater freedom to the teacher in respect to the classification of pupils. They recognize, also, the peculiar needs of small rural schools, allowing extra grants to tbese of $50, $100, or $125, accordivg to the population and apart from other considerations. Under the new code the grant for day schools is applied as follows:
PRESENT BASIS OF DISTRIBUTION. 1. Infant schools.-(a) A fixed grant of 98. or 7s. (according to the equiposcut of the school) per capita of average attendance.
(0) A variable grant of 28., 48., or 6s. per capita of average attendance, according to the inspector's report of the general condition of the school.
(c) A grant for needlework of 18. per capita, estimated upon the aver. age attendance of girls only, unless the boys share in the instruction.
(d) If the boys, instead of needlework, are satisfactorily taught drawing, a grant of 1s. may be made, based upon their average attendance.
(e) A grant for singing of 1s. or 6d. per capita of average attendance.
2. Schools for older scholars.-(a) Principal grant of 12s. 6d., or 148. per capita of average attendance according to the inspector's report as to the accuracy and general intelligence of the scholars in the elemen. tary subjects.
(b) A grant for discipline and organization of 1s. or 18. 6d. per capita of average attendance.
(c) A grant for needlework of 1s. per capita of the average attendance of girls.
(d) A grant for singing of 18. or 6d. per capita of average attendance.
(e) A grant on examination in class subjects of 18. or of 28. per capita of average attendance, for each subject taken.
(f) A grant on the inspector's report of the examination of individual scholars in specific subjects amounting to 4s. for each scholar passing in any subject.
(9) A grant for cookery amounting to 4s. for each girl passing the examination under specified conditions.
(1) A grant of 2s. on account of each girl passing the examination in laundry-work under specified conditions.
3. Special grants to day schools.-(a) Grants for pupil-teachers: A grant of £1, £2, or £3 for each pupil-teacher required to make up the minimum staff, who passes the inspector's examination. Grant of £1 or £5 for each pupil-teacher who, during the last year of the engage ment, successfully passes the examination for admission to a training college.
(0) Grants for assistant teachers: A grant of £10 or £15 for each assistant teacher who, under specified conditions, passes successfully the examination for a certificate.
(c) Grants for rural schools in sparsely-settled regions of £10 or £15, according to population.
4. Evening schools.-(a) A fixed grant of 48. or 6s. per capita.
(b) A grant on the examination of individual scholars in any class or specific subjects of 2s. for each scholar passing in any one subject.
(c) A grant of 28. for each girl presented in Standard iv, or any higher standard, who has received instruction in cookery.
The total annual grant, exclusive of any special grant to rural schools, may not exceed the greater of the two following sums:
(a) A sum equal to 178. 6d for each unit of average attendance.
(6) The total income of the school from all sources whatever other than the grant.
Reduction of grant.-The annual grant, exclusive of the fixed grants may be reduced at the rate of not more than 108. per annum for every unit of annual average attendance above the number for which the school staff is sufficient.
Grant summary.-Omitting special grants for teachers and to rural schools, this arrangement allows to infant schools a fixed minimum grant of 98. and a possible maximum grant of 178. per capita of average attendance; to schools for older scholars, a fixed minimum grant of 13s. 6d., and a possible maximum grant of 178. per capita of average attendance, omitting grants for cookery and laundry work, and of 48. for each pass in a specific subject.
The average grant claimed by schools for older scholars for 1889-90 amounted to 18s. 41d. per capita of average attendance.
Provision for the training of teachers antedates the education act by nearly fifty years, having been one of the special objects of the societies that were devoted to the work of educating the people. Training colleges, as they were called, received government aid in 1843; the act of 1870 merely extended their resources and defined more exactly the conditions entitling them to Government support.
The training colleges for teachers recognized by the department are of two classes, residential and day.
Residential training colleges are boarding schools, but they may receive day students. A practice school is a required adjunct.
These schools are voluntary, and, with a single exception, belong to some religious denomination or to some one of the religious societies devoted to educational work.
The housing, equipment, staffing, etc., are left entirely to the managers, but there must always be a resident physician,
The following are the specific provisions as to the establishment of training colleges and the conditions of admission to them set forth in the code for 1890:
A day training college must be attached to some university or college of university rank.
The authorities of a day training college must be a local committee who will be held responsible for the discipline and moral supervision of the students, and for their regular attendance at professional or other lectures.
No grant is made to a training college unless the department are satisfied with the premises, management, staff, curriculum, and general arrangements, and recognize it as a training college.
The recognized students in a training collego are called Queen's scholars. The authorities of a training college may propose to the department for admission as Queen's scholar
(a) Any candidato who has obtained a place in the first or second class at the Queen's scholarship examination;
(b) Withont examination, any person who has passed the first year's examination for a certificate and wlio wisbes to enter the college for a year's training in the courne prescribed for students of the second year.
Before candidates are admitted
(a) The medical officer of the college mast certify that the state of their health is satisfactory and that they are free froin serions bodily defect or deformity; and
(b) They must sign a declaration that they intend bona fide to adopt and follow the profession of teacher in a public elementary school or training college or in the army or navy or (within Great Britain) in poor law schools, certified industrial or day industrial schools, or certified reforinatories.
In other respects the authorities of each college settle their own terms of admission.
The period of training is ordinarily two years. An additional year's training may, in any caso, be allowed on the application of the authorities of the college and with the consent of the department.
Students who are Queen's scholars and are qualified to attend the examinations for certificates, are required to attend both that in first year's and that in second year's papers, unless prevented by illness or other cause approved by the department.
Course of study in training colleges. The course of study in training colleges bas hitherto been determined by the subjects included in the syllabus of the Government examinations for teacliers' certificates. These subjects are reading, recitation, penmanship, school management, English grammar, composition and rhetoric, geography, English his. tory, arithmetic, algebra and mensuration, geometry, political economy for men, domestic economy and sewing for women, vocal music, and drawing. Candidates may also be examined in one or two of the following languages: Latin, Greek, French, German; and in branches of science prescribed in the syllabus of the science and art department.
One of the most important features of the syllabus is that pertaining to the study of English literature. It requires some masterpiece to be studied throughout the term and that not less than 300 lines shall be committed to memory. The examination syllabus for men differs somewhat from that for women. The mathematics for the former include algebra and geometry in addition to arithmetic, which is the limit for women. Men may be examined in two languages, women in but one. Ilistory is less extended in the syllabus for men, and the political economy required for men is much more elementary than the domestic economy assigned to women.
The existing status of the curriculum here described has jast been moditied as a consequence of the establishment of day training colleges attached to university colleges. The managers of day colleges are free to draw up a curriculum of their own, provided that it is sanctioned by the department and includes some three or four obligatory subjects. If their students pass examinations for degrees, these will be exeepted in lieu of the certificate esaminations, the department merely requiring that the worked papers shall be submitted to it. This arrangement seemed to discriminate unjustly between the students of the day and those of the residential colleges, since it permitted the former to be er. atinel on questions drawn up by their own instrnetors, while those for the latter were set by the department. The anthorities of the residen