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tial colleges were naturally dissatisfied and their representations have brought about a change.
Under the new provisions, students in training colleges who pass any university examination approved by the department will be excused from farther examination in the same subjects or portions of subjects.
So far, then, as the provisions go, students of the training colleges may be certificated chiefly on the results of university examinations. There are some difficulties in the way of making this privilege practically available, but it is a very important departure in respect to the training of teachers, opening betore them not only a wider range of knowledge, but promising the stimulus of broader and freer views of those subjects.
In addition to the annual examination of persons intending to become teachers by the inspector of the education department, there is also an annual examination by officers of the science and art department, upon the results of which all Government payments for instruction in science are made.
Conduct of the training colleges. The regimen of the training colleges is generally very strict, and life within them lacks the individual freedom which, under judicious leadership, promotes the development of character. There is also noticeable in these colleges the absence of certain stimulating influences that develop naturally among students, drawn from various social strata and looking forward to diverse careers.
Among the conditions which tend to narrow the social life of the training colleges must be counted their denominational affiliations. Theoretically, they are nonsectarian, but as a matter of fact the students of a college are drawn in the main from the denomination it rep. resents.
The establishment of day training colleges in touch with the univer. sities is a measure of far-reaching moment promising, as we have indi. cated, higher and broader intellectual culture and greater freedom in life and thought.
Grant to training colleges.—There are placed to the credit of each college grants of £100 for every master and £70 for every mistress, who, having been trained as a Queen's scholar during two years, completes the prescribed period of probation and receives a certificate as a teacher in a public elementary school, or in a training college, or is reported by the proper department in each case to have completed a like period of good service as an elementary teacher in the army or navy, or (within Great Britain) in poor law schools, certified industrial or day industrial schools, or certified reformatories.
A grant of £20 is made for every master and every mistress who attends as a day Queen's scholar and fulfills the remaining conditions here specified. Teachers who have been trained for one year only may ob. tain certificates after probation, or may be reported by the proper department, upon the same terms as others; and grants of half the amounts mentioned above may be placed to the credit of the colleges in which they were trained under special conditions.
The annual grant to each residential college is paid out of the sums standing to its credit at the beginning of the year.
The annual grant to a residential college must not exceed (a) 75 per cent. of the expenditure of the college for the year, approved by the department and certified in such manner as the department, may reqnire; (b) £50 for each male, and £35 for each female Queen's scholar in residence, and £10 for each day Queen's scholar enrolled, for continuous training througlont the year for which it is being paid.
In day training colleges a grant will be made annually throcgh the local committee of £25 to each male, and of £20 to each female Queen's scholar, and a grant of £10 to the comunittee in respect of each Queen's scholar enrolled for continuous training throughout the year.
Financial view of residential training colleges.-The original cost of the buildings belonging to the residential training colleges is $1,987,350. Of this amount 30 per cent. was granted by the Government. The total expenditure for these colleges in 1889 was $850,179, of which the Government furnished 69 per cent., the fees of students 13.44 per cent.; the balance was derived from property and subscriptions. The average annual cost per student in the colleges for men is £59 178, or $300. Of this 37 per cent, is applied to instruction, 49 per cent. to board, and the balance to permanent establishment charges. The average annual cost per student in the colleges for women is £48 108, or $240.50, the distribution being 51 per cent. for instruction, 37 per cent. for board, and the balance for permanent establishment charges.
Attendance and staff.—The residential colleges are 43 in number, i. e., 17 for men, 25 for women, and 1 for both men and women. Thirty-six of these schools were established before the passage of the education act. They have accommodation for 3,353 students, and in February, 1890, had an attendance of 3,294, of whoin all but 9 were Queen's scholars.
The teachers' force comprised 362 persons.
RECAPITULATION OF PRINCIPAL POINTS.
The principal characteristics of the system of elementary education here briefly outlined are seen to be: The union of public and private agencies in the control and maintenance of schools; a limited obligatory curriculum, rigidly enforced and testerl; a comparatively wide range of optional subjects; government aid and supervision, exercised exclusively in respect to secular instruction, whether given in board or voluntary schools; denominational schools strengthened by their relation to the government; teachers dependent upon local authorities for appointment and salary, but their qualifications prescribed, and their work tested by government; the employment of pupil-teachers, and the peculiar mode of distributing the government grant generally known as “payment upon results."
From the American standpoint, the system would appear to involve many conflicting and irreconcilable elements. Experience has iudeed proved this to be the case. The friction resulting from the conflict between these opposing elements became so disturbing that a royal commission was appointed in 1886 to investigate the operations of the system, and report upon the same as a preliminary step toward remedial measures.
The final report of the commissioners was submitted in 1888. The code issued by the department in 1890 is in certain respects the outcome of their recommendation. This code provides, as we have seen, for a diminution in the pressure of examinations, allows greater free. dom to teachers in respect to the classification of their pupils, gives a · fixed character to the greater portion of the grant, and marks the beginning of an important movement affecting the training and professional prospects of teachers.
Meanwhile the demand for a radical changein the system, looking to the establishment of a uniform system of board schools, has gathered sach strength that a parliamentary act giving effect to this proposition is confidently anticipated even by its opponents.
Schools for special classes.—The Government as yet has made no provision for the education of the deaf-mute or the blind, beyond authorizing the guardians of the poor in parishes and unions to pay for the education of such children in certified schools, if their parents are unable to do so; similar authority is given to the guardians in respect to feebleminded children. The blind and the deaf-mute are received in board schools, special classes being generally provided for them. Many private institutions have also been established for these classes, and a bill is now before Parliament looking to general educational provision in their behalt.
By an act of 1866, “industrial schools” were established for the detention, training, and reformation of vicious or unmanageable chil. dren. The education act of 1870 authorized school boards to send truant and refractory children to these schools under specified conditions.
School boards were also authorized to establish and maintain industrial schools for the same purposes.
By the act of 1870, school boards were permitted to establish “ day industrial schools,” in which industrial training, elementary education, and one or more meals a day, but not lodging, are provided for the chil. dren. According to a report published in April, 1889, fourteen such day schools had been established in England, of which all but one were under school boards.
Many boards have also established truant schools, where children may be brought under different training and discipline from those of the ordinary schools.
Auxiliary institutions.-The list of societies and associations whose work is in some way related to the elementary school work is well nigh inexhaustible. In addition to the religions societies that maintain elementary schools, the following societies promote the interests of elementary education in various ways:
The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, founded in 1698, seeks by examinations, prizes, etc., to excite interest in scriptural study.
The Recreative Evening Schools Association, which, as its name indi. cates, endeavors to introduce stimulating and popular exercises, such as stereoscopic exhibitions, illustrated lectures, gaines, etc., into evening schools.
The Art for Schools Association, whose purpose it is to soften and elevate the young by the influence of pictures and other objects of beauty in the school rooms.
The Society for the Promotion of Physical Education is doing great service; the Physical Elementary Schools Bill introduced into Parliament during the session of 1890 is largely due to its efforts.
The Band of Hope Union, which sends temperance lecturers supplied with illustrative apparatus into the schools.
The Yorkshire Ladies Council of Education works in various ways for the promotion of popular education. It has been specially active in developing instruction in cookery and domestic economy.
The London Schools' Dinners Association endeavors to provide one meal a day for the poorest class of school children. Its expenses in severe seasons run up to $500 a week.
The Natioual Association for the Promotion of Teachers of Technical and Secondary Education exercises an important influence upon legislation affecting elementary schools.
The Londou Young Women's Christian Association interests itself in maintaining evening classes for girls.
The Teachers' University Association promotes relations between elementary teachers and universities.
THE SOCIETIES FORMED BY TEACHERS AND OFFICERS, The National Union of Elementary Teachers is one of the largest societies of the kind in the world; it numbers about 16,000 members, is well officereil, and thoroughly organized; it maintains an orphanage for the children of deceased members, a fund for the legal assistance of teachers who are unjustly dismissed or subjects of suits in court; a teachers' benevolent fund, and a teachers' provident society.
The Union advocates Parliamentary representation of elementary teachers and the establishment of a superannuation fund.
The organ of the Union is the Schoolmaster, an "educational newspaper, review, and school board record.” The English Teacher, a monthly publication, is also issued.
The annual meetings of the Union are largely attended and ably managed. Valuable papers are presented on topics previously assigned; the discussions are full, spirited, and suggestive.
The school board clerks are also organized into an association which holds annual meetings for the discussion of school management and educational progress and demands. An immense amount of practical experience is here brought to bear upon the consideration of thiese subjects, and the reports of the conferences are exceedingly valuable for the light they throw upon the problems of school administration and many related problems.
The university movements for promoting popular education are not without direct effect upon the elementary schools; many of their pu. pils have won distinction at the university local examinations.
Summer schools for elementary teachers have been held both at Os. ford and Cambridge, and above all, the University Settlement, Toynbee Hall, East London, has sent a vivifying influence into the elementary school work of that swarming hive of humanity.
Toynbee Hall residents have carried a joyous and animating spirit into the night schools; they have relieved the tedious drudgery of the pupil teachers' cram, and developed an esprit de corps among those overworked youths by the formation of boating, cricket clubs, and the like. On the other hand, the residents have found in the machinery of the public schools a ready instrumentality for the promotion of their work of love and helpfulness among poor and outcast children.
The principal steps in the development of the system of elementary education of England and Wales, are indicated in the following table:
Formation of the British and Foreign School Society for the par.
pose of extending education among the people. Formation of the National Society for the establishinent of schools
in which the principles of the church of England should be in
cluded as an integral part of the course of instruction. Report of committee of the House of Commons on the State of od
ucation. Lord Brougham, chairman. Passage of the reform act, which extended the franchise especially in towns, and thereby deepened the conviction of the dangers of
rance, First Government appropriation in aid of popular education
($100,000) restricted to building purposes. Lord Brongham introduces the subject of national education into
the House of Lords. Grant in aid of education increased to $150,000. Committee of
council appointed "to superintend the application of any sums voted by the Parliament for the purpose of promoting public ed
ucation." ? Grant increased and its application extended to buildings for train
ing colleges and for teachers' residences.
tenance of elementary schools, viz, teachers' salarios,