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Chronological Table-England and Wales-Continued.
1817........ The Committee of Council introduce "management clauses" for
insertion in tbe trust deeds of Church of England schools-object to secure for lay sabscribers a due share in the management of
the schools. Roman Catholic Church admitted for the first time into coöperation
with the committee of council. Catholic Poor School Committee
established to represent the Roman Catholics of Great Britain. 1851...... Minute limiting the annual amount of the grant for pensions to
£6 500 ($32,500). 1851
Wesleyan Training College, Westminster, opened. 1853...
Capitation grant first allowed, i. e., grant to school fund based
upon average attendance.
Hammersmith Roman Catholic Training College. 1056..
Liverpool Training College.
tion created Thus was created an oftice filled by a minister re-
graut. 1857..... Conference in London to consider the imperfect attendance of cbil.
dren at school, presided over by the Prince Consort exercises a
great influence. 1858, Feb. 11... Sir John Parkington, M.P., moved the appointment of a commission
to inquire into the state of popular education. 1858, June 30... Commission appointed, known as the Duke of Newcastle's commis
sion. 1861, March ... Report of commission submitted, 1862....
Revised code adopted, generally known as Mr. Lowe's code; intro
duced the principle of payruent upon results. Pensions discon
Conscience clause protecting the religious convictions of parents
proposed to the national society by the committee of council. Passage of Lord Derby's reforin act extending the franchise gives a
new impulse to the movement for popular education. 1870....
Passage of the education act-generally known as Mr. Foster's bill,
ho being at that time vice president of the council.
The annual code becomes an addition to the oducation law. 1873...
Amendinar act amouerst other provisions made obligatory the at.
tendance at school of children whose parents were in receipt of
outdoor relief and required the board guardians to pay their fees. 1874...
Effort to make metric system a part of the arithmetic course aban.
doned (ride code). 1875....
Class, i.e., optional, subjects introduced (vide code).
Extra grants allowed for rural schools in thinly populated districts. 1876....
Lord Sandon's act makes it obligatory upon parents to cause their
children to receive "eliicieni elementary instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic," upon fear of penalty. Limits of compulsory age, five to fourteen years. As a means of enforcing the obligation of school attendance, the act places restrictions on the employment of children and provides for securing the school attendance of neglected or vagrant children and for the establish
ment of day industrial schools." 1876...
Code specities ibe conditions of good organization and discipline
which state-aided schools must rulfill. 1876..........
Revival of provisiou for pensions. 1879........ Provision prohibiting grant to uunecessary schools repealed in re
spect to districts not under a school board. 1880.........
Mr. Mundella's act establishing direct compulsion by the school
authority in contradistinction to the optional compulsion of Mr.
Forster's act and the indirect compulsion of Lord Sandon's act. 1882...
Code makes average attendance the basis for assessing the grant:
the rate of payment per unit of a verage attendauce determined by the percentage which the actual number of passes is of the wbole number wbich could possibly be obtained by all scholars liable to examination.
Chronological Table~England aad Wales --Continued.
Seventh standard added. Merit grant introduced, i.e., grant based
upon inspector's report as to general conduct and tone of the school. Teachers made responsible for the classification of pupils. Appointment of a Royal commission to investigate the operations
of the elementary education acts. Report of the Royal commission in successive volumes. New code modifying the system of elementary education in im
portant particulars. Establishment of day training colleges attached to university col
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF FRANCE.
General view of the system-- Administration : central, academic, and departmental-The
councils-Tendencies of centralization-Origin of scholastic institutions-Statistical summary 1887-88: enrollment and attendance, finances-. Teachers of public primary schools : qualifications, appointments, discipline, salaries, prorision for training, pensions-Professors of secondary and superior instruction : classification, salariesCourses of study : primary, secondary, superior-Organization and management of schools : classes of primary schools, distribution of teachers and pupils among the different grades, secular vs. church schools, buildings and grounds, internal conduct, tert-books, etc.—The lycées : boarding vs. scholastic departments, the day's routineCommunal colleges --Secondary schools for girls--Statistical summary of secondary institutions--Institutions for superior instruction : facultés of the State, extension of functions and resources under the Republic, organizing measures, classes of students, fees, degrees, statistical summary-Special schools—Prirate facultés- Auxiliary a880ciations--Educational activity of Paris.
Area, 204,092 square miles. Population (actual) May 29, 1886, 37,930,759; domi. ciled, or legal, 38,218,903.
Ciril divisions.-For purposes of civil government France is divided into eighty-six departments, each having its local legislative assembly which is formed by election. The departments are subdivided into arrondissements, and these into cantons. The smallest civil divisions comprised within the cantons are communes.
The chief executive officer of a department is the préfet. He is the intermediary between the central power and officials of all orders within the limits of his department. The arrondissements aro simply administrative divisions. A canton is a district entitled to one representative in the departmental council. A commune is a district having an elective local council presided over by a mayor appointed by the government. Paris forms an exception, having a special forin of local government. In 1886, the total number of communes was 36,121. They were classified by population as follows: Inhabitants.
Communes. From 12 to 400....
. 13, 562 From 401 to 500 ......
... 3,619 From 501 to 1,000 ...
10, 362 From 1,001 to 5,000......
8,016 From 5,001 to 10,000
328 From 10,001 to 20,000.........
134 Above 20,000..
* The sources from which the information contained in this article is chiefly derived are the laws determining the operations of the system, reports of the special commission on statistics of primary instruction, reports of the ministers of public instruction on secondary and superior instruction, and official journals.
GENERAL VIEW OF THE SYSTEM.
It would be difficult to convey an idea of the present educational sys. tem of France without reference to the Imperial University established by Napoleou in 1808. From this organization the system derives much of its external form and many of its constituent parts. Napoleon gave to the university the monopoly of education. It was the state teaching.” This monopoly was gradually relinquished after the fall of the Emperor, and since the passage of the educational law of March 15, 1850, the word university has not been employed as the legal designation of the organized system of public education. In common language, however, the system is still often called "the university."
The agencies for public education and the official machinery by wbich their operations are regulated form at present a great department of public affairs under the control of a cabinet officer, the minister of public instruction and fine arts, an office created August 26, 1824. The department comprises an administrative section, three scholastic sections, i. e., primary, secondary, and superior, and a section of fine arts. The last has the oversight of public art schools, museums, public buildings, etc. The minister of public instruction also shares with other ministers authority over a number of special schools of art or technology. For example, over the Polytechnic School (École polytechnique), with the minister of war; the Superior School of Mines (Ecole supérieure des mines), with the minister of public works, and the famous School of Arts and Manufactures (École centrale des arts et manufactures), with the minister of commerce, of industry, and of colonies.
The jurisdiction of the minister is not confined to institutions main. tained by the state, but extends in a measure to private schools and to the special schools maintained by municipalities, trade guilds, etc. These last form a very interesting feature of the educational provision of the country. Paris is especially liberal in this respect, maintaining a great number of commercial and industrial art and science schools, where after the labors of the day artisans pursue the study of special subjects relating to their vocation. Among provincial cities, Lyons, Toulouse, and Limoges are particularly rich in such provision.
There are also municipal schools for higher departments of knowledge, the most important of which is the Free School of Political Science (Ecole libre des sciences politiques), maintained at Paris since 1872.
To the department of the minister of public instruction and fine
See in this connection circular addressed by Jules Ferry to superior council, Statistique de l'enseignement supérieur, 1878-88, p. 114.
*The incumbent of the office at the present time (February, 1839) is Léon Bourgeois; the minister whose name was signed to thelatest official reports, viz, for 1536–87 aud 1887-88, was A. Fallières.
3 For very full accounts of this provision sce reports of English Royal Commission on Technical Instruction, especially Volume I.
arts belong also the great astronomic and meteorologic bureaus main. tained by the State.
The minister controls the operations of the system through a series of officials belonging either to the central administration or to local ad. ministrative districts.
A. CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION.
The central administration includes the cabinet of the minister, a general director and assistant bureaus, whose duties relate to the sec. retaryships and accounts of the service; a general director for each of the three scholastic divisions, for the section of fine arts, and for the oversight of public buildings.
General inspectors are also appointed to supervise the operations of the system throughout the country.
The inspection of primary instruction is confided to six of these officials. Three other general inspectors are charged, one with the su. pervision of the internal conduct of normal schools, and pational professional, i.e., technical and trade schools; a second, with the supervision of manual training in normal schools; and the third, with the super. vision of gymnastics and military drill in the various classes of primary schools. The inspection of instruction in music, vocal and instrumenial, of living languages, and of design in the normal schools and in the superior primary schools is confided to special inspectors. There are also four general inspectresses of infant schools.
These officials are the direct representatives of the minister, conducting their investigations in the portion of the country assigned to them according to his express direction, and reporting to him. The office of general inspector dates from the formation of the Imperial Uni. versity, 1808. The service was extended to primary instruction in 1846, events having proved the weakness of a system wanting this provision.
B. ACADEMIC AND DEPARTMENTAL ORGANIZATION. 1. For purposes of educational administration, France is divided into sixteen districts (or including Algiers, seventeen), termed académies. Each académie comprises all the schools, colleges, and facultés i. e., groups of “university” professors for superior instruction, within its bounds. It is in fact a scholastic organization, in which there is a graded series of teaching bodies or institutions. At the head is the rector, who has control of the three orders of instruction, but particularly of secondary and superior instruction. He is assisted by an academic council. The rectors superintend the higher and secondary schools,
1 For full account of the origin and development of the central administration see Statistique de l'enseignement, 1876, and same, 1887-1888. Also Le conseil supérieur de l'instruction publique, monograph by M. R. Jalliffier (Monographies pédagogiques. Tome I).