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oversee the private schools, and control the primary schools. They convoke the facultés in their respective districts to devise courses of study, which are transmitted to the minister with the views of the rectors. (In the académie of Paris the nominal rector is the minister himself, who is represented by a vice-rector.)
2. The eighty-six departments of France form subordinate districts for educational administration within the académies.
In the chief city of each departinent resides an academic inspector, inspecteur d'académie, who is charged under the orders of the rector with the supervision of secondary instruction, and who shares with the prefect of the department the direction of primary instruction. The academic inspector and the prefect are assisted by a departmental council.
At Paris, at Marseilles, and at Lille an academic inspector is exclu. sively charged with the service of primary instruction under the title of director of primary instruction of the department.
At the majority of the chief towns of each departmental division and the chief places in many cantons, there are resident primary inspectors charged under the orders of the academic inspector with the direction and the control of primary instruction.
The division into académies was made by Napoleon, who purposed forming as many of these districts as there were lower courts, “ courts of appeal." The articulation of departments and minor divisions and the graded series of officials are also derived from the Imperial Uni. versity.
THE COUNCILS. The councils belonging to the central administration.—The minister is assisted by an advisory council (comité consultatif) formed by his own appointment from the company of general inspectors, honorary or acting, and from the highest officials pertaining to the three scholastic orders. This committee gives advice upon matters submitted by the minister. Traces of it appear to be found as early as 1804. Its formal constitution dates from a decree issued March 25, 1873, by Jules Simon, at that time minister of public instruction. '. It was organized in its present form by decree of May 11, 1880.
The Superior Council of Public Instruction is the great deliberative head of the educational organization. It is composed of sixty members, three-fourths of whom are chosen by their peers from the three orders of instruction, the remaining number being appointed by the Presi. dent of the Republic upon the advice of the minister. The terın of serv. ice is four years, with opportunity for reëlection. The council is emi. nently a representative body, even women who are inspectresses of infant schools or directresses of normal schools being eligible to membership.
Vine of the members appointed by the President and six elected members constitute a permanent section, which meets every week; the en. tire council holds two annual sessions, one in July, the other in December.
The permanent section deliberates upon matters which are to be sub. mitted to the general council, and offers its advice upon the same. These matters relate to programmes and regulations for all classes of schools, the creation of university courses or facultés, of lycées, and of . normal schools, the multiplication of chairs, text-books, and, in short, to all questions pertaining to studies, administration, discipline, and standards, which may be submitted by the minister. These questions are eventually deliberated in the general council, which prescribes the course of instruction in all public schools and determines the conditions under which prirate schools may be opened.
The council is also a final court of appeal from judgments rendered by the academic or departmental councils in certain cases of discipline or contention. The minister presides over the deliberations of the council.
This body resembles the council of the Imperial University. It is a survival, preserved under various forms since the fall of Napoleon. Its spirit has, however, been completely changed by its transformation into an elective body. Created as an instrument of arbitrary power, the council has become a safeguard against it.
Academic and departmental councils.-In each académie there is a council presided over by the rector and composed of members chosen for the most part by their peers, and representing the two higher or. ders of instruction, to whose interests the deliberations of the council are confined.
Finally, in each department there is a council of primary instruction composed of members of the superior council and primary school directors, under the presidency of the prefect, which deliberates, advises, and renders judginent in certain matters pertaining to primary schools.'
The adininistrative and supervisory service of the system, it is seen, emanates from the State, there being no independent local responsibility and supervision such as we are familiar with in this country.
The councils are indeed representative bodies, but not representative of the people; while the election of teachers and professors by their peers to serve in these assemblies is a great advance over Napoleon's policy of arbitrary appointments, it is widely removed from the policy of local initiative and local control which is more or less active in the school systems of all Anglo-Saxon peoples.
TENDENCIES OF CENTRALIZATION. The tendency of this centralized system is toward uniformity in the constitution and operations of establishments belonging to the same scholastic department. This uniformity is absolute in respect to those
For full accounts of the service of administration as related to primary justinction, its origin, and historical development, see L'inspection à 868 différents degrés, by Bortrand and Boniface (Monographies pédagogiques, Tome I).
parts of the service of which the State assumes the entire control, as the maintenance of the teaching force, the composition of coursos of study, etc. With respect to other features, although the regulations are the same for all similar institutions, their application is constantly modified by local conditions and by ineradicable tendencies which mani. fest themselves particularly in the development of institutions of the bighest order. For this reason it is only the operations of the primary department of the system that can be fairly exhibited in a view which is necessarily limited to general provisions.
ORIGIN OF THE SCHOLASTIC INSTITUTIONS OF FRANCE,
Two distinct systems of institutions, distinct as regards their origin, scholastic attributes, and present relations to the state, are comprised within the department of public instruction : (1) Primary schools, which belong to the modern era and which are largely the work of the present Republic, bearing no resemblance to and being in no sense a development from the parochial schools existing before the revolution of 1789; and (2) secondary and superior institutions, whose history can be traced to the Middle Ages.
In 1833 a law, known as Guizot's law, imposed upon the communes the obligation of establishing primary schools. The general execution of this law was hindered by the lack of schoolhouses, the apathy of the people, and the absence of effective supervision. Some progress, how. ever, was made until the work was interrupted by the revolution of 1848. Between that time and the establishment of the present government (1870) efforts were made to revive the policy, but with few practical results. Before undertaking to enforce the law in this respect the present Republic made the necessary provision for schoolhouses. A law of June 1, 1878, created a fund of $23,000,000 for this purpose, and the work of building began in earnest. This, with an effective supervision, has proved sufficient to secure the enforcement of the law obliging com. munes to establish schools. In 1886–87, 35,980 communes had performed this duty, 67 had only private schools, and 87 were without schools. By the law of June 16, 1881, instruction in public primary schools was made gratuitous, and by another law of the same date primary teachers were required to be provided with state diplomas (brerets de capacité). This did away with the letters of authorization from ecclesiastics, and began in earnest the effort to make the schools thoroughly national in spirit and in purpose. A law of March 28, 1882, made attendance upon public primary schools compulsory for all children not otherwise instructed and confined the instruction to secular branches. The organization was completed by the law of October 30, 1886, which prescribed minutely all the details of the service of inspec. tion, of teaching, attendance, etc. The most important provision of this law, so far as immediate effects are concerned, was that requiring teachers to belong to the laity. Five years were allowed for the full
accomplishment of this purpose in schools for boys, no limit being specified as to schools for girls.
The principles involved in this system, i. e., compulsion, gratuitous and secular instruction, and a teaching service owing sole allegiance to the state, must be tested by its operations, which are considered in de. tail in the following pages:
Public secondary schools are of two kinds classical schools (lycées) established by the state, and communal schools (colléges communaux) established by the communes assisted by the State..
These schools have replaced the old ecclesiastical and university col. leges existing before the revolution of 1789. They preserve now very nearly the organization given to them by Napoleon.
The state maintains for superior instruction facultés comprising groups of professional men for the service of liberal and professional education. These groups have replaced the ancient universities.
The general operations of this complex system for 1887-88 are indi. cated by the following statistics :
TABLE I.-Statistical summary of the educational system of France, 1887–88.
Primary schools (public and
to 6). Elementary primary 12, 702, 511 2,725, 383 03, 152 73, 663
schools (ages 6 to 13). Superior primary
schools (ages 12 to -).
lic and private). Secondary schools:
Public (ages 8 to 20). 87, 979 1 0, 103 29.06. 963 10, 106, 413 ........ 10, 228, 995
Private ages 8 to 20)... 70,259 .......... 8, 173
1,880, 095 Secondary(ages 18 to 24) For service of special 173 .......... 27
32,914 61, 222 secondars ibors). For service of special . 70
54, 483 34,574
54, 335 Secondary (girls). Superior (ages 18 to 21 ;
104, 115 24 to 27). University courses : Public 17, 630
d2, 927, 840 Private ..
202 Cost of academic adminis.
2100, 241 tration.
a Includes 1,585 directors and assistants of superior primary schools tabalated with elementary primars teachers, and 1,691 special teachers pot so tabulated.
b Does not include private primary schools.
ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE.
The number of pupils enrolled in the primary schools, as shown in the foregoing table, is equivalent to 16 per cent. of the total population. Of the total enrollment 75 per cent. were between the obligatory ages,
i. e., six to thirteen. They represented 93 per cent. of the population between those ages. These figures are, however, misleading, since the enrollment includes all names found upon the school registers, not ex. cluding duplicates.
For the purpose of estimating more exactly, the ratio of the attend. ance of pupils in the public primary schools to the enrollment in those schools a special enumeration was made of all the pupils present De. cember 4, 1886, the season of largest attendance upon the schools, and the 4th of June, 1887, the season when attendance falls to the minimum. The number present at the former date was 3,508,409, being 91 per cent. of the number borne on the registers for that month, and 79 per cent. of the total enrollment for the year. The number present at the later enumeration (June 4, 1887), was 3,216,739, or 88 per cent. of the number borne on the registers for the month of June, and 72 per cent. of the annual enrollment."
Comparison with 1881-82.–From a comparison of the statistics of 1881–82 with those of 1886–87, it appears that the population of school age in France (six to thirteen) increased during the five years by 3.1 per cent., while the number of children between those ages enrolled in the schools increased by 6.5 per cent.
During the same time, the enrolment of children under 6 years of age increased by 2.1 per cent., while the enrolment of children above 13 years of age diminished by 4.7 per cent.
The number of boys in secondary instruction averages one for every 239 inhabitants, or if we include the students of primary and secondary normal schools for men, 1 for every 231 inhabitants. In the absence of statistics respecting private secondary establishments for girls, comparison here is not possible.
The attendance upon university courses and the superior normal school averages 1 student for every 2,104 inhabitants.
The income of the state system is derived from state and local appro. priations, tuition fees, the property of institutions, gifts, and legacies.
Local appropriations are communal or departmental.
The state appropriates annually a sufficient sum to meet the current expenditures of the system; the amounts derived for that purpose from the departments and the communes, and the receipts from fees either for tuition or board, are placed to the credit of the state.
The tax levied upon the communes for the current expenditure of primary education was fixed by the law of July 14, 1889, at 8.12 per
Foreign critics of French primary schools express surprise at the high percentages of attendance, especially in Paris; see in this connection a report by Sir B. Sangelson, M. P., published as a Parliamentary paper.