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cent. of the revenue from the four direct taxes levied by the state for general purposes.
Primary schools. The expenditures for primary schools are divided into three classes, obligatory, optional, and divers. The obligatory expenditures are current and extraordinary. The latter are for the put. chase of sites and the construction of buildings. The following table shows the amount of the current expenditures in 1886–87, with the proportional part borne by each contributing source.
TABLE II.-Current expenditures for public primary schools, 1886–87.
Percent Cente. Communes..... $6, 133, 613 $1, 875, 079 18,008, 692 30.08 ....... $6, 103,525 $14,112, 217 40.6 Departments... 2,556, 885 7 172 , 557, 6029, 38
96), 5.2 3,519, 124 10.5 State...........
. 15, 984, 812 67,098 16, 051, 910 60.34 ...... 896, 851 16,948, 761 48.9 Totals.... 24.675, 310, 1, 942, 894 26,618, 204 ........ 707, 961, 898 34, 580, 102 ........ 90
The obligatory expenditure, column 2 of the above table, includes the costs of administration and of the primary normal schools; omit. ting these, the amount would be $22,366,280, which was furnished as follows:
Per cent Communes...... Departments..
The marked diminution in the proportional part borne by the departments is due to the fact that by far the largest share of the expense for normal schools falls upon them.
The largest item in this expenditure was teachers' salaries, which amounted to 93 per cent. of the total obligatory expenditure and to 60 per cent, of the grand total.
Divers expenditnres, column 7, include the costs of adult courses, funds for aiding teachers, scholarships for worthy pupils, library funds, etc.
Comparisons with 1881-82.-As compared with 1881-82 the statistics show an increase of 16 per cent. in the ordinary obligatory expenditures on account of the public primary schools, and of 30 per cent. in the grand total of expenditure.
Comparisons based upon the total expenditures at the two dates are misleading, as prior to 1887 no account was kept of the funds contributed by the communes for divers expenses. Omitting this element alto. gether, the part borne by each contributing source at the two dates,
will be seen from the following table. The significant fact brought out by this comparison is the relative increase of local effort.
Extraordinary expenditures. The current expenditure does not represent the whole effort put forth by the state for the maintenance of primary education.
The extraordinary expenditures which pertain to the construction and repair of schoolhouses and the supply of school material have yet to be considered.
The law imposes upon the communes the duty of providing and main. taining suitable school buildings and premises. Communes having no funds available for the purpose must secure a loan from the state. !
Under the law of June 20, 1885, this advance takes the form of an an. Dual sum equal to one-fourth of the principal and interest of the sum borrowed by the commune. The advances are repayable in 30 years at the least, and in 40 years at the most.
The entire expenditure for the construction of school-houses from 1878 to December 31, 1887, was $101,824,185. Of this sum 86,63 per cent. was paid prior to 1885; 13.37 per cent. from 1885 to 1887, inclusive. The sum was derived as follows:
Per cent. Communes
... 58.47 Departments ....
Secondary schools. The material in hand does not permit a detailed view of the expenditures for secondary schools.
The total receipts for the public secondary schools, i. e., for boys and girls, amounted in 1887 to $10,406,443, of which about 30 per cent. was derived from public funds. The sources of income for the different classes of institutions differ so widely, that a general summary of finances is misleading. The following analysis shows the compositiou and distribution of the annual income of every class of secondary schools:
Sources of income.
Per cent. Per cent.
Superior instruction. The income of facultés and superior schools ainounted in 1887–88 to nearly $3,000,000, derived as follows: From state appropriations ......
......... 96 Municipalities ................................................................ Covered by fees...
It should also be observed that since 1977 above $23,000,000 have been expended in buildings and equipments, of which the state bore 56 per cent., and the cities which are the seats of the facultés the balance.
The entire public expenditure for education in 1887 was about $10,000,000, of which 86 per cent. was for primary instruction. QUALIFICATIONS, APPOINTMENTS, AND DISCIPLINE OF TEACHERS OF
PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS. The teaching service of primary instruction is regulated in the main by the laws of October 30, 1886, and of July 19, 1889.
The qualifications for the service, as determined by the former law, are as follows:
Nationality and age.—Teachers must be French citizens; if men, must be at least eighteen years of age, and if women, at least seventeen. A director of a school must be at least twenty-one years of age. No one under twenty-five years of age can be a director of a superior primary school or of a school which has a boarding department. Directors and directresses of normal schools must be at least thirty years of age.
Attainments, character, etc.-In accordance with the law of June 16, 1881, teachers must be provided with state diplomas (brevets de capacité). There are two grades of diplomas for teachers of elementary primary schools (brevet élémentaire and brevet supérieur). Candidates are examined by boards (commissions d'cxamen) which are composed of members appointed by the academic rectors. No one can be examined for the higher diploma who has not secured the lower. There are also diplo. mas (brevets de capacité) for teachers of superior primary schools, nor. mal schools, and for teachers of special branches in these.
No one who has been condemned in the courts for crime or immorality is eligible to the service.
By the law of October 30, 1886, all administrative functions and all commercial and industrial pursuits are forbidden to public school teachers, and they must be drawn exclusively from the laity. Time was allowed for carrying out this last provision, and also for eliminating teachers not provided with diplomas.
The situation with respect to these reguirements in the public schools in 1881-82, and again in 1886–87, was as follows:
Appointment and discipline of primary teachers.- Teachers of primary schools are full (titulaires), or probationers (stagiaires), the latter forming abont 20 per cent. of the effective force. The titulaires are ap. pointed by the prefects. Great dissatisfaction has been manifested with this provision; and as a consequence the power of the prefects was modified by the law of October 30, 1886, which required them to select teachers from lists of candidates prepared by the departmental councils; the stagiaires receive their appointments from the academic inspector.
The penalties to which teachers are subject are reprimand, censure, reduction in position, suspension, removal, and absolute dismissal from the service. These penalties are inflicted by the academic inspector or by the prefect, the teacher having the right of appeal to the minister or to the supreme council.
Salaries.-The law of July 19, 1889, regulating the salaries of teachers abrogates the law passed just forty years previous. Under the present law the state becomes responsible for all salaries, and the rates of compensation have been somewhat increased. Principal teachers are divided into three groups, viz, elementary, superior primary, and normal; each group is divided into five classes, with annual salaries fixed as
An additional sum of $40 is allowed principals in charge of a school of three or four classes, and of $50 for a school of more than four classes.
Promotion from one grade of salary to the next may be made with. out a change of place; it depends upon the length and efficiency of service and can only take place when there is a vacancy. Moreover, teachers of the fifth and fourth classes can not be promoted to a superior class until after five years' service in the inferior position; no teacher is eligible to the second or first class who is not provided with the highest certificate (brevet supérieur) and who has not served at least three years in the class preceding. It is, however, expressly provided that so far as length of service affects promotion, teachers having served ten years may be placed in the fifth class; fifteen years, in the fourth class; twenty years, in the third; and twenty-five years, in the second.
Assistant teachers in primary schools are paid $160. Assistant teachers in superior primary schools, from $220 to $420.
In addition to his salary, every teacher must be provided with a resi
dence or with a money equivalent for the same. The law imposes this
1,000 to 3,000....
120 60,001 to 100,000........ 100,001 and above
160 In the city of Paris.
400 The indemnity for residences allowed all other regular teachers is one-half the above sums, and for probationers one-fourth.
Communes of less than 1,000 inhabitants, which are the chief places of their respective cantons, pay the same indemnity as those of 1,000.
Pensions, etc.-The law of June 9, 1853, extending the civil pension list to include teachers, still remains in force;. teachers who are pledged to give ten years' service in the public schools are relieved from military service in time of peace.
PROVISION FOR TRAINING.
Provision for the training of teachers is a prominent feature of the French system of education.
For the service of primary instruction the state maintains two supe. rior uorinal schools, one at St. Cloud, designed to prepare professors for the primary normal schools for men, and a corresponding school for women at Fontenay-aux-Roses; also the normal school Pape-Carpantier at Versailles for the training of directresses of infant schools.
Moreover every departinent is obliged by law to maintain at least two normal schools, one for the training of masters and the other for mistresses of primary schools. With a single exception, every department bas established one or more normal schools for masters; the total number in 1887-88 being 90, with an enrollment of 5,143 pupils, and 1,709 graduates at the close of the year. The normal schools for mistresses number 81, with 3,544 students in 1887–88 and 1,118 graduates.
PROFESSORS OF SECONDARY AND SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION.
Qualifications and appointment. The professors of secondary and of superior instruction belong alike to the professional corps of the uni. versité, differing from each other for the time being by virtue of the rank which they have achieved.
Their classification and designation illustrate the precision of the official grading and at the same time suggest successive steps in the