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historic development of the service. Two titles, professor and agrégé, are commoz to secondary and superior institutions. Agrégés, as the word indicates, have been added to the professional body as originally instituted, for reasons that will appear hereafter. While bearing the same titles, professors and agrégés of secondary instruction do not rank as high in the université as the corresponding members of the facultés either in respect to salaries or to scholastic recognition.
Professors of the lycées are full (i. e., titulaires) or divisional, the latter being in charge of a division of a class.
A professor must have a university degree; for the lycées, at least the bachelor's degree. A professor in a faculté must have the doctor's degree of that order. The title agrégé does not, like a degree, indicate the completion of a course of study, but the mastery of a particular branch; thus there are agrégés in philosophy, history, mathematics, literature, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology.
Candidates for the agrégation must have the doctor's degree, and must pass a competitive examination, the nature of which is determined by the class of agrégation to which they aspire. The agrégés rank im. mediately after the full professors; they may assist in examinations conducted by the professors and may replace them in their absence. No person is eligible to this position unless he is twenty-five years of age. The minister can authorize the agrégés, on recommendation of the dean of a faculté, supported by the rector of the académie, to open complementary courses; that is, private courses, additional to the regular courses in the locality of the faculté to which they belong.
The agrégés are the only class of assistants included in the facultés of law and of medicine. The facultés of science and of letters include also assistauts termed chargés de cours, and instructors who are called maîtres de conférences. The last named class of assistants was instituted by a decree of 1877. They are intended to supplement the lessons of the professors by instruction of a far more detailed and personal character, conducted by means of questions and explanations after the manner of recitations in American colleges.
These instructors are appointed by the minister for one year, but their appointments can be indefinitely renewed. In addition to pro. fessors and agrégés the teaching force of the lycées includes assistants assigned to special duties and tutors called maîtres répétiteurs.
Professors of lycées are appointed by the Minister of Public Instruction. Maîtres répétiteurs of the lycées and certain professors in the communal secondary schools are appointed by the minister upon the recommendation of academic rectors.
Full professors of the facultés are appointed by the President of the Republic upon the proposition of the minister of public instruction, who makes his choice from two lists, one presented by the council of the faculté in which the vacancy occurs, and the other by the permaHent section of the superior council.
Salaries--secondary instruction.-In respect to the salaries of profes. sors and officers of the lycées, special provisions have been made for Paris and Lyons. In the former, the principals (proviseurs) receive $1,800; in the latter, and throughout the departments, with these exceptions, the salaries are as follows:
In the lycée of Versailles, and in the department of the Seine, the censeurs, i. e., officers charged with the general conduct of studies and discipline, receive a salary of $1,600. In the remaining lycées their salaries are as follows:
The salaries of chaplains are also greater at Versailles and in the department of the Seine than elsewhere; in the two former they range from $700 to $900 for head chaplains, and from $520 to $680 for subordinate chaplains. In the remaining lycées they range from $400 to $520. The fixed salaries of stewards range from $800 to $1,600.
The salaries of the members of the teaching corps are as follows:
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Salaries of professors of superior instruction. The full professors of the Paris facultés are divided into two classes, the first receiving a salary of $3,000 and the second $2,400.
In the faculté of protestant theology the professors of the first class receive a salary of $1,600, and those of the second $1,300.
In the superior school of pharmacy the professors of the first class receive $2,200, and those of the second class $1,800.
The professors of facultés of the departments receive annual salaries as follows:
The deans receive extra compensation, amounting to $600 in Paris, and $200 elsewhere.
COURSES OF STUDY. Primary schools—The course of study for primary schools prescribed by the law of March 28, 1882, comprises the following branches: Moral and civic instruction, reading, writing, the elements of arithmetic and the metric system, history and geography, especially of France; object lessons, and the first notions of science, elements of design, of singing, manual work (needlework in the schools for girls), gymnastic exercises, and in the schools for boys military drill.
In the superior primary schools these branches of instruction are reviewed and more fully developed. The course is extended to include algebra and geometry; natural science and physics, and their applications to agriculture, to industrial arts and to hygiene; political economy, French language and literature, general history, industrial and com. mercial geography, iron and wood work for boys, and cutting and fitting for girls. One foreign language is also included. Additional courses pertaining to local industries may be authorized by the min. ister upon the demand of local committees supported by the acadewic inspector and approved by the departmental council.
Normal schools.-In the primary (i. e., departmental) normal schools, the studies of the primary course are reviewed with reference to methods of instruction, and at the same time developed to include the full scope and scholastic bearing of those subjects. Pedagogy and school administration are treated both theoretically and practically. In the division of the day, eight hours are allowed for sleep and about five for eating, recreation, toilet, etc. Of the hours reserved for scholastic duties five at least are to be devoted to the preparation of studies, exercises, and to practical work. The hours of instruction in each week do not exceed twenty-five in the schools for men and twenty-two in the schools for women. Of this time, in both normal schools for men and for women, five hours a week are given to literary instruction the first Fear, three hours the second, and two the third year. The rest of the time is devoted to the instruction in science and in design.
Instruction in the following subjects is given outside the regular class hours: in the normal schools for men, agricultural and manual work, military and gymnastic exercises, vocal and instrumental music; in the normal schools for women, needle-work, housework and gardening, gymnastics, and vocal and instrumental music. The course of study in these schools covers three years. An entrance examination is required, to which no one is admitted who has not obtained the lowest grade teacher's certificate (breret élémentaire). Upon the completion of the course, students must present themselves for the examination for the higher grade certificate (brevet supérieur).
Secondary courses. _Courses of secondary study are of three general classes. The full classical course leading to the degree of bachelor of letters or bachelor of science, received its present form from the de. crees of March 24, 1865, and January 22, 1885. The other two are the course of special secondary instruction created by the law of July 21, 1865, which leads to the diploma of bachelor of special secondary instruction, and the course of secondary instruction for girls, as constituted by the law of December 21, 1880, and subsequent modifications of the same.?
1 This statement gives the composition of secondary conrses up to August 8, 1890. On that day, a decree issued by the President of the Republic established a single bachelor's degree in place of the degrees of Bachelor of Letters, Bachelor of Sciences, and limited degree of Bachelor of Sciences. As the courses of the lycées are intended to prepare students for the examinations leading to this degree, this change will naturally cause some modification in the plan of studies.
*The prescribed studies for the two last classes of the classical course will suffice for comparison with typical courses in the United States. The following conspectus gives in an abridged form the official programme for the classes of rhetoric and phi. losophy, and for the special mathematical course which may be substituted for these classes or entere i the year preceding the stage of rhetoric.
CLASS OF RHETORIC. (AGE SIXTEEN YEARS.) French,-Four honrs a week. Eleven authors of XVII, XVIII, and XIX centuries. Fifteen lessons on the history of French literature from the time of Louis XIII.
Latin.-Four hours a week. Portions of Terence, Lucretius, Virgil, Horace, Cicero, Livy, and Tacitus.
Greek.-Four hours a week. Portions of Homer, Sophocles, Aristophanes, Plato, and Demosthenes.
German or English.-Two hours a week. Authors in English-Shakspeare, Washington Irving, Byron, Tennyson, Dickens, and George Eliot.
History.-Two hours a week. History of Europe, and particularly of France, from 1610 to 1789.
Geography.-One hour a week. Physical, political, administrative, and economic geography of France and its colonies.
Geometry and Cosmography.-Two hours a week. Solid geometry finished-through the sphere. The celestial sphere. Earth, sun, time, moon, eclipses, planets, stars, universal gravitation, tides.
Chemstry.-Two hours a week first half year. Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, sulphur, phosphorus, carbon, silicon, and their most important combinations, General notions of the metals, oxides, and salts. Principal organic compounds. Nomenclature and notation. Drawing.–The human head from nature. Landscape from prints and patnre.
CLASS OF PHILOSOPHY. (AGE SEVENTEEN YEARS.) Psychology, Logic, Ethics, and Metaphysics.-Nine honrs a week, of wbich eight bours are for the general course aol two French authors, and one hour for one Latin
The full classical course covers seven years, following an elementary course of three years, in which the studies are substantially those of the primary schools, with the addition of Latin and the exclusion of manual training,
The special secondary course, which is intended for students who contemplate a commercial or industrial career, covers six years. This course affords also the means of coördination between primary and secondary instruction, pupils from the elementary primary schools being admitted
and one Greek author. The two French anthors are chosen each year from a list containing works of Descartes, Malebranche, Pascal, Leibnitz, Condillac, and Cou. sin. The courge includes an account of sensibility, intelligence, and volition, of formal and applied logic, of conscience and duty, of family and country, of political duties, of labor, capital, and property, of immortality and natural religion. History.-Two hours a week. Contemporary history, 1789 to 1875.
Arithmetic, Algebra, and Geometry.--Four hours a week, Review of the whole course in these subjects.
Physics.-Two hours a week. Optics. Applications of physics: Stoam-engines, magneto-electric machines, electro-plating, telephone.
Physiology, Animal and Vegetable.-Two hours a week. Nutrition, organs of sense, voice, apparatus for movement, nerves. Vegetable nutrition and reproduction.
Drawing.-Two hours a week. Same as in the preceding year,
SPECIAL MATHEMATICAL COURSE. PREPARATORY CLASS OF MATHEMATICS. (AGE, FIFTEEN OR SIXTEEN.) Yathematics-Ten hours a week. Arithmetic through proportion. Algebra through equations of the second degree. Geometry: Plaue and solid. Cosmography: Samo as clasy of rhetoric.
Natural History.-One hour a week. Zoölogy: Man, vertebrates, articulates, mollusks. Botany: Analysis and classification of plants, divisions of the vegetable kingdom by typical specimens. Geology: The principal rocks, changes of the earth's crust, geologic periods. Physiology: Animal and vegetable, as in the class of philosophy.
Language.-Seven hours. Review of previous work in French, Latin, German, or English.
History and Geography.-Four hours. Review of work of class of rhetoric and preceding class.
Drawing and Design.-Four hours.
CLASS OF ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS. (AGES SIXTEEN OR SEVENTEEN YEARS.) Mathematics.-Ten hours a week. Arithmetic: review of previous work with more varied applications. Algebra: equations of the second degree, properties of trinomials of the second degree, maxinna and minima, theory and applications of logarithms. Solid geometry. Conic sections and the helix. Descriptive geometry. Plane trigonometry. Cosmograpby: review of course of class of rhetoric, with extension.
Science.-Six hours a week. Mechanics, physics, chemistry,
Languages.-Seven hours a week, viz: French, three; Latin, two; English or Ger. man, two. French: Grammar and composition. Authors: Bossuet, Voltaire, Boi. Jean, La Fontaine, classical plays. Latin: Corsair's Gallic War; Cicero, three orations; Virgil, Eclogues, and three books of the Eneid; Horace's Satires. German: Selections, prose and verse; Lessiog's Laocoon; Schiller, two dramas; Thirty Years' War; Goethe,
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