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to it if they are prepared in everything but the living languages. Their deficiency in this respect is made up in special classes.

The course of secondary instruction for girls covers five years. Students who complete three years of the course and pass the required ex. amination receive a partial diploma, and those who go through the whole course are candidates for the full diploma.

The composition of these several courses and the distribution of the entire time among the different subjects are as follows:

Full classical course-Seven years (ages 11 to 18).

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Students who desire, may substitute for the last two or three years of the classical course the special mathematical course, which leads to the degree of Bachelor of Science. In these classes, 36 per cent. of the time is given to mathematics, and 16 per cent. to the sciences.

Courses of special secondary instruction-seven years (ages 12 to 18).

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Iphigénie; Hermann et Dorothée. English: Macaulay, essays; Sheridan, The School for Scandal; Sheakespeare, three plays; Milton, Paradise Lost, two books.

History and Geography.-- Three hours a week. Same as course of classes of rhetoric and philosophy.

Drawing and Design.-Four hours a week,
Gymnastics.-Two hours a week.

Following the class of elementary mathematics is the class of special mathematics. The course for this class, which is too elaborate to be reproduced here, is determined by the admission requirements of the Polytechnic School and the Superior Normal School. With the exception of a brief review of the previous work in literature, with extension of the course in English or German, the time is entirely devoted to mathematics, mechanics, physics, and chemistry.

Students who complete the first two years of the special course of mathematics are candidates for the diploma of bachelor of science; but if they have this end in view they must add to the subjects specified the assigned work in philosophy. This includes elements of logic and ethics, and occupies one hour a week.

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Courses of superior instruction.—The composition of the courses of superior instruction is determined by the purposes to which they are directed; they are either general, that is for liberal culture; or special, that is designed to prepare students for law, medicine, engineering, professorships, etc.

Side by side with the traditional university studies, these courses show large and constantly increasing development in pure and applied science, in philosophy, and in political and social science. This increase has been promoted by the creation of complementary courses and conférences, to which reference has already been made. The former, as the word indicates, provide for subjects not included in the titulary chairs. Thus, as M. Liard explains, “in a faculté where there is only one chair of philosophy, a course of the history of philosophy would be complementary.” They afford opportunity for students to extend their researches in particular lines under the guidance of specialists, while the conférences serve to reiterate and enforce the subject matter of the regular courses.


Classification and description of primary schools.--The department of primary instruction, as organized by the law of October 30, 1886, comprises infant schools and classes, elementary primary schools, superior primary schools, and schools of manual apprenticeship. The line of separation between these different classes of schools and the division among them of the prescribed subjects of primary instruction are determined by special regulations elaborated in the superior council of public instruction. All of these schools are free and secular, and the teachers must in all cases be appointed from the laity. The law with respect to compulsory attendance applies only to the elementary primary schools.

1. Infant schools (écoles maternelles) and infant classes : In the infant schools, children of both sexes from two to six years of age receive together physical, moral, and intellectual training adapted to their tender years. These schools are wholly in the charge of women; the teaching force includes a directress, and an assistant if the number of children is more than fifty. The teachers are always aided by a sewing woman.

In every commune where a public maternal school exists, one or more committees of women are formed to keep watch over its sanitary and hygienic conditions, the general appearance of the establishment, and the disposition of funds or gifts, legacies, etc., received for the benebt of the children. The mayor presides over these committees.

Communes are not obliged by law to found and maintain maternal schools, and it is only in communes having above 2,000 inbabitants, of which at least 1,200 are concentrated in one locality, that these schools are included in the number of public primary schools entitled to support by the commune and to State subventions. These schools are better adapted to cities than to rural districts. A little more than 10 per cent. of the communes report at least one infant school.

Iniant classes are under similar regulations; they are but annexes either to primary elementary or to infant schools, between which they form an intermediate degree. The usual age of attendance is four to seven years.

2. The elementary primary schools are for the instruction of children from six to thirteen years of age, that is, the obligatory school period. In communes having neither infant schools nor infant classes, the age for admission to the elementary primary schools is lowered to five years; it is raised to seven where there is an infant class. Children above thirteen years of age can not be admitted to the elementary primaries with. out special permission.

The elementary primary schools may be for boys only, in which case the instruction is given by men; for girls only or mixed as to sex, in both of which cases the instruction is given by women.

The master of a boys' school may be assisted by his wife, sister, or mother; under certaiu circumstances the departmental council may authorize a man to take charge of a mixed school, provided it has a mistress of sewing and cutting.

Every commune must be provided with at least one public primary school. The departmental council, however, with the consent of the minister may authorize two or more communes to unite for the maintenance of a school. When a commune or a number of united com. munes have 591) inhabitants or more, they must provide a special school for girls, or in its place a mixed school, if the departmental council is agreed. The distribution of pupils among separate and mixed schools in 1887 was as follows:

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According to the law of March 20, 1883, a commune is bound to provide a school not only in each chief town, but also in all villages or cen

ters of population remote from towns or separated from each other by three kilometres and containing at least twenty children of school age. Of the 36,121 communes only 80, or 0.2 per cent., were withoat primary schools in 1886-87.

3. Saperior primary instruction is given either in superior primary schools or in " complementary courses.” The establishinent takes the latter name if it is annexed to an elementary primary school, and the former if it has a distinct location and is under a separate diroction.

The complementary courses comprise one or two years. The superior primary schools may comprise two or more years, and must be provided withi as many rooms as there are classes. They are called full.course schools (écoles de plein exercice) when they comprise at least three years' study.

As regards the character of the studies pursued, these schools belong to one of two classes, according as they have or have not provision for industrial or technical training.

Schools of the former class admit pupils who are provided with the certificate of primary studies. The latter are called professional schools. No pupils under 12 years of age are admitted to these, and applicants not provided with the certificate of primary studies must pass an entrance examination. In these schools, the greater part of the time is devoted to manual work and to scientific and techuological instruction with their commercial and industrial applications. They are under the double authority of the minister of public instruction and the minister of commerce. Instruction is gratuitous in the superior primary schools; bursaries, or scholarships, are maintained in them by the State, by the departments, and by the communes respectively.

4. The schools of manual apprenticeship are designed to develop in young people who are destined for manual pursuits the necessary skill and technical knowledge. They differ from the professional schools described in the foregoing paragraph in this respect, that the technical training is directed to special industries forming a veritable apprenticeship, whereas in the former, the training is directed to the development of a taste for manual work, accuracy of the eye, manual dexterity, and practical ideas of divers orders, forming altogether a suitable preparation for apprenticeship to some particular art.

The schools of manual apprenticeship are also under the double authority of the minister of public instruction and the ininister of cominerce.

The schools of these several classes inay be either public or private. The following table shows the distribution of teachers and pupils in the different grades of schools, both public and private, in 1886-87.

TABLE III.-Primary instruction, 1886–87.


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a Directors and assistants of superior primary schools tabulated with elementary primary teachers. Special teachers not included in the tabulation for elementary primary.

Per cent. Ratio of total enrollment to total population ...................................................... 16 Ratio of enrollment (6 to 13) to total enrollment .........

............................... 75 Ratio of enrollment (6 to 13) to population (6 to 13) .................................

The superior primary schools specified in the foregoing table do not include either the technical (i. e., professional) or manual training schools, but simply those superior primary schools which are under the sole charge of the min ister of public instruction. Manual training, it should be obser ved, however, is a feature of these schools also. In 1887 they numbered, including complementary courses, 559, of which 419 were for boys, and 140 for girls. Of the total number, 539 were public schools. These enrolled 80 per cent. of the 38,441 pupils registered in this class of schools. A large proportion of the students who pass through these schools enter at once upon some business career; many continue their studies in the government technical schools.

The destinations of 10,730 young men who passed out of these schools in 1887 were found to be as follows:

Per cent. Entered higher schools Entered government service........ Entered commercial pursuits Entered agricultural pursuits... Entered industrial pursuits.... Entered army................. Entered divers clerical pursuits... Entered the teaching profession ...

1.5 Unknown.

Total ....

16.6 5.4



100. V

* Three national professional schools have been established, at Voiron, at Vierzon, and at Armentières, respectively. Manual training schools have not as yet assumed a distinct character.

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