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There are also secondary normal schools established at the lycées of the chief towns of eac! academy, where the assistant teachers are gathered together for special instruction in the courses and to facilitate their promotion to professorships.
The following tabulation shows the status of the lycées and communal colleges for 1837, the latest year iucluded in the official report of the minister of public instruction :
Churchi. INSTITUTIONS FOR SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION. The institutions for superior instruction belonging to the State are facultés, and professional and special schools.
The facultés comprise groups of professional men assigned to each academic district for the service of liberal and professional education. These groups are of five orders: Protestant theology, law, medicine, letters, and sciences. Paris alone has all live of the facultés. Montpellier, Nancy, Lyons, and Lille have all save Protestant theology. In two academic districts the different facultés are not located in the same city. The facultés retain in many respects the characteristics impressed upon them by Napoleon, who constituted them professional bodies within the University, to maintaiu lectures, and to examine for and couler degrecs.
The present Gorernment has greatly extended the teaching functions of the facultés, and has taken the first steps toward giving them the attributes and powers of corporate bodies.
The necessity of providing for practical courses of instruction was felt in respect to the facultés of medicine at an early period in their higtory, and led in 1854 to the creation of professional schools, which are found in several of the academic districts. These schools are of two classes-preparatory and full course (écoles de plein exercice). Similar schools have also been provided for sciences and letters. These schools with the conférences and complementary courses supply the essential conditions of effective instruction. The development in this respect is shown by the fact that since 1877, conférences to the number of 129 and complementary courses to the number of 200 have bron created, and 201 new professorships established. Meanwhile, students have been allured by the special inducement of scholarships (i. e., bourses), of which five hundred have been provided.
The extension of the teaching functions has been further stimulated by the vast increase of material equipments, buildings, laboratories, etc.
The results of these efforts are shown, says the minister in his official report, by the fact that of the 17,630 students upon the register of the facultés in 1887–88, 3,693 were veritable students in the facultés of letters and of science; whereas in 1875, if any were entered for those courses, they did not really pursue their studies in the facultés, but merely registered themselves," an essential prerequisite to the rights of the degree examinations.
The separate facultés have always had an official organization. The head of each group is the dean (doyen). An assistant is appointed, who inay act for the dean if necessary, and a secretary for the service of the body. Until a very recent date, however, the different facultés of a district (académie) were separate from each other, and after 1875 were want. ing in all the attributes of autonomy. Civil personality was secured to them by a decree of July 25, 1885, which empowered them to receive, hold, and administer property; a right conferred upon them in 1801, but suspended in 1875. A decree of December 28, 1883, carried the work of organization still further. This decree constituted in each academic district a council general of all the facultés of the district for the consideration of matters of common interest. The president of this council is the academic rector; the remaining members are the deans of the facultés, the directors of superior schools of pharmacy in districts where such schools have been formed, the director of a full coarse or of a proparatory school of pharmacy or of medicine, two delegates from each faculté elected for three years by the assembly of the facultés from the full professors, and a delegate from each full course or preparatory school elected in the same manner.
The deads and directors of schools are charged, under the authority of the rectors, with the execution of the decisions of the council. Any decision of the council contrary to laws and rules is referred immediately by the rector to the minister of public instruction ; pending his decision it is imperative. By the same decree there was constituted also in each faculté a council and an assembly. The former, which is composed of full professors, deliberates upon the financial affairs of the faculté ; the latter, composed of all full professors and assistants hav. ing a doctor's degree, deliberates upon scholastic matters. Through the councils the facultés manage their own budgets, make up the lists from which their deans are selected, and give effective expression to their opinions on all matters relating to the creation of chairs, the development of programmes, and the discipline of students.?
The general courses of the facultés and schools are as a rule public and are open to both sexes. Certain courses are, however, reserved for students properly so called. These only are admitted to the conférences, where they are questioned upon the matter of the lesson, and to laboratory and other practical exercises. The attendants upon the courses of the professors are therefore of two classes, hearers and students. All aspirants for degrees belong to the latter course. The baccalaureate of letters or of science, being an essential prerequisite for all other degrees, marks the end of secondary and the beginning of superior instruction.
To become a student in a faculté, it is necessary to inscribe one's name upon the register, pay certain fees, and sustain certain examinations. The inscription is renewed quarterly, the total number of renewals depending upon the length of the course. A fee is paid at each renewal. The several fees which students must pay are inscription fees (droits d'in. scription); fees forthe use of libraries (droits de bibliothèques); laboratory fees (droits de travaux pratiques), which are charged only in the facultés and schools of modicine and pharmacy; examination fees (droits d'examen). The amount of the several fees, library and inscription (i. e., tuition) fees excepted, varies in different courses. The former is 10 francs ($2) per annum; the latter 30 francs per trimester.
Three degrees, viz, bachelor, licencié, and doctor, are conferred in every faculté save that of medicine. These degrees form an ascending series, which must be obtained in regular order. The faculté of medi. cine confers only the doctor's degree, but candidates for this must not only be provided with the degree of bachelor of letters but also with that of bachelor of science. The facultés of law confer also a diploma (certificat de capacité), which does not require previons classical study and admits one to practice as an attorney avoué).
The present number of facultés, including 3 in Algiers, is 59; of su. perior schools of pharmacy, 3; of schools of medicine and pharmacy, full course, 3; of preparatory schools of medicine and pharmacy, 14; of preparatory schools of science and letters, 3.
A detailed view of the operations of these institutions in 1887-88 is shown in Table V.
See with respect to the development of the French facultés and their transformation into corporate autonomic institutions, Universités et facultés, by Louis Liard, Chapters IX-XII.
TABLE V.-Statistics of French facultés, 1872_88-Coatinued.
TOTALS FOR ACADEMIC DISTRICTS.
a The sources of income are state and local appropriation and small permbanent fand.
Three years' course ; letters and science.
TABLE VI.-Degrees conferred by French facultés. 1527-88.
It will be seen by an examination of the table that the Paris facultés comprised more than half the whole number of students, i. e., 9.140. All the facultis are represented in that group; and the fame of the lecturers, the annual concourse of students from all parts of France eager to receire their diplomas from the minister, the presence of many foreign students, the traditions of the past, and the stimulating influence of the capital hare maintained among the Paris professors a sense of solid. arity. This group is still called the - [nirersity of Paris.”
The special scbools which belong to the department of the minister of public instruction bave been created at different times and by special acts. They are as follows:
The College of France, located at Paris. The resources of this celebrated institution bare been greatly increased and its courses multiplied during the time of the republic. Its teaching personnel comprises above 40 professors, men eminent in letters or science, who delirer lectures on almost erery branch of human knowledge. Courses of prae