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tical study are also maintained for students of philology and of certain branches of science.
The Museum of Natural History, a great scientific school, attached to the Jardin des Plantes. The buildings and material equipment for the work of this institution have been vastly increased since 1870, and it offers now to its numerous students, “ to the saçants of France and of foreign countries,” unsurpassed laboratory facilities for instruction and research in every department of organic and inorganic matter.
The magnificent collections of the “museum” are under the care of officials termed professeurs administrateurs whose duties are " to in. crease the collections, to undertake personal investigations, and to give a certain number of lessons in order to make their discoveries known."
The Practical School of High Studies (École pratique des hautes études) is an institution founded at Paris by M. Dumy in 1868 for the par. pose of “maintaining side by side with tbeoretic instruction the practical exercises necessary to give the former its full effect." It .was originally divided into four sections, viz, mathematics, physics and chemistry, natural history and physiology, history and philology. A section of religion was added in 1885.
The laboratories belonging to the faculties and to the various scientific establishments are assigned for the use of the students of the Ecole pratique des hautes études at the discretion of the mivister. The section of history and philology is an independent institution, located near the Sorbonne.
The Superior Normal School (École normale supérieure), situated at Paris, is designed to qualify professors for the two higher orders of in. struction, i. e., secondary and superior. It is directly under the charge of the minister, who nominates the director and professors. Admission is secured by competitire examination, which is open only to Frenchmen or naturalized foreigners. Candidates who are admitted pledge themselves to engage for ten years in the service of public instruction.
The methods of instruction in this school are eminently practical. The students do not simply listen to lectures and take notes; they are questioned and they ask questions upon the subjects of study; they discuss the corrections made in the exercises and compusitions; thes are also required to give lessons upon assigned subjects.
The library and equipment for practical work have been greatly extended in recent years, and the salaries of the professors increased.
The school draws to itself the élite of the French students, and its fame and influence are continually increased by the brilliant achievements of its graduates.
The " Ecole des chartes," at Paris, is designed to train paleographists forservice as librarians and keepers of records. The funds of the school were increased threefold in the first decade of the republic. The French School at Athens affords special students the opportunity
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of residence in Greece for the purpose of extended archæological re. search. The number of such students is limited to 6. They must be at least thirty years of age and possessed of the degree of doctor of letters, or its equivalent. They are appointed by the minister upon the results of competitive examination.
The French School of Archæology at Rome is an outcome of the school at Athens. By its provision the members. of the former may reside three months in Italy for the purpose of studying its monuments and pursuing their researches in its libraries before proceeding to Athens.
The School of Living Oriental Languages, situated at Paris, is intended to give students a practical knowledge of eastern languages, and for the publication of learned treatises. .
In addition to the facultés and the special schools several astronomic and meteorologic bureaus maintained by the state and under general direction of the minister of public instruction are included in the department of superior instruction, as are also the special normal schools, designed to prepare teachers for particular grades of instruction,
PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES (FACULTÉS LIBRES). The conflict between church and State with respect to the control of education, which has not ceased since the Rerolution of 1789, has profoundly atfected the higher institutions. At one moment a tolerant policy is adopted to be followed the next by repressive measures. The latest action of the Government with respect to private universities is the law of March 18, 1880, depriving them of representation in the degree examinations and awards. While this act does not diminish their liberty in respect to instruction, it tends to lessen their dignity and influence. The State facultés of Catholic theology having been deprived of public appropriations in 1885 this subject is now confined to private facultés in Paris, Lille, and Toulouse. The remaining private facultés and their attendance in 1887-88 were as follows:
Designation and students—1887–88.
AUXILIARY ASSOCIATIONS. The general government, which takes the initiative in all measures affecting the organization of public instruction, also establishes many special agencies for the promotion of the work.
Prominent among these is the Musée Pédagogique, created at Paris in 1879. This institution is under the charge of one of the general
inspectors of primary instruction, and of a council nominated by the minister of public instruction. It includes a museum and a library for the collection of all material which may aid the work or the researches of persons engaged in primary instruction. Its collections comprise school furniture, scientific apparatus, illustrative material, etc., historical and statistical documents, text-books, pedagogical works, and educational journals. It seeks by timely publications to make known the best methods of instruction, and the best models for the construction of school-houses, plans for class rooms, etc.
The Musée Pédagogique has become also a center of preparation for aspirants for the various examinations wbich admit to the higher grades of the teaching service. Regular conferences are held in its balls which give these aspirants the benefit of lectures and lessons conducted by specialists.
The museum is open to the general public every Thursday and Sunday from 10 to 5 o'clock. For persons having cards of admission the library and museum are open every day excepting Monday from 10 till 5 and the library from 8 to 10 in the evening.
The library includes a circulating division which is free to all persons engaged in teaching. The request for the privilege of taking books is addressed to the minister. Foreigners properly accredited can share in the privilege.
Special schools are maintained by the state for the instruction of re. cruits in the marine service. The demand for elementary instruction for this class has diminished under the decision of the minister of marine in 1883, probibiting the enlistment of illiterates.
The existing provision comprises elementary schools, training ships, and a normal course for the instructors.
The care of the state extends to illiterate criminals, for whom instruction is provided in the penitentiaries.
Many agencies auxiliary to the work of education receive their im. pulse from the general government, but depend for their development upon the action of localities. To this category belong the local funds (caisses des écoles) for the aid of indigent pupils, the purchase of prizes, etc., required by the law of March 28, 1882. In 1887 such funds were reported from 50 per cent. of the communes. The Paris fund amounted to $234,521.
School savings banks (caissos d'épargne scolaires).—The government has shown great sympathy with the efforts made by teachers to establish school savings banks. The number of these banks increases each year, and in 1887 reached a total of 22,383, with 478,173 depositors and deposits amounting to $2,534,662.
Adult classes.-Classes for the instruction of adults form an important part of the provision for popular education.
In 1886–87 sach classes were maintained in 7,443 communes, or 20 per cent. of the whole number. They were attended by 184,612 pupils, of whom 156,590 were men and 2,802 women. As compared with
1881–82 the total shows a decrease of 411,710, or very nearly 70 per cent., a change which is undoubtedly due to the increase of primary schools and the operations of the obligatory law. Since 1882 the adult classes have been distinguished as elementary and complementary; the former being for illiterate adults, the latter for the continuation of studies.
The elementary classes comprise only 30 per cent. of the adult pupils. These statistics do not include the auditors attracted to public lectures, of which no estimate can be given.
Local school attendance committec.—The law of March 28, 1882, provided for the formation of local commissions (commissions scolaires) to keep watch over the matter of school attendance and report violations of the law.
The law of October 30, 1886, re-enforced the provision, but the com. missions have so far practically failed.
Teachers' conferences.-Conferences of teachers are held in all the de. partments, and serve, like the teachers' institutes of our own country, to foster professional zeal. In addition to the local conferences there is an annual conference of teachers, held generally under the auspices of the minister of public instruction. The subjects for discussion are announced beforehand, and the papers presented and the deliberations generally are characterized by breadth of thought, lucid and logical treatment, and finished style.
Mutual aid societies, established by the voluntary action of the teachers, oxist in seventy-eight departments of France.
In 1886 an association was founded at Paris, under the patronage of the minister of public instruction, for the care of the orphans of elementary teachers. This association, known as the “Euvre de l’Orphelinat de l'Enseignement Primaire,” receives gifts and appropriations from the state and departments, the communes, and private individuals. It does not maintain an orphanage, but provides for the care of orphans in their native places.
Many private societies exist for the maintenance of scholastic insti. tutions, the improvement of methods of instruction, and the increase of public interest in the general progress of education. Some of these antedate the present Republic, others are of recept origin.
The Polytechnic Association was founded in 1830 by the graduates of the Polytechnic School, for the purpose of conducting preparatory courses of industrial and technical training. The courses are generally open to both sexes; a small number are limited to women. Such are courses for training in the cutting and fitting of garments, decorative painting, the making of artificial flowers, and commercial courses for young girls.
The pumber of courses maintained in Paris is very large, and the work extends to the suburbs of the city.
For vers lnll information as to benevolent or mutual aid aseociations maintained in counection with primary schools in France sco Jonographies pédagogiques, Tome V.
The most interesting and important of recently formed societies is the Alumni Association of Paris students (Association générale des étudiants des facultés et écoles supérieures de Paris).
The society is under the protection of the general council of the Paris facultés, and is presided over by the rector, to whoin its property is remitted in case of its dissolution. It forms a means of union between the professors and the students, and between the students of the differ. ent facultés.
A fund is accumulating for the ultimate purchase of a building for the permanent home of the society ; its temporary quarters are convenient and commodious. The library of the society, which is open from 8 o'clock in the morning until midnight, comprises 2,000 volumes and 200 current journals. Here gratuitous lessons are given in law, science, languages, etc. Receptions to distinguished foreigners, dramatic entertainments, etc., promote social and intellectual comradeship. A fund is also maintained for the assistance of students; medical attendance is furnished without charge, and arraugements are made with many merchants for reduction of prices to members of the society.
The honorary members number about 400; they pay an annual fee, and have all the privileges of the society, but no voice in its administration. The active members number about 3,500; they pay an annual fee of 18 francs ($3.50).
Besides the income from fees and gifts, the society bas an annual subvention of $100 from the city of Paris.
The Society for the Promotion of Physical Culture (Lc comité pour la propagation des exercices physiques dans l'éducation), founded at Paris in 1888 under the presidency of Jules Simon, promises to work important changes in the general system of education for young men..
That the state attempts no inonopoly of education is abundantly proved by the inultiplication of private societies, and the decided in. fluence which they exercise over educational inethods and ideals.
It is a significant fact that while the policy of the Republic opposes both directly and indirectly the scholastic work of the church, it has bad the effect of stimulating all other forms of private and local activity. Paris, especially, is in a ferment of educational effort. Here the public systein in all its grades reaches the highest perfection; here all kinds of auxiliary agencies have their most vigorous developmeut. It would be impossible to suggest even in this place the resources which the capital devotes to the diffusion of knowledge or the various modes in which these are applied. So far as regards public elementary schools, the city draws nothing from the state, meeting the entire expenditure from its own budget. For current expenditure alone, the municipal appropriations in 1888 were $3,970,702. The increase in this respect since 1877 has been enorinous, amounting in 1888 to 150 per cent. of the wbole appropriation at the beginuing of the decade.