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unfortunates. It is not necessary to enter into their organization and management, because they differ little, if at all, from similar institutions in this country. It suffices to say that old nations, like the German, have a considerably larger number of children with defective sepse organs than the American; a fact which is readily understood if the natural conditions of life in Europe are considered.
Industrial schools, trade schools, and other similar special institutions, such as agricultural schools, which tend to perfect what the elementary school has begun, should be mentioned here. Besides these supplementary institutions, societies and institutions for scientific purposes aid the work of the schools. Thus, for instance, all classes and kinds of schools of a city stand in close connection with and intimate relation to the management of art academies, museums, zoological and botanical gar. dens, the astronomical observatory, the library, gymnastic societies, and even the theater; in fact, with every institution which in some degree may be influential in assisting the work in schools.
Plants are ordered for the study of botany at the botanical gardens. Certain hours are fixed at the zoological gardens for visits of the classes in zoology; admission is free. Classes in drawing are taken to the art collections and museums, where the teacher of advanced classes gives a lesson monthly. The libraries are open to the pupils on presentation of a membership ticket issued by the rector of the school. Olasses in literature go with their teachers to see classic performances in the theaters. The schools having small but very valuable collections, frequently exchange specimens with the curator of the museum, or even make loans. And so to every department of the curriculum some institution outside of the school offers assistance free of charge.
The more one looks about himself in Germany, the more one is im. pressed with the fact that the whole nation is one great educational institution. Churches have their reserved seats for school children; theaters offer classical performances for studeuts; gardens and parks are open for children; gymnastic halls and apparatus are provided for the use of pupils of the city schools; in fine, all efforts are made to put public instruction upon a national basis, and to make the desire for education contagious.
X.-VARIETY IN School ORGANIZATION IN GERMANY, AUSTRIA,
HUNGARY, AND SWITZERLAND.
From the foregoing it would seem as though the so-called Volks. Schule (people's school), or more properly speaking, elementary school, is the main institution of learning for the people. This impression is erroneous. In the cities of Prussia, but more particularly in those of Saxony and other states, the authorities give a wider scope to their ele. mentary schools. Outside of Germany the word Volks Schule Las a different meaning and frequently stands for pauper school, while the Bürger Schule (citizens' school) is a school almost identical with the common school in the United States.
Leipsic and Dresden, in Saxony, have furnished the types of such schools. The citizens' school of Prussia, on the other hand, is very much akin to our American city high school, and must be classed among the secondary schools; hence it is not mentioned in the preceding pages. If we consider the fact that the people's schools of Prussia bad 5,173,627 pupils in 1897, while all the middle and high schools (citizens' schools, girls' academies, real-schulen, and gymnasia) had only 357,000 students with about 300,000 in preparatory classes, the preëminence given to the people's schools is fully justified.
Switzerland, though quite independent of Germany politically, industrially, and socially, is in a large degree imitating its two neighbors, Germany and France. The German system of religious instruction and the French system of secular instruction are blended in the Swiss schools. Altogether there is more instability in the Swiss schools than in the German, owing to the fact that each canton manages its own schools. There is no centralization. It is the American mode of selfgovernment in miniature. This is evident from the following.
As regards the object of the public schools there are in the different cantonal school laws two ideas that may be defined as meaning "education in the widest sense" on the one side, and “ mere instruction” on the other. Zurich says in its school law of 1832, the children of all classes of society shall be educated according to the well-defined principles of pedagogy, to be intellectually active, cirilly useful, and morally good men and women." Similar definitions are found in the constitu. tions of Baselland (1835), Zng (1850), Graubünden (1853), Bern (1856), Aargau (1865), Wallis (1873), Appenzell (1875), Schwyz (1877), Nidwal. den (1879), Schaffhausen (1879). Obwalden (1876), on the contrary, simply says, “it is the duty of every community to see to it that its children by attending a primary school shall acquire the knowledge for common life.” Lucerne (1879) says, “the primary and continuation schools have the object to offer youth a general culture such as life demands." Baselstadt (1880) says, “the primary school has the object to make the children familiar with elementary knowledge.” Eleven cantons, among which are Geneva and Freiburg, do not define the ob. ject of the public school at all,
As regards German Austria little need be said to characterize the schools save that they resemble the schools of Germany in organization, mode of maintenance, management, and results. There are agencies at work, however, depending chiefly upon the different degree of cul. ture of the people, differences in the appreciation of public instruction, individual predilections, and tendencies of the ruling men in tho government at different times, that cause varieties, changes, and mod. ifications which will in due course of time produce considerable differentiation. At present it can not be said to be very great.
Among the continental schools in Europe there seem to be, to the careful observer, two trends noticeable: one the Germanic, the other the Romanic. The former insists upon thorough discipline of mind and body and the fostering of a deep religious and moral sense, and in order to facilitate this, the following are considered necessary: (à) considera. tion for the feelings of all citizens in religious matters; (b) local government, including regulation of religious instruction (subject to the protection of minorities); (c) direct local taxation, expenditure and administrative details ; (d) religion, subject to certain conscience clause provisions, considered the basis of instruction; (e) compulsory attend. ance; ) thorough qualification of all teachers for private as well as for public schools; (9) recognition of the importance of gymnastic exercises.
The special features of the Romanic trend are: (a) the natural eager intention to render the system as perfect as possible, and in as short a time as possible; (b) in pursuance of that intention munificent expenditure upon public instruction is made; (c) the absence of any religious instruction is a marked characteristic, but the system endeavors to be absolutely neutral in, and not hostile to, religion; (d) special attention is paid to industrial training; (e) the organization of infant schools is very complete; (f) the state far more absolutely than elsewhere controls the complete education of the people.
XI.—THE SCHOOLS OF HUNGARY...
A few facts concerning the Hungarian schools should be added to complete the exposition of the German schools, for the Hungarian schools are to a great extent organized like the schools in Germany and Austria.
In 1888 Hungary had 2,416,945 children of school age, 6 to 15 years. Of these only 1,950,879, or 80.73 per cent., attended elementary schools, namely, 1,750,013 between 6 and 12 years of age, and 666,932 between 12 and 15 years of age. Here is an instructive comparison :
The number of schools has in accordance with this increase grown amazingly. The following comparison may show this:
12, 694 16, 622
24, 379 $4, 950, 373
The normal schools have shared in this general forward movement, as is seen from these numbers :
The infant schools are well organized, as is seen from the following:
Count Csáky, the new minister of education in Hungary, considers it his duty to regulate the affairs of preschoiastic institutious, such as kindergarten, infant schools, etc. In his first report, just issued, he ex. presses his determination to establish elementary schools wherever the communities fail in so doing, and he urges that the salaries and pen. sions of teachers be regulated by law.
Among the new steps he has taken, we mention an order according to which courses have been arranged for female teachers in normal schools, also courses for training professors for secondary schools, so that henceforth the graduates of universities who wish to devote them. selves to teaching may obtain their professional training before entering upon their duties.
The salaries of teachers have hitherto been paid irregularly. The minister insists upon it that they be paid promptly. Also in regard to the chaos prevailing in Hungarian schools in the use of text-books he promises wholesome changes.
Since the passage of the present school law in 1869, the number of schools has increased 2,824, Hungary has now 16,622 schools, among which are 16,301 elementary, 74 advanced, 13 girls' schools, 159 citizens' schools. The state supports only 738 schools, communities 1,880, the religious congregations 13,783; 202 were private schools; 10,712 towns or villages have their own schools, 1,783 have joined others in so-called combined schools, and 300 settlements or villages have no school at all.
Of 1,000 German children of school age in Hungary, 907 were in school; of 1,000 Slavonians, 350; of 1,000 Magyars, 842; of 1,000 Croatiaus, 558; of 1,000 Servians, S02; of 1,000 Ruthenians, 675; of 1,000 Rou. manians, 632. The number of teachers increased from 17,782 in 1869, to 24,148 in 1857. At present there are 71.72 children to the teacher. Of the 24,188 teachers, 3,133 (or 13 per cent.) have no certificate. The number of women teachers has increased 340 per cent. since 1869 There are at present il normal schools, 46 in 1869); of these 25 were state schools, 10 caiissional schools; 13 were for men, 17 for women.
XII.-SECONDARY SCHOOLS AMONG GERMAN-SPEAKING NATIONS.
Variety in organization and scope.-The lower schools of Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, as well as of Hungary, are, as has been stated before, not common schools in the sense in which that term is under. stood in the United States, free of charge and common to all, but of a variety of types. This differentiation is even more pronounced in the higher schools. The variety found among them is so great that it puzzles the collector of statistics who has to classify them. Switzerland, wedged in between monarchies, has to accommodate itself to demands made by society, hence we find even there a great variety of schools, though not as confused as in Germany and Austria.
Bürgerschulen (citizens' schools), höhere mädchenschulen, progymnasia, gymnasia, realschulen, realgymnasia, prorealgymnasiu are the public high schools. This array of technical terms is difficult to render in English. A verbal translation would be inisleading, and a labored circumlocution useless. These secondary schools may be grouped into middle and high schools. The citizens' school, girls' academy, and the progymnasium (which is a gymnasium with incomplete course) may be classed among the middle schools. The gymnasium, realschule (with complete course), and the realgymnasium are the high schools. The gymnasium is the oldest of all secondary schools, and is the Latin school of the Middle Ages. It is the classical boys' school par excellence. The realschule (the first one was established 140 years ago) substitutes modern languages for the classics, and bestows much attention upon natural sciences, mathematics, and industrial drawing and designing. The gymnasium prepares for the learned professions, the realschule trains engineers, surveyors, artists, civil officers, etc. The realgymnasium is a combination of both kinds of schools, and found nearly always where a community can not support two secondary schools. From the charts (see pp. 173–6) the differences existing between the courses of these schools may be gleaned better than from verbal explanation. The great army of business men is recruited from these higher and from the middle schools. The boy of the people's school has a hard time of it in courting success in the higher walks of life; still such cases are by no means wanting.
Statistics of secondary schools in Prussia.—In 1889, Germany had 418 gymnasia (or classical schools), namely, Prussia, 266; Bavaria, 35; Saxony, 17; Würtemberg, Baden, 14; Hessen, 7; MecklenburgSchwerin, 7; Braunschweig, 6; Oldenburg, 5; Anhalt 4; Saxe. Weimar, 3; Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 3; Alsace-Lorraine, 16; the other German principalities, 1 or 2 each. These institutions are distributed over the empire very irregularly, as is seen from the following figures : While in Saxony 187,000 inhabitants support 1 gymnasium, there is 1 to every 133,000 inhabitants in Würtemberg; 1 to every 114,000 inhabitants in Baden; 1 to 107,000 in Prussia; 1 to 100,000 inhabitants in Alsace