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Lorraine. In other parts of the empire 60,000 and even 33,000 inhabitants support and maintain a gymnasium. In 1889, Germany had 54 progymnasia (6 years' instead of 8 years' course). Of these, 40 were found in Prussia.

The number of realgymnasia was 133 in 1889. Of these Prussia had 90; Saxony, 10; Bavaria, 5; Hessen, 4, etc. There were, besides these, 106 real-progymnasia, and 15 upper realschulen. These schools are found chiefly in Prussia, namely, 84 real-progymnasia and 10 upper realschulen. These two kinds of schools do not differ materially in aims and scope. The number of realschulen and higher citizens' schools in 1889 was 154. These two kinds of schools do not differ much, eitber. Of these 154 schools, Prussia had only 39, while Bavaria had 33; Sax. ony, 20; Hessen, 14; Baden, 11; Alsace-Lorraine, 10; Würtemberg, 10; the other states, 17. To these different classos of secondary schools should be added 87 public and private institutions, which it is difficult to classify. Hence, the entire number of acknowledged secondary schools in Germany in 1889 was 976. Before long Germany will have a thousand high schools that are high schools in fact, as well as in name.

In all the South German states and in Alsace-Lorraine secondary instruction is exclusively the state's concern. Communal gympasia, realschulen, and higher citizens' schools are not found in Bavaria, Würtemberg, Baden, and Hessen, nor in Alsace-Lorraine. In Prussia, the majority of gymnasia are state schools, but there are still a number of municipal schools of that kind. Their number decreases, however, every year, since the state takes hold of them as its means increase. Nearly all the other schools, that is, those which depart from mere classical learning and emphasize scientific and mathematical studies, and particularly modern languages, are municipal institutions. Thus it appears that, in Prussia the state fosters classical, the city, modern education.

The salaries of teachers in the high schools of Germany art highest in wealthy cities : Hamburg (maximum, $2,160), Lubeck (maximum, $1,57.5), Anhalt (maximum, $1,500), Frankfort (maximum, $1,540), Berlin (maximum, $1,500). The pensions paid to teachers in high schools are highest in Bavaria, Hessen, Wiirtemberg, Saxe-Weimar, and others of the small principalities.

The following data are interesting: In Bavaria the pension amounts to 70 per cent. of the salary after 10 years of service, 80 per cent. of the salary after 25 years of service, 90 per cent. of salary after the 40 years of service, 100 per cent of the salary after 50 years of service. In Hessen 50 per cent. of the salary after 10 years of service, 72.5 per cent. of the salary after 25 years of service, 90 per cent. of the salary after 10 years of service. In Saxony 33} per cent. of the salary after 10 years of service, 41.5 per cent of the salary after 25 years of service, 70 per cent. of the salary after 10 years of service. In Saxony the government has released the cities from contributing to the pen. sion fund and intends to assume all paying of pensions to teachers. An increase in the schools is confidently expected.

Stimulus for higher education of boys.- When we consider the fact that Prussia with 28,000,000 inhabitants has 356,912 pupils in secondary schools, it is obvious that some powerful stimulus to higher education must exist in that country. Mere love of learning would not adequately account for the high percentage of youths seeking a higher intellectual plane. The motive is found in the fact that, by governmental decree, students who have passed through a six years' high school course are entitled to an abbreviation of their military service from three years to one year. Hence, continuing his studies till he reaches the "secunda” (the class below the graduating class), the youth se. cures not only a better education generally, but shortens his service in the army by two years. This system of artificially inducing the young men of the country to stay in school longer than they would otherwise do bas been in existence for over 30 years; it has proven beyond doubt the most effective inducement for higher education, though it has its bitter opponents, and lately the government is contemplating its abolishment because the number of young men with a secondary education is so rapidly increasing that all the learned professions are overcrowded with candidates, and a new social species is being developed, that of " educated paupers."

Graduates.-Prussia furnishes some instructive data concerning the number and choice of occupation of graduates of gymnasia or classical schools.

In 1889 266 gymnasia conducted examinations for graduation; 4,251 pupils signified their willingness to submit to the examination, but shortly before the day arrived 307 withdrew from the contest, and 93 were refused admission by the faculty, reasons not stated. Of the remaining 3,851 who were examined, 3,702 passed, 149 failed. Six of those who passed were less than 17 years old ; 98 were 17; 579 were 18; 97% were 19; 959 were 20; 1,088 were 21 or more. Six hundred and sixteen of the graduates went to universities to study Protestant theology, 326 Catholic theology, 12 Hebrew thcology; 703 went to study law; 29 political economy; 873 medicine ; 210 philology and philosophy; 109 mathematics and natural sciences. Some, especially the youngest odes, bad not decided what course of study to pursue. Two hundred and thirty-nine went to military academies with the view to entering the army; 110 will devote themselves to civil engineering; 33 to min. ing engineering; 270 intend to enter forestry, postal, and state civil service; 130 will go to farming, commerce, and industrial pursuits; 37 to other callings.

Austria had in 1889 172 gymnasia (classical schools for boys) with 55,404 studenits, 85 realschulen (modern high schools for boys) with 18,545 students; 178 of these secondary schools were supported ex

clusively (a) by the government 25, (6) by communities 30, (c) by churches 14, (d) by private fuuds 11 ; the others are supported by state and communities, or by church and state, or by church and communi. ties, or by state and private funds, etc.

In 155 of these high schools German is the medium of instruction, in 57 it is Bohemian, in 28 Polish, in 7 Italian.'

XIII.-COURSES OF STUDY.

The four accompanying charts illustrate the differences in the courses of study in the various schools of Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, as well as in the common schools of America. A comparison of these charts will afford an insight into the differentiation going on in these schools in order to meet the different demands of life. (See pp. 173–6.)

On these charts, it must be understood, the course of study for the American common school is an average course, such as may be found with slight deviations all over the country. It does not indicate any preferences in favor of this, that, or another language, and leaves the limit of time spent in the study of grammar undefined, but shows that much time is consumed iu mastering the orthography of the English language. It is scarcely necessary for the reader in this country to see minutely delineated what by a slow process of evolution has becomo the average course of study. Of course, if a selection were made here and in Europe among the schools, we might present a picture which would make a just comparison quite impossible. Statistics is the science of averages, and it is the average school, not the exception, which is here delineated. The courses of the Prussian schools sketched in the accompanying charts show the leading features of language instruction and the relative value bestowed upon it in the different kinds of schools.

These charts are the result of comparison of many courses of study in use in Germany, and of the requirements made by the Prussian Gov. ernment, notably by the decree of May 31, 1882.

i The number of secondary schools in Hungary is 180, namely, 151 gymnasia, 29 realschulen. In 120 of these secondary schools the medium of instruction is the Hungarian language, in 39 it is another language mixed with Hungarian, in 21 it is either German, Croatian, Roumanian, etc. The number of students in secondary schools was in 1888, 39,918, or 615 more than in 1887. Of these 32,255 attended gympasia, 6,563 realschulen. According to their mother tongue the students are classified as Hungarians, 28,487 (71.3 per cent.), Germans, 6,285 (15.8 per cent.), Roumanians, 2,456 (6.2 per cent.), Italians, 123 (0.3 per cent.), Slavonians, 1,542 (3.9 per cent.), Servian-Croatic 810 (2.0 per cent.), Ruthenians, 97 (0.2 per cent.), others 118 (0.3 per cont.). Another interesting fact is brought out, if we ask for the number of students who speak only their mother tongue : 16,967 students speak only Hungarian, 338 only German, 569 only Roumanian, 11 only Slavonian, 83 only Servian-Croatio. Hence 18,002 (or 45 per cent.) speak only their mother tongue, while 21,916 (or 55 per cont.) speak two or more languages.

CHART I.-- Showing how the time commonly devoted to linguistic studies in the American

common school and the different classes of German schools is divided.

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CHART II.- Showing how the time commonly devoted to history and geography in the Amer

ican common school and the different classes of German schools is dirided.

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