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mune is a division comprised of one or more villages, and having any. where from 300 to 10,000 inhabitants. Then there are mandamenti," which are neither political nor administrative divisions, but rather of a judicial character.
The executive power of the state belongs exclusively to the sovereign, and is exercised by him through responsible ministers. The legislative authority is vested in the King, the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies.
The local government is administered by the provincial and communal councils, each province having a provincial council and a provincial commission ; each commune a communal.council, a municipal council, and a syndic.
The administrative and educational authorities are brought closely together in their duties, as is shown in the statement appended. The state, province, or commune maintains public instruction; a member of the cabinet is in charge of education ; the King himself appoints certain grades of instructors; the parliamentary bodies discuss and decide upon educational questions; the prefect of the province is president of the provincial school council; the syndic looks after the registration of pupils of school age, notifies parents of neglect of duty, etc.
The organization of the public school system in Italy is based on the law of November 13, 1859, called the “Legge Casati," from the minister in charge of education at that date. This law, which was intended more especially for the schools of Piedmont, Sardinia, and Lombardy, is under a united Italy the basis of all later laws appertaining to the school system. Its main features may be gleaned in the following presentation.
1.- GENERAL FEATURES OF THE SCHOOL SYSTEM.
The state regulates public instruction, and maintains, either entirely or in conjunction with the communes and provinces, public schools of every grade. It also authorizes the establishment of private schools, among which are classed those conducted by religious corporations. At
1 By law of 1867 all chapters of collegiate churches, abbeys, ecclesiastical benefices not attached to parishes, and all brotherhoods and foundations to which an ecclesiastical service was annexed, were suppressed. The property was transferred to the state ander certain regulations. A great part was devoted to education. Religious corporations not being recognized by law, the schools carried on by them became of a private character. In addition to these schools there are also lay private schools.
the head of the scirool system is the minister of public instruction, who is assisted by a higher council of education. Another general council has special control of secondary and elementary instruction. The local control of schools is rested in a council of education for each of the sixty-nine provinces under the presidency of the prefect, which has the right of supervision in regard to the sanitary and moral state of the provincial schools. (For other school officers with their special duties see "supervision" below.)
The divisions of the school system are: (1) Elementary, which in. cludes infant schools, primary of two grades, and normal schools; (2) secondary education, which includes classical and technical schools; (3) bigher education, including the wirersities, higher institutes, and special schools.
The elementary grades and technical schools are maintained by the communes; the lower grade secondary classical schools by the municipalities; the higher grade classical schools, i. e., the 6. licei," by the state and the municipalities; the technical institutes and the higher special schools by the state, provinces, and coinmunes. The universities are maintained by the state and by their own ancient revenues.
The population of Italy, according to census of 1881, was 28,459,628 Estimated for 1889, 30,505,233.
The statistics of the different grades of schools mentioned above are as follows for the year 1886, which is the latest date obtainable for all schools of the Kingdom:
Iasiat tec: ...
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NOTR.-Per cent. of population enrolled in schools: Elementary education, 9 per cont. ; secondary education, 0.6 per cent.; higher education, 0.5 per cent.
The asili infantili'or tant schools, are conducted after the Aporti method (founded by the Ab. bate Ferranti & porti in 1847), that is 'un poco troppo scuola e troppo pocco asilo," but a certain num. ber are conducted according to Froebel's kindergarten system.
The "scuola irregolare" do not fulil all requirements of the law in point of study and time of com. mencement
The "scuole normale," inferiore e superiore, are for the training of teachers, the former having a two years' course, the latter extending through three years.
The classical schools-ginnasi and licei- lead to the universities and learned professions. To sub. serve the necessities of modern life the "scuole tecniche" and "istituti tecnici" were established. The "scuole tecnicho" prepare pupils for industrial or commercial pursuits; the 'istituti tecnici" for the professions of civil engineering, surveying, etc. The "convitti" connected with secondary schools are establishmerts where pupils are boarded and
and within which are schools of an elementary character, preparing pupils for classical or technical schools. "Convitti" for girls prepare for higher institutes for that sex.
The universities are classed as free and governmental, the free universities being supported by the municipalities or by their own funds. Under higher institutes, or schools which coöperate with tbe universities, are classed the Institute for the Perfocting of Higher Studies in Florence, the normal
academy and the higher technical school of Milan, the royal school of medicine and surgery, etc.
Special schools include agricultural and mining schools, industrial and commercial schools, conserva. tories of music, etc.
Income.-The funds for public schools are made up from amounts derived from the state, from provincial and local taxation, and in the communes, from revenues derived from the "opere pie” or foundations, and by tuition fees. The amount from revenues and from taxation is not known, but the funds as a whole in 1886 were: State, $7,189,061 ; provincial funds, $1,008,807; communal funds, $12,014,928. Total, $20,212,796.
Expenditures.—The expenditures, subdivided as to grades of education are not to be obtained for the year 1886. The total expended by the state, provinces, and communes together was $19,001,341 at that date. The state expenditures are usually applied to making up deficiences in teachers' salaries; provincial subsidies to defraying the cost of school buildings, furniture, and similar material expenditure; communal funds to the general support of elementary schools.
The budget of the minister of public instruction for the year 1886.87 is here appended : Ordinary expenditures.
Lire. Central administration ......
1,790, 811 Provincial ....
1, 161, 490 Superior and special instruction .......
9, 188, 788 Scientific and literary institutions and societies
1,636, 755 Fine arts and antiquities........
3,918, 986 Secondary classical education ...
5, 163, 704 Technical, industrial, and professional education ...
5, 606, 744 Normal and elementary education
5,994, 376 Sundries.........
34, 482, 256 Extraordinary expenditures.
47,900 1, 234, 138
127, 887 498,732
63, 912 366, 800 76, 000
2, 435, 370 Ordinary expenses, $6,655,075; extraordinary expenses, $470,026; total, $7,123,101. Lire, 19.3 cents.
State. The minister of public instruction, appointed by the King, is at the head of the school system. His duties extend over all grades of education, and through the school officers reporting to him, he may be said to control the whole educational system of the Kingdom. He is assisted by the “Consiglio superiore di Pubblica Istruzione" or higher council of education, whose duties are advisory, administrative, and judicial in character. This council, by law of 1881, is composed of thirty-two members, fifteen of whom form a “giunta” or board, to attend to current matters. The minister and higher council are aided by the “ Consultore Legale” or legal councillor. He gives legal advice concerning the interpretation and application of laws and regulations as applied to different grades of education. An inspector-general (“ Ispettore Generale") and nine central inspectors ("Ispettori Cen. trale ") are included among the state officers. They take the place of the "Provveditorate Centrale" of 1867, which was abolished in 1881, and are executive officers of the ministry for all provisions relating to their own departments, and they have general charge of education under authority of the ministry.
Local. Each province has a “ Consiglio Scolastico Provinciale" or provincial school council, and a “ Provveditore agli studi” or supervisor of studies, who is appointed by the king.
Each district has an “Ispettore de scuola elementare" or inspector of elementary schools, and there are also school delegates in subdistricts or “ mandamenti.” The provincial school council is composed of the prefect of the province, who presides; of the provincial supervisor of studies, who acts as vice president; and of ten councillors. This council has the supervision of elementary, normal, technical, and classical education. It examines school laws and regulations, approves the budget for public schools, sanctions appointment of teachers, gives its opinion in regard to subsidies to the communes and to teachers, watches over private schools (the inspection of private schools covers hygiene and morals, but is not extended to the course of study) and in every way acts as representative of the minister of public instruction in the province.
The Provveditore has special charge of classical, technical, and normal schools. He acts as a link between the provincial council, the schools, and the minister. District school inspectors attend to the needs of the elementary schools, which they visit twice a year. A certificate of capacity is required, since 1881, of persons desiring to become district school inspectors. The delegates of the ci mandamenti” are nonsalaried officials appointed by the King for three years. Their duties are to represent the provincial school council and watch over the elementary and secondary schools.
The teachers of the Kingdom are trained in normal schools, “scuole normale,” which are of two grades, higher and lower. These schools, 133 in number, with 10,542 pupils in 1886, are divided into governmental, provincial, communal, endowed, private, and not assimilated, “non pareggiate,” that is, those which arrange their own courses, classify their own studies, etc.
The courses in the lower grade normals, which were called " scuole magistrale” until 1883, are two years in duration. Those in the higher grade normals are three years. The applicants for admission to the normal schools must have attained, men the sixteenth year, women the fifteenth year. They must be able to pass a partly verbal and partly written examination in grammar, arithmetic, catechism, and Bible history, and must possess a certificate of high moral standing. They are also required to have a physician's certificate, showing good physical condition.
Teachers also have the advantage of teachers' institutes and associa. tions for the discussion of methods, school management, salaries, etc.
Applicants for teachers' positions in elementary grades must be eighteen years of age, and must hold the required certificate of capacity and morality. Normal pupils desiring teachers' positions in the lower grade require the certificate indicating completion of the two