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years' course. For the higher grade positions the diploma for the three scars' course is required. To obtain a certificate as teacher in the lower grade elementary schools, normal pupils are required to pass an exami. nation in the following obligatory branches : catechism and Bible history, Italian language, reckoning and the metric system, pedagogics and penmanship. To obtain a diploma as normal teacher for the higher grade elementary schools the obligatory branches are religion, composition, history of literature, arithmetic and book-keeping, elements of geometry and natural sciences, history, geography, pedagogics, and penmanship. Teachers are appointed by the communal council subject to the approval of the provincial council. The appointment is usually for two years, but a probationary six months' period is sometimes required. To receive a permanent appointment the teacher must be twenty-two years of age, prior to that the appointment is renewed from year to year. Examinations for teachers' positions are held annually in the normal centers.
In private schools teachers must have the certificate required by law, and in private schools of a secondary grade they must be at least twenty-five years of age. The representative of the minister in the province sanctions the appointment of private school teachers. To teach in Sunday or holiday schools no certificate is necessary, but there are certain requirements to be fulfilled before a person can obtain such position.
The minimum salary of teachers in rural schools, by law of 1859, was not to be less than $96; in city schools, $135. Later laws modi. tied this rate, and in May, 1885, Minister Coppino presented a bill 10 the Chamber of Deputies in which the salaries in higher city schools were not to be less than $193, women $156 ; in the bigher grades of rural schools the minimum to be $152, women $123. In the lower grades the annual salary was less. By law of 1886 the salaries in the rural schools were to range from $110 to $180 for men, from $112 to $144 for women; in city schools from $180 to $264 for men, and from $141 to $211 for women. The subject of teachers' salaries is freely discussed each year, and an amelioration of the teacher's condition is earnestly desired.
In the secondary classical schools the professors are calla titular and regent; the former appointed by the King when recommended by the minister, the latter by the minister. The titular professor is selected by competition from persons who have obtained the degree of university doctor in the science or department of study for which he is competing, or he must hold other legal certificate. The regent may be appointeil without previous examination, if a graduate of a normal, but he can not become a titular professor without examination. The salaries of these professors range as follows: Ginuasi, or lower grade classical schools, $309 to $386; licei, or higher grade, $337 to $425. Teachers in technical schools and institutes are selected as they are iu the classical schools, excepting that ou account of haste in organization of techuical education competitive examinations were omitted. The salaries vary in the state, communal, and private institutions.
The university professors are divided iuto ordinary and extraordinary professors. The former are appointed by the King, the latter by the minister. A competitive examination before a commission appointed by the higher council of education, or the handing in of printed theses, is required to show the aptitude of the candidate for the position desired. The extraordinary professors are only appointed for the course, and a new appointment is required if they desire to continue in service. The salaries of the professors in the principal universities are placed at $1,158 after ten years' service, and at $965 for less time than that. At the minor universities the salaries range from $579 to $694.'
Teachers' pensions were allowed by law, but this enactment did not go into force until January, 1889.
VI.-COURSES OF STUDY.
Elementary schools.—The instruction in the infant schools tends to develop the body of the child by gymnastic exercises appropriate to its age, to inculcate moral teachings, by example, to occupy the child's time with games rather than book knowledge. The teacher endeavors to develop both body and mind and, in a measure, to exercise a maternal influence over the child.
The kindergarten-the first one in Italy being established in Venice in 1868, by the Baroness von Marenholtz-Bülow-is gradually becoming engrafted on the school system in the larger cities, Rome and Naples taking the lead; and a model school founded by the Baroness in 1871, in Florence, has been the means of educating the majority of directresses for such schools throughout Italy. The elementary schools are in two divisions. The course of study in the lower division covers religion (if the parents request it), reading, writing, elementary arithme. tic, elements of the metric system, and the Italian language. A comipletion of this course occupies two years, and in a few districts three years. The higher course, covered by a two years' period, includes composi. tion, calligraphy, bookkeeping, the elements of geography, natural his. tory, and natural sciences. In the higher grades of boys' schools the elements of geometry and linear drawing are taught. Private schools are modelled after the public schools, and the course of study is doubtless similar to the above.
Schools of both elementary and secondary character for girls of the middle classes show considerable variety in their course of study. In a
i The salaries in universities and secondary institutions may have been slightly in. creased since this statement was presented, as there have been numerous bills before the Chamber of Deputies regarding teachers' salaries, but several of them have failed to become laws, consequently the above range of salary is presumed to be correct to date,
few cases it is similar to the higher elementary grades. In other cases pupils are prepared to pass an examination for the position of teacher.
Normal school courses cover religion, morals, pedagogy, Italian language, and rules of composition, geography, national history, arithmetic and elements of geometry, principles of natural and physical sciences, elements of hygiene, calligraphy, linear drawing, and singing. Women are taught feminine handiwork; men have military exercises and gym. nastics.
Secondary education. The course of study in the ginnasi and licei extends through eight years; the first five in the ginnasio, then three in the liceo. The gymnasial studies are Italian, Latin, Greek, arithmetic, history, and geography, and the elements of instruction in Roman and Greek archæology. The studies of the liceo tend toward a higher development, for they cover philosophy, mathematics, physics and elements of chemistry, Italian, Roman, and Greek literature, history, and geography and natural history. Drawing and modern languages are optional branches. Gymnastics are obligatory if the student desires to be admitted to the examinations. The “licenza ginnasiale,” or grad. uation diploma from the ginnasio, is required for a number of employ. ments under government. The “licenza liceale," or graduation diploma from the “ liceo” is required for admission to the university.
The technical schools, which are for boys between ten and fourteen years of age, have a less advanced course of study. In the three years' course the studies to be pursued are Italian and French, history-ancient and modern-geography, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, the elements of natural and physical sciences, and the rights and duties of citizenship. The examination for graduation includes all the studies of the course.
In the technical institutes there are five divisions of study, the branches being grouped under the physico-mathematical section, the agronomic, the commercial, the mathematical, and industrial. Each of these courses is to have two years in general, and two for special studies. In the first year the studies are in common, and cover Italian language and literature, French, geography, history, mathematics, and drawing. Italian is continued throughout the course. Other studies common to all courses are physics, general chemistry, natural history, the duties and rights of citizenship, and the science of economics. Then there are special branches for the different sections, the needs of the locality where the institute is sitnated being taken into account. The physicomathematical section qualifies pupils for the faculty of physics, mathematics, and natural sciences in the university, for such special schools as the higher schools of agriculture, commerce, and for the naval school at Genoa. The diploma of graduation from other courses fits one for a career as surveyor, bookkeeper, or for an industrial pursuit.
The university faculties are jurisprudence; letters and philosophy; mathematics, physical and natural sciences; medicine and surgery, and
schools of pharmacy. The free universities have no faculty of letters and philosophy. The institutes for higher studies have three faculties: Letters and philosophy; physics, mathematics, and natural sciences; medicine and surgery, and schools of pharmacy.
Courses of study in the special schools vary, as under this head are classed agricultural schools, schools of mines, industrial and commercial schools, institutes for the study of fine arts and for music.
VII.-SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. The management of elementary schools is left to munincipal author. ities, or to special committees chosen from the communal councillors. Their business is to see that the admission of pupils is properly made, and they are expected to visit the schools and see that the prescribed laws and regulations are carried out. Schools for girls are subject to the inspection of women inspectors who report to the provincial supervisor of studies.
Promotions take place in elementary grades at the end of six months, provided the oral and written examinations are successfully passed. The examinations are conducted by the teachers in the lower grade schools; in the upper grades teachers from other divisions are chosen. Text-books are ordered by the school authorities, but in secondary grades, at least, the professor is allowed his own choice of books from among those suggested by the authorities. In matters relating to discipline, the schoolmaster admonishes the pupil in private, or in public, or indicates the offense on the school register, or separates the pupil from his companions, or forbids his attending recitations, or suspends him for three days. If none of these punishments are suflicient he can saspend him for that year of the course, but before doing so must refer the matter to the official in charge of the district where the school is situated.
Corporal punishment is forbidden, but other punishments, such as standing with outstretched arms, being made to lie flat on the hard floor, etc., are allowed. In the higher schools of the kingdom lack of discipline, neglect of duties on the part of the student, etc., are brougbt for adjustment to the higher council of education. Expulsion is only used in extreme cases, as with the loss of diploma the student loses certain political rights or the power to hold governmental office.
The formation of programs for schools is left to the minister of public instruction. The extent of studies to be used in schools is defined by him, but the teacher is not fettered by any very strict rules.
The system of public schools distinguishes between the national or elementary and the continuation schools. Tuition is free in the national schools, and every child is obliged to attend school from three to five years.
Elementary schools are organized in two divisions-a lower and a bigher division. Each dirision bastwo classes, and in no class are more than seventy pupils allowed to a teacher. Co-education is not practiced. Boys and girls are taught in separate rooms, with male teachers for the boys and female teachers for the girls. The school year lasts ten months, and is divided into two semesters. At the end of each an examination takes place. The school week is five days; the daily session four hours, with a half hour recess. The school year extends from October 15 to August 15, but the school term usually comiences fifteen days later and ends fifteen days earlier. Then there are holidays at Christmas (four days), carnival period (three days), Easter (six days), New Year, Epiphany, Ascension, Whitsunday, the day of the celebration of the constitution (first Sunday in June), Sundays, and Thursdays. Attendance is compulsory from three to five years in the elementary grades.
The school buildings are required to be in a healthful, respectable locality, to be well lighted and ventilated, and to possess seating capacity for all who are required by law to attend school. Separate schools are to be established for boys and girls, and if this is not possible separate entrances are to be provided.
For the gymnastic exercises required by law a room or building must be provided. The commune is to provide school apparatus and furnishings for each school, also to employ a person to take charge of the building and attend to the cleaning, etc. If any of these conditions remain unfulfilled the district inspector reports to the communal authorities. Any controversy in regard to school buildings and school furnishings is to be settled by the provincial school council.
Private schools are modeled after the public schools, but the organizers are required to publish their plan of instruction, and not more than two branches can be assigned to one teacher.
Secondary schools are so organized as to keep the ginnasio or lower grade classical school distinct from that of the liceo or higher grade school. The ginuasi have five classes, with a weekly average of 22 hours' study in eacl: class. The licei have a 3 years' course; in the lowest class 254 hours a week for study, and in the two upper classes 264 hours. The school year in these secondary institutions is of ten months duration, from October 1 to July 31 ; the lessons last from the 16th of October to the 30th of June, the remainder of the school year being taken up with examinations.
The technical schools and technical institutes have an entirely separate organization from that of the classical schools. The studies of these schools are so arranged as to accord with the needs of the people of the section where the institutions are situated. The technical schools are preparatory in character and admit boys between 10 and 11 years of age. The technical institutes are organized in sections, the studies being in common the first year-29 hours a week being sufficient for