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the branches included in that year-in the other years of the course 32 to 36 hours a week are required. The secondary schools are only open to boys. In regard to buildings and grounds, size of rooms, and seating capacity no information is presented.

The "convitti” connected with secondary schools are separately organized for boys and girls. They are of three kinds, national, communal, and private. The first two are managed by directors who are not required to bave a university degree or other certificate. The pupils attend the public schools or are taught within the precincts of these establishments. The pupils are divided into classes; each class has a teacher who also looks after the pupil outside of school hours. No class is allowed to have more than twenty papils. These convitti are boarding schools preparing pupils for normal or classical training, and their organization seems to be similar to such preparatory schools in this country.

The universities are organized with a rector at the head, who corresponds to our college president. He is assisted by a council composed of the dean of each faculty. The faculties are five in number, but the free universities are minus the faculty of letters and philosophy. To be admitted to university privileges a certificate of graduation from a bigh grade secondary school is required. The academic year is of 94 months. These institutions are open to both sexes. The student regis. ters himself at the beginning of the year for the course which he intends to pursue, but as in German universities he is free to follow his own in. clinations after this registration. He is, however, not permitted to register during the year for less than eighteen hours of study a week, or for more than thirty hours. For the medical faculty thirty-six hours is the maximum,

Special schools are too different in character for their organization to be given in this condensed statement.

IX.-SUPPLEMENTARY INSTITUTIONS.

Italy has over 500 public libraries, 32 of them being subject to the au. thority of the state. As far back as 1877 nearly a million persons were reported as readers of books from these libraries. The Ambrosiana in Milan, with its wealth of classical and philosophical manuscripts, the national libraries of Turin, Naples, and Rome, count among the most important aids to learning. The government supports thirteen academies and institutes of fine arts, in addition to drawing schools for workingmen, the picture galleries in Turin and Florence, etc. In the academies the professors give instruction in the fine arts, in literature and history, drawing from models, perspective geometry, and architecture, etching, lithography, history of art, etc. There are also schools for music and dramatic art, the conservatory of music in Milan alone costing the government 80,000 lire ($15,840) annually. In this institution, in addi. tion to full musical instruction, the professors teach poetic and dramatic

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literature, universal and national history, Italian and French language and literature, the catechism, the rights and duties of citizenship, etc. For the student of archæology Italy furnishes a rich field. The Museum of Archæology in Turin has an Egyptian collection for which 400,000 lire ($77,000) were paid.

There are seventy-two or more commissions who have in charge the preservation of the ancient monuments scattered throughout Italy. The government takes great pride in all these methods for the development of a broader culture among the people, as the expenditure for such pur. poses in the year 1886–87 (see p. 186) clearly indicates.

Numerous educational societies have aided in the general educational movements, among them the “Società di Pubblica Istruzione,” organized under Napoleon I, its object being to instruct the people of city and rural districts in the elements of language, logic, morals, the rights of citizenship, politics, etc. The “Societá Nazionale per promuovere l'Istruzione nella Campagna” was instituted at a later date. Its object was similar in character to that of the other society. The “Societá d'Istruzione e d’Educazione,” founded in 1849, had a journalistic organ which discussed all educational matters; through its influence educational movements of every kind flourished.

Memorable dates. 1729 and 1772. Establishment of famous royal constitutions by princes of the House

of Savoy through which the control of secondary education was taken away from the religous orders, and the Collegio delle Province, with one hundred free scholarships, was established with the aim of preparing, in connection with the university, teachers qualified to give this instruction. Schools of methods were established to prepare teachers for primary schools, and with the title of Magistrato della Riforma the germ of a well-organized conncil of

public instruction appeared. 1786. Reorganization of rural schools in Lombardy, the decree stipulating for free

schools for the poor. 1802. Sub-Alpine republics decreed that all communes should establish elementary

schools. 1808. Schools reorganized in parts of Italy under Freuch domination. Academies

established at Turin, Genoa, and Pisa as integral parts of the University of

France. 1813. Reorganization of public instruction in Rome. 1818. New school law promulgated in the Lombardian-Venetian Kingdom which in

1822 became the code of education for that part of Italy. 1844. Establishment of “ Asili d'Infancia," infant schools, in Piedmont, which were

the beginning of the well organized school system. 1847. (Decree of November 30). Office of minister of public instruction created.

(Ministers since that date: Cesare Alfieri di Sostegno, November 30, 1847, to March 16, 1848 ; Carlo Bon-Compagni di Mombello, March 16 to July 29, 1848; Urbano Rattazi, Jaly 29 to August 4, 1848; Vin. cenzo Gioberti, August 4-16, 1848; Folice Merlo, August 16-27, 1818 ; Carlo Bop-Compagni di Mombello, August 29 to December, 1848; Carlo Cadorna, December 16, 1848, to March 27,1849; Christoforo Mameli, Maroh 27, 1840, to November 10, 1850; Pietro Gioia, November 10, 1850, to October 20, 1851; Luigi Carlo Farini, October 21, 1851, to May 21, 1852 ; Carlo Bon-Compagni di Mombello, May 21 to November 4, 1852; Luigi Cibrario, November 4, 1852, to May 31, 1855; Giovanni Lanza, May 31, 1855, to October 18, 1858 ; Carlo Cadorna, October 18, 1858, to July 19, 1859 ; Gabrio Cagati, July 24, 1859, to Japnary 13, 1860; Terenzio Maniani della Rovere, January 20, 1860, to March 22, 1801; Francesco De Sanctis, March 22, .

1861, to March 3, 1862; Pasquale Stanislao Mancini, March 3-31, 1862 ; Carlo Matteuci, March 31 to Do cember 7, 1862; Michele Amari, December 7, 1862, to September 23, 1864 ; Giuseppe Natoli, September 23, 1864, to December 31, 1865 ; Domenico Berti, December 31, 1865, to February 17, 1867; Cesare Correnti, February 17 to April 10, 1867; Michele Coppino, April 10 to October 27, 1867; Emilio Broglio, October 27, 1867, to May 13, 1869; Angelo Bargoni, May 13 to Docember, 1869; Cesare Correnti, December 14, 1869, to May 18, 1872; Quintino Sella, May 18 to August 5, 1872; Antonio Scioloja, August 5, 1872, to July 10, 1873; Antonio Scioloja, July 10, 1873, to February 6, 1874; Girolamo Cantelli, February 7 to September 6, 1874; Ruggiero Bonghi, September 27, 1874, to March 24, 1876; Michele Coppino, March 25, 1876, to March 24, 1878; Francesco De-Sanctis, March 24, 1878, to December 19, 1878; Michele Coppino, December 19, 1878, to July 13, 1879; Francesco Paolo Perez, July 14, 1879, to November 24, 1879; Francesco De Sanctis, November 25, 1879, to January 1, 1881 ; Guido Baccelli, January 2, 1881, to March 29, 1881; Michele Cop. pino, March 30, 1884, to February 16, 1888; Paolo Boselli, February 17, 1888, to February 8, 1891.) 1819, Establishment of “ Società d'Istruzione e d'Educaziou e" in Lombardy-Venetia,

which has been of great assistance in the organization of the present public

school system.* 1839. Promulgation of the “Legge Casati," or school law, named from the minister of

pablic instruction at that date, which forms the basis of the present school system, as it provided that each commune should maintain an elementary school, that teachers should have certificates of capacity, that there should be

greater strictness in university examinations, etc. 1867. Religious corporations abolished and their schools 'classed as private. Other

Inodifications of law of 1859 made. 1877. Instruction made obligatory for children between 6 and 9 years of age. 1878. Gymnastics placed on school programmes. 1881. Legal enactments reorganizing higher council of education and making

changes in school supervision. 1885 and 1886. Legal enactments bearing upon teachers' salaries and teachers'

licenses.

*To show the educational progress caused by the efforts of this society in the decade 1813-1855, and to more clearly indicate the results of the Legge Casati, the following statement is presented:

In Piedmont during the decade 1818-1858 the number of illiterates in proportion to population decreased from 80 per cent. to 20 per cent. In 1871, for the whole of Italy, the population above 6 years of age (and about the same may be said for those above 15 years) who could neither read nor write was 69 per cent. In 1831 the numbers stood 62 per cent. for the whole kingdom. The illiteracy in upper Italy was 41 per cent.; in middle Italy, 65 per cent.; in southern Italy, 79 per cent.; and in the islands 80 per cent. The smallest percentage of illiterates was 32 per cent., which was reported from Piedmont. The illiteracy in 1889 was reported for the whole kingdom as 48 per cent.

CHAPTER VII.

EDUCATION IN SWEDEN AND FINLAND.

1.-THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF SWEDEN.

Authorities consulted. 1.-Läroverkskomitens Betänkande I, afgivna af Kanslern för Rikets Univer

sitet, pp. 236-238. II.-Berättelse om Statens allmänna läroverk för gossar, läsearet, 1881-85, p. 14. III.-Läroverkskomitens förslag angäende organisationen af Rikets allmanna

läroverk Bilaga E. Redogörelse för den hygieniske undersökningen.

Text och. Tabellan. IV.- Redogörelse for verksamheten vid bögre lararinne-seminarium och den

därmed forenade normalskolan för flickor, 1888-89, pp. 4, 6-22. V.-Normalplan för undervisningen i folkskolor och smaskolor, år 1889, pp.

63–142. VI.-Proposition till Riksdagen, avgående ändrade bestämmelser med afseende

på de allmänna läroverken och pedagogicrna, den 7 Februari, 1890, pp.

81-83. VII.—Das höhere Schulwesen Schwedens, von H. Klinghardt, pp. 24. 1-17, 23,

137, 144-160. VIII.-Kongl. Tekniska Högskola i Stockholm, läseåret, 189-90, p. 37. IX.-Inbjudning till öfrervarande af årsexamen vid högre realläroverket i

Stockholm, värterminen 15-9. pp. 14.
X.-Inbjudning till öfrerraraude af årsexamen vid Stockholms bögre all-

männa à latinlinien fallständiga lärorerk, vårterminen 1869, pp. 37-40.
XI.-Nra Elementarskolan i Stockholın, 15-9, pp. 21-31.
XII.--Per l'ugdom, 1820. 3d hefte, pp. i.
XIII-Steundervisningsblad. No. 1., 13. p. 1.
XI.-R ogorelse for Kongi, l'pirers tetilsals. 1879, p. 63.

11.-13. ependance Belge. December 18, i Sais. II.-B: issun. Dictionnaire de Peda.net distraction Pricaire. Vol. II, p.

VII.-Larouse? Pisanaaire l'airerel. Tol. xmr. p. 12.12 III.-Rapport le lie. Jarra: sares Ecoles Scandidares, pr. 21, 31, 90, 1625,

mil. IX-Rere Heggone neerut 13, 15, p. 514 . 11-tindas de Goi I P. II II! -Here Palace

1 mai 12, p. 944 II.1.-soba : E rhöie des Erziehergs uel l'aterrichtsweseos, rol. &

pptil, :13, 21, IX , Jessa. Palagonische Sà.32€, Bd. II, pp. 53-57.

XXIV.--Zeitung für das höhere Unterrichtswesen, November 3, 1887, p. 347. XXV.-Schweden: Volksunterrichtswesen, pp. 1-17, 23-26; Popular Instruction

pp. 22–25. XXVI.-Exposé statistique du Royaume de Suède. Expos. Universelle de Paris,

1878, pp. 140-145, 149–151, 158-159, 164-185, 193-194, 203-204. XXVII.-Kiddle and Schem. Cyclopædia of Education, pp. 801-802. XXVIII.- Die Gesundheitsverhältnisse in den Schulen Schwedens, von Prof. Asol

Key, pp. 1-17.
XXIX.--Statesmen's Year Book, 1890, pp. 946-951, 953.

XXX.--Education, March, 1890, p. 458.
XXXI.-Woman's Journal, February 8, 1890, p. 45.
XXXII.–Nature, January 20, 1887, p. 281.
XXXIII.- Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1884–85, p. ccxciv.
XXXIV.-The Pedagogical Seminary, Jannary 1, 1891, p. 10.
XXXV. --Journal of Education (London), January 1, 1890, p. 32; August 1, 1990,

p. 419. XXXVI. - Manual Training in Elementary Schools for Boys, A. Sluy. Part 2, pp.

49, 20, 50, Part 1, pp. 11-16, 20–25.
XXXVII.-Science, November 25, 1837, p. 256.
XXXVIII.-Land of the Midnight Sun, vol. 2, pp. 381-387, vol 1, pp. 13-24.
XXXIX.-Burgerstein, Axel Key's Untersuchungen, pp. 185-205, 194, 195, 197.

XL.-Revue Int. de l'Enseignement, December 15, 1890, p. 628.
XLI. -Swedish Catalogue, Statistics, Internat. Exhibition, 1876, Phila., pp.71-

72, 76–77, 87.

Constitutional monarchy: Area, 170,979 square miles; population, 4,748,257 (Dec. 31, 1888). Capital, Stockholm; population, 234,990 (xxix, pp. 946-951).

Minister of education and eclesiastical affairs, Dr. Gunnar Wenniersberg, appointed February 6, 1888.

Secretary general of the department, Dr. K. L. Husberg, 1889.
In charge of public higher education, Dr. E. F. Gustrin, 1882.

In charge of public elementary education, Dr. A. T. Bruhn, 1864 (XX, p. 1009).

INTRODUCTORY.

In Sweden the executive power is in the hands of the King, who acts ander advice of a council of state. The provincial administration is intrusted in Stockholm to a governor general, and in each of the twentyfour governments, to a prefect nominated by the King. The prefects are aided by officials termed Kronofogdar and Länsmän, and there is a general council which regulates internal affairs. Each rural parislı, and each town, forms a commune or municipality in which all who pay local taxes are voters. Each commune has a communal or municipal council wbich decides on all questions of administration, etc. (Law of March 21, 1862.) Ecclesiastical affairs and questions relating to elementary schools are regulated by the parish assemblies, presided over by the pastor of the parish. Towns having over 25,000 inhabitants, such as Stockholm, Göteborg, Malmö, and Norrköping, have their affairs administered separately by municipal councils. (XXIX, p. 949).

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