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I.GENERAL FEATURES OF THE SCHOOL SYSTEM.
Establishment.—The school system of Sweden is established by authority of the state, and is based upou the law of 1842 which provided for the establishment of a stationary school (fasta folkskola) in every church district or parish, or if local circumstances prevented, for the establishment of a migratory school (flyttande folkskola) in each district, and for the establishment of preparatory schools (småskolor) for young children in sterile or mountainous districts. Each chief town of a diocese is to have a teachers' seminary (normalskola); and since 1858, a higher elementary school (högre folkskola) is obligatory in villages and districts having more than 60 pupils. The secondary schools, which are referred to in detail on pp. 199, 200 with universities, professional schools, and special schools, complete the public school system. There are also private schools in towns. These are under the general supervision of the board of public education. (XXV, pp. 1-9; XXVII, pp. 801, 802; IX; X; XXVI, pp. 140, 141).
State control. The King is the highest school authority, and pos. sesses in school matters both legislative and executive power; the control of the various grades is vested in central boards of officers connected with the different ministries of the government. Elementary and secondary schools and the unirersities are adjuncts of the ministry of ecclesiastical affairs; special schools, of the ministry of the interior or of finance; military schools, of the ministry of army and navy. In connection with the department of ecclesiastical affairs are two divis. sions, the one for the oversight of elementary schools, the other for the secondary schools. Each has a board of council in charge; the universities are under the direct charge of a general board of council, with a chancellor at the head. The minister of education is at the head of these divisions, but school questions are submitted to the King for final decision (XXVI, pp. 144, 145; XXII, pp. 707, 713; XXVII, pp. 801, 802; XVI, p. 2835; XXV, pp. 6–8).
Local control.-The local management includes a school board for each district, which reports to the bishop and consistory in each diocese, school inspectors for each diocese, and local committees.
The cities of Stockholm, Göteborg, and Norrköping have special school laws, and in each of the cities a board of education has control of the schools, (XXVII, pp. 801-802; XXVI, pp. 141-145; XXV, pp. 6–8.)
Maintenance. Elementary schools are maintained by the district with help from the state. The state pays one-half of the teacher's salary and bears the expenses for the education of teachers and the payment of inspectors. State subsidies are also given for the purchase of school apparatus and school material in poor districts. The state maintains public secondary schools, with certain subsidies to private schools of
* It is stated tbat since 1876 the state pays two-thirds of teacher's salary. (XXVI, p. 159.)
this grade. It maintains the normal schools; the budget for 1886 included $87,752 for such schools, about $200,000 for the universities and medi. cal schools, and about $100,000 for technical instruction. There are also special subsidies for the extension of Slöjd training, for industrial museums and exhibits, and for the travelling expenses of persons who are making a study of industrial or technical work. (XVI, pp. 2838-9; XIX, p. 544; XXV, pp. 23–25; XXVI, pp. 158–159.)
Enrollment.-With a total population of 4,748,257 (in 1888), the schoolable pupils, that is, pupils between seven and fourteen years of age, were 746,768 in 1887. The number enrolled in elementary grades was 707,959.
Per cent. of population enrolled in schools.—The ratio of enrollment, i. e., the“ inskrifna," in these lower grades to total population was about 15 per cent. (XVIII, p. 21; xxix, p. 952.)
Elementary pupils and teachers. The number of lower elementary schools at date of January 19, 1888, was 10,143; of these 6,940 were stationary (" fastafolkskolor") and 3,203 were migratory schools (“flyttando* folkskolor”). Teachers, 11,852; women, 6,922; men, 4,930. The higher people's schools, or “ högre folkskolor” (established in agricultural districts for persons above the school age) numbered 23, with 870 pupils. (XXVIII, p. 21; XXIX, p. 952.)
The city of Stockholm had (in 1886) 10 elementary communal schools with 14,771 pupils. Including the higher elementary grades, the number reached 16,514. The budget for the city schools at that date was $220,454. (XVIII, p. 23.)
Secondary pupils and teachers.—The secondary schools (" högre allmänna läroverken,” which include the “ högre allmänna å Latinlinien fullständige läroverken," and "högre realläroverken ") numbered 78, with 14,030 pupils. (VI, pp. 81-83; IX; X; XVIII, p. 21; XXIX, p. 953).
* It may be stated that the ambulatory or movable schools are rendered necessary by the topography of the country, the many forests, hills, and lakes preventing the children from attendance oftentimes at the nearest stationary school. The elementary grades include the preparatory or småskolor, which are established as near home as possible in the mountainous districts, and in which the pupils are from seven to pine years of age. The högre folkskolor, or schools in agricultural districts for pupils above school age, are arranged so that the men attend during the winter, the women during the summer. In addition to elementary instruction, the students obtain knowledge applicable to every-day life. (xxv, pp. 16, 17; XVI, p. 2837 ; XVIII, P, 21.)
+ The secondary schools, imparting general information above that of the elementary grade, are generally called "elementar läroverken "or elementary schools. They are of two kinds, the higher or complete schools with 9 classes, the lower or incompleto schools with 2, 3, or 5 classes. They consist of classical and “modern" schools, corresponding in the main, the former to Latin schools and the German gymnasia; the latter to the German real schools. Pupils to be admitted must be nine years of age, and from the first class upwards there is a division in two departments. For the two highest there are teachers of special subjects; a mixed system prevails in the intermediate classes. Of the 78 schools of this class only 35 are complete schools with 9 classes, 23 have only 5 classes, the others 3 classes. A few private schools of a secondary grade for boys are found in the larger towns. Where they are complete schools they are privileged to hold examinations similar to the public schools; if incomplete, the course is less practical. In addition to the national schools aud seminaries and schools for special purposes (such as industrial arts, drawing, music, etc.) there are in most of the towns private or boarding schools for girls, only a few of which are supported by the state.” (VI, pp. 80-85; XXVI, pp. 164-165; XXVII, p. 802.)
The “pedagogier"* or schools in smaller cities furnishing instruction above, the “ folkskola,” numbered 18, with 355 pupils. (XVI, p. 2837; XXIX, p. 952; XXXIII, p. CCXCIV.)
For normalt training there were 7 schools for men in 1887, with 722 pupils, and 5 “normalskolor” for women, with 510 pupils, and 2 mixed schools. (IV, p. 4; XVII, p. 1201; XIX, p. 544; XXII, p. 715.)
Higher education. For higher education there are the two universities at Upsala aud Lund, and the Medico-Surgical Institute at Stockholm. In 1888-89 there were 1,816 students at Upsala University, Divided as to faculties : theology, 216; law, 457 ; medicine, 232; philosophy, 911. Number of students in 1988-89 at Lund, 872. A free university at Stockholm is reported, and in 1887 a movement was on foot to found a free university at Göteborg, a large sum of money having beeu sub. scribed for that purpose. (XIV, p. 63; XVI, p. 2839; XXIX, p. 952.)
Technical instruction is given in 2 high and 4 elementary tech. nical schools. Statistics wanting for 1888. In the Kongl. Tekniska Högskola i Stockholm in 1888 there were 236 pupils. Included under higher grade of instruction were 9 navigation schools with 438 pupils, also military schools, veterinary, and other schools. The 2 agricul. tural schools near Lund and Upsala receive state subsidies, and are under the direct control of the Academy of Agriculture in Stockholm. Statistics of institutions and schools for deaf-mutes will be found uuder supplementary institutions. (VIII, p. 37 ; XVII, p. 1202 ; XXIX, p. 952.)
Length of school year. The length of the school year is 36 weeks, divided into autumn and spring terms; the autumn term begins at the end of August and ends about the middle of December, that is, 16 weeks; the spring term continues 20 weeks from the middle of January to the middle of June. (XXVI, p. 148; XXIV, p. 347; XXV, p. 11-12.)
Average attendance of each pupil in school year.-Average attendance of each pupil in school year not known.
* The “pedagogier” are divided into 9 one-class and 9 two-class schools. They aro found in the sinaller cities; the instruction given is above tbat of the "folkskola," the main difference being that the subjects taught are not restricted by the plan of instruction in elemontary schools. (XXVI, p. 164; VI, pp. 80-85; XXII, p. 714; XXXW, p. ccxciv.)
tAccording to the decree of December 1, 1875, and of May 31, 1878, there was to be a normal school for men and one for women in each diocese-that is, 24 of these schools for the training of teachers; but in 1886 there were only 7 normals for men, 5 for women, and 2 mixed schools; pupils, 1,232. Since 1878, a centralization of such training has been made, and the number of these schools has greatly diminished, 23 will be seen by the numbors given above. (XIX, p. 544; XVII, p. 1201 ; XXII, p. 715.) * The following specific statements as to distribution of school funds were presented in 1871. Modifications may have occurred since that date, but careful research fails to find any marked change, except that since 1876 the subventions were to cover twothirds of the teacher's salary. (XXVI, p. 159.)
School age. The school age is seren to fourteen years, and school attendance is compulsory for children who have attained the age of nine years. (XXV, p. 9; XXVI, pp. 145-146.)
Income.—The income of schools is derived from general, district, and personal taxation, with state subsidies given under certain conditions.
As the elementary school is an establishment of the commune (each rural parish, and each town, forms a commune), each parish is presumed to maintain its schools of that grade, but since 1842 state subsidies aid in the school support.
A general tax* ("'folksskoleafgift”) is contributed by every tax payer for himself and household, this tax being levied on the principle that each member of the community able to work should pay for the education of poor children. Each school district can also impose a personal tax, which is not to exceed 11.3 cts. annually. In addition to this taxation the state gives its help on condition that the parish pays for the schools a sum equal to the above-mentioned school tax, and the parish must also contribute a certain sum for each kind of support from the state. The conditions are as follows: While the state pays two-thirds to the bigher elementary schools, the parish pays one-third. The state pays one-half * of the teacher's income, the parish the other half; the state one-third for preparatory schools, the parish two-thirds. The payment of inspectors for elementary education and the normal training of teachers are included in the state subsidy. There are also state subsidies for the purchase of school material in poor communities and for the pensioning of teachers. The receipts for school purposes are also increased by donations for the promotion of public instruction, which gifts vary from year to year. (XVI, p. 2838; XVII, p. 1102; XVIII, p. 20; XXV, pp. 22–25; XXVI, p. 158.)
Expenditure.-The above statement indicates how much of the fund for public elementary schools is accredited to the district or parish and how much to tbe state. The subsidies for the payment of teachers in higher elementary grades reach a maximum of $320; for certificated lower elementary teachers, at work during 8 months of the year, the maximum is $127, and for other teachers $40. The state expenditures for schools include public secondary schools and a few private schools of like grade. They include payments for the education of teachers, certain funds set aside for university, medical, and techuical instruction, and special subsidies for instruction in Slöjd, for industrial training, and for the expenses of persons travelling with a view of obtain.
ing knowledge in regard to industrial and technical education. In 1887 the total expenditure for elementary education, including amount raised by taxation in the districts, was $3,127,102; the state subsidy was $859,000. .
In 1886 the state subsidies were divided as follows: Normal schools ....
$92, 949 Scholarships for normal pupils ...
20, 100 Inspection of elementary schools...
25, 460 School apparatus.......
4,020 Subsidies for Higher elementary grades....
5, 360 Edncating Finns in northern sections of Sweden....
3,216 Teachers' wages in elementary and preparatory schools
771, 840 Higher people's schools.............
14,740 Schools for working classes...
4,020 Continuation schools......
8,640 Industrial education ......
6,700 Education of deaf, dumb, and blind....
The state expenditure for secondary and higher schools at sana date was.
$1,263, 594 Total for elementary and secondary education ........
y and secondary education .................... 32, 409, 615 The amount received from other sources is not presented. (XVI, p. 2838; XVIII, p. 21; XXIX, p. 932.)
Education is under the control of both state and local authorities.
State.-The state supervision is vested first and foremost in the King, who exercises the highest functions of the office through the ministry of ecclesiastical affairs and education. The ministry has a special divi. sion for all affairs appertaining to publicinstruction, including the general inspection of elementary schools. The chief of that division has special charge of normal schools or seminaries for the education of elementary teachers, but the supervision of these schools is exercised in part by the chapter* of the diocese in which they are situated. Special in. spectors are appointed by the King to take charge of elementary schools in each diocese. These inspectors are each appointed for a term of five years to supervise the schools in their respective districts according to
* The chapters consist of the bishop, as president, and, in most cases, of the dean or provost of the cathedral, and six teachers from the elementary schools of the town. (XLI, p. 83.)