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instructions issued by the department. They visit the schools in the districts to which appointed, and report to the district school board and cousistory of the diocese as to the improvements needed in the schools. At the expiration of their term of office as state officers, they must fur. nisl a complete review of school affairs in their district to the depart. ment of ecclesiastical affairs and public instruction. The inspectors receive an annual salary, and also allowance for travelling expenses and board. A special division of the ministry has charge of secondary and higher institutions, all matters pertaining to secondary schools being arranged by the bureau having charge of this grade of schools. The chief of the bureau acts as inspector-general of all secondary schools in the kingdom, and must visit them from time to time. The universities come under direct charge of a board of council, with the chancellor of the university as chief officer. (XVI, p. 2835; XXVI, pp. 144-145; XXVII, p. 802; XVIII, p. 20; XXII, p. 702; XXV, pp. 6–8; XLI, pp. 71-72, 87.)

Local. There is a school board for every school district-the school district may be one or several parishes. This school board is com: posed of the minister of the parish as chairman, and at least four members of the parishi, who are elected for four years. The board * superintends all the elementary and preparatory schools, devises rules for schools with regard to methods of instruction, discipline, etc., but submits its report for approval to the chapter of the bishopric of tbe diocese. It also extends its supervision over private schools as far as discipline and instruction are concerned, and it presents to the board of the diocese an annual report in regard to schools of the district (XVI, p. 2835; XLI, p. 71). In connection with these local boards it may be stated that in March, 1889, women were made eligible to local school boards and boards of guardians, and that this new order of things is very generally carried out (XIII, p. 1; xxx, p. 458; XXXI, p. 45). The bishop and chapter (consistory) in every dio. cese exercise a careful supervision over all schools, watch over the management and development of the same, and every third year they send in to the King an opinion as to the state of education in the diocese, to. gether with all necessary explanatory statements in regard to statistics, etc. Besides the school board of the district there are one or more inspectors for each diocese, who are appointed by the minister of educa. tion. (See state supervision.) (XXVI, pp. 144-145; XIV, pp. 6–8; XLI, pp. 71-72.) In the cities of Stockholm, Göteborg, Malmö, Jönköping, and Norrköping the schools are governed by special laws; and in each of the cities they are under the management of a board of education. (XXVII, p. 801.) The local management of secondary schools is under charge of the rector and council of teachers, who act as a board of school directors. The bishop as ephor of all the schools of the dioceso stands above the council of teachers. It is his duty to see that the schools under his superintendence fulfil the purpose for which they were established, and that the teachers in them carry out their duties faithfully. All matters that can not be decided by these authorities must be submitted to the minister of education, and by the ministry to the King for final decision.

* One member of this board is to be a physician, whose duty it is to visit the schools once a month, and to report as to health and eyesight of pupils, and in regard to hygienic condition of the schools. This plan, if carried out, is an outgrowth of the investigations of the Swedish hygienic commission. (XXVIII, p. 16.)

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The normal schools are under the direct supervision of the chapter of the diocese in which they are situated, but the chief officer of one of the divisions of the department of ecclesiastical affairs has a higher controlliug action over these schools.

The universities are under the charge of a chancellor, who has the chief management, but the immediate control is vested in the vice chancellor, the rector, and the academical consistory. (XXV1, pp. 144145; XXVII, pp. 801-802; XXV, pp. 6–8; XL, p. 87.)

V.-TEACHERS.

Preparation.—Teachers are prepared for positions in the elementary grades at normal schools, in several of which there are special classes to fit teachers for the “småskolor” or preparatory divisions of elementary schools.

In order to be adinitted to the normal school the candidate, who must be from 16 to 26 years of age, must pass an examination before a board of admission composed of the directors and professors of the school. He must also have a certificate of vaccination and be in good physical condition, and must be provided with a certificate from the pastor of his parish showing that he has been confirmed, and that he is of good moral character. The examination is especially severe in religious matters. Normal schools for men, at date of 1837, were situated at Karlstadt, Göteborg, Lund, Vexjö, Linköping, Upsala, Hernösand; for women at Skara, Kalmar, Stockholm (higher normal school), Faluu, and Umeå. There was also one at Haparanda on the Gulf of Bothnia, to prepare teachers for the “småskolor” among the Finns, and one for the Laplanders at Jokmok (“Laponie de Lulea ”). The Swedish language is taught in the last mentioned schools, but pupils of the Finnish and Lapland schools who desire to obtain a complete diploma as instructor must pass a year in the Swedish normals, the men at Hernösand and women at Umeå.

Normal schools are under the direct supervision of the chapters of the diocese through their principal or through their special inspector. They have as teachers a “ rektor” or director, who is assisted by four " adjunkten” or professors. These teachers are university graduates, and are supposed to have the grade of candidate in philosophy or theology, equivalent to licentiate in letters. Many of them possess the degree of Ph. D. (XLI, pp. 7677; XXVI, p. 156; Xix, pp. 545–547; XXV, pp. 20–23.)

Women who are teachers in normals must have pursued their studies at the “ Flögre Lärarinne-Seminarium och den därmed förenade norwalskola för flickor i Stockholm" (higher şeminary for teachers and the normal school for girls connected with it in Stockholm), but there are comparatively few women instructors in the normal schools. Each normal has a primary school of application attached to it. There are special masters for music, drawing, and gymnastics; a military instructor, a professor of horticulture, and a physician* who is instructor in hygiene, etc. The director has charge of the courses in religion and pedagogy, and Slöjd is taught by special masters at the schools of Stockholm, Kalmar, and Karlstadt, the normal school at Nääs preparing them for such position. (XIX, pp. 545--547.).

Examinations. A four years' course with an examination at the close of each year leads to the final examination, which entitles the student to a certificate licentia docendi, giving the right to teach. To obtain such graduation diploma, there are both theoretical and practical examinations. The written compositions cover a pedagogical thesis, a lesson in religion, and questions in regard to the Swedish language. The oral ex. amination lasts an hour in each branch. The practice lesson—the subject suggested twenty-four hours previously-covers an hour and a half in the school of application. A year's experience as teacher is required after the four years' instruction before the candidate can become a regular teacher. University study and graduation diplomas from normal schools are both requisite in order to obtain a position as teacher in the högre elementarskolor (secondary schools), or in the normal schools. (XXVI, p. 153; XIX, pp. 546-547; XXII, p. 713; IV, pp. 1–38.)

Appointment.-Special rules for the appointment of teachers are given in the school regulations sanctioned by the King. Teachers are appointed to the elementary grades by the school boards, which consist of the minister of the parish as chairman with four members as aids, if the proper normal certificate is presented. Three candidates for the vacant place are decided upon by the consistory of the diocese, then the school board chooses from among the three. The school board may also require the candidate to teach for one or two days, to show whether he is suited to the position. In rural districts the teacher is expected to fill the position of organist and sexton in the parish church, and in such case he must be familiar with music and he must also be able to vaccinate or to bleed a person. To obtain an appointment as teacher in the higher schools, university studies and attendance at a practice course in the normals are required. The consistory, that is, the bishop and chapter, selects three from the list of candidates and the school board appoints one of these three. For appointment in the preparatory, or “småskola,” the candidate, if he does not bring a normal

"A suggestion of the commission on hygiene, mentioned above, was to the effect that each teacher should be instructed in regard to health and hygiene, and that each school should have a teacher as hygienic assistant. (XXVIII, p. 16.)

certificate, must undergo examination before the school board. (XXI, pp. 713-714; XXVI, pp. 153–154; XXV, pp. 17-20.)

Tenure of office. No information.

Salaries. The salaries of teachers are said to be small in Sweùsn. The annual salary of a regular teacher in the elementary schools must not be less than 500 kronor ($134), including 8 tunnor (36 bushels) of cereals. (XXVI, p. 155; XXII, p. 713; XLI, p. 75; XVI, p. 2837.) If the teacher's term of service extends beyond eight months the salary is increased by two tunnor of cereals for each month. Each regular teacher is also supplied by the district with suitable apartments, necessary fuel, and a piece of land for the raising of vegetables. (XXVI, pp. 154-155; XXV, p. 19.) By a royal enactment every regular teacher who has kept his office blamelessly for five years is to receive a salary of not less than $160. Teachers at the higher schools receive from $268 to $402, besides apartments and fuel. In many localities, however, this legal minimum is exceeded. In the larger cities there are teachers in the elementary grades who receive from $375 to $482, and even as high as $589. In this latter case, however, the teachers do not have free lodging and other material assistance. Assistant teachers and teachers of the "småskola" are usually paid by the district authorities. (XVI, p. 2837; XXVI, pp. 154-155; XLI, pp. 74–75.) The teachers in secondary schools—that is, in Real schools, “pedagogier,” etc.-receive a higher grade of salary, the salaries being in proportion to the duties entailed upon them. (XXII, pp. 729-730.) A gradual increase in salary from year to year for principals or rectors and for certain special teachers will be noticed in the following table. (XVI, p. 2837; VII, p. 24.)

Teachers' annual salaries.

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Rektoren (principal) in

Crowns. Orowns. Orowns. Crorons. Crowne. higher Secondary schools.. 4, 500-$1, 206 5,000-$1,340.... 6 class secondary schools.. 3, 500 — 938 4,000= 1, 022... 3 class secondary schools.. 3,000= 804 3,500 938 ............................

938... 2 class pedagogier a...... 2, 5003 670 3.000 804 3, 500 = $939.... Lektoren (vice-principal) .... 2,500 070 3,000 804 3,500= 938 4,000-$1,072 4,500=31, 206 Adjunkten (protessors and teachers)...........

1, 500= 402 2,000= 636 2,500 670 3,000= 801 3,500= 933 Teachers at one-class pedagogier.......

1, 500= 402!... Music teachers in

higher secondary schools. 750= 2011 1,000= 268 1,250 335.....
5 class secondary schools.. 450 = 120
3 class secondary schools.. 300

80%.........
2 class pedag 'gier ......... 200 53
Drawing teachers in

higher secondary schools.. 1,000 - 268 1,250 - 335 1,500= 402.. 6 class secondary schools.. 600 160...

3 class secondary schools. . 300Gymnastic teachers in

higher secondary schools.. 1,000 268 1,250 335 1,500= 402
5 class secondary schools.. 600 160.
3 class secondary schools

and pedagogier .......... 300= 801.........

80........

a See note, p. 200.

The increase in the principal's salary at the higher secondary schools and five class schools comes after ten years' service as “rektor”; increase

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in salary at the three and two class secondary schools after fifteen years' service as ordinary teacher; the increase to 3,500 crowns ($938) in the two class pedagogier" is after twenty years' service; the increase in salary for assistant teachers and special teachers (as observed in table) after five years' service at the former grade of salary. In the universities at Upsala and Lund the professors' salaries range from $605 to $1,206, with an addition of from $268 to $402 from tuition fees. The private tutors receive no regular salary, but they average from $201 to $402 from tuition fees. (XXII pp. 730–734.)

Teachers' pensions. Teachers' pensions are an outgrowth of a royal enactment of the year 1866, by which districts or communities are to become shareholders in a pension fund for teachers. Shares in this fund are granted for amounts of not less than 500 crowns ($134), and not exceeding 1,000 crowns ($268), and the amount paid down, not by the teachers, but by the communities, is 4 per cent. of the share. The full pension, amounting to 75 per cent. of the share, is paid to a teacher if he has served thirty years and attained sixty years of age, and also if the applicant for the pension is afflicted with an incurable disease at that point of life when his age and term of service together amount to ninety years. Under certain circumstances a smaller pension may be granted. This is determined in proportion to the whole, and paid with a certain percentage. (XXVI, pp. 155–6; XXV, p. 20; XLI, p. 76.)

Teachers', institutes.-Teachers' institutes, or educational conventions, also aid in the preparation of teachers for their life work. The number and extent of these associations is not known to date, but at a'meeting held in Upsala in 1883 the subject of Slöjd training was under discussion, and at a meeting of teachers in August, 1888, reform in methods of religious instruction was fully discussed. (XII, pp. 256–7; xxxv, p. 419; XXXVI, pt. 2, p. 49.)

VI.-COURSE OF STUDY.

The general rules for instruction are that the exercises in the school shall be chiefly with a view to the development of the faculties; that the subjects to be taught must be introduced in suitable order; that the chil. dren, alternately with the reading exercises, shall early practice writing and counting; that the instruction in Bible history shall precede the catechetical instruction, and that the instruction in other subjects shall not be put off beyond the time when it can be profitably made use of by the scholars. In the higher people's schools the same subjects are taught as in the common or lower elementary grades, but with more extended courses of instruction. In the secondary schools a general education above the range of the people's schools is imparted, as well as an elementary knowledge of the sciences. The study of the latter is pursued still further, either at a university or at some higher scientific school. In the normal schools the instruction is partly theoretical and partly practical, the first two years being theoretical. Practical instruction is carried on

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