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in the second year by the pupils attending the instruction of the teacher in the practical department and by their assisting him (XXVI, pp. 149, 150; XLI, pp. 73, 74). The course of study in the primary schools comprehends religion, beginning with recital from Bible bistory and the doctrine of faith from Luther's catechism, Swedish language by the writing and reading method, writing, arithmetic, beginning with mental arithmetic—the first four rules being especially practiced-and geometry, geography, and history, with a connected review of Swedish history, and outlines of history in other countries, natural history, drawing, singing, gymnastics, and in combination with them military exercises such as marches, movements, etc., horticulture and arboriculture, and manual training. In the småskolor the course is limited to religion, exercises in reading and writing (XVIII, pp. 21-25; V, pp. 63-142; XXV, pp. 14–16; XXVI, pp. 150–157), arithmetic, drawing, singing, and gym. nastics. Religious teaching is compulsory in the schools, but since a discussion of this question at a gathering of teachers in August, 1888, it has been decided to give less time to this subject. In the schools of Stockholm a reduction of two-thirds—from thirty-eight to twenty-five hours-constitutes the present stage of reform. Instruction is to be less dogmatic in character, and more attention is to be paid to biblical history. (XII, pp. 256–7; XXXV, p. 419.) The course of study in the schools of Stockholm has book-keeping as an additional branch, and swimming for boys and girls in the summer-time. Natation is said to be obligatory in all the schools of Sweden, if they are not situated more than four kilometres from the sea.' (XVIII, p. 24). Skilled handiwork6 husslöjd ”_ for girls is taught in the elementary schools, from the first principles upward. In an elementary school at Nääs, established for this purpose, all feminine occupations, such as spinning, weaving, hand and machine sewing, and domestic economy, are taught to girls between ten and sixteen years of age. (XXXVI, part 1, pp. 20, 34). The training in "Slöjd” for boys is made a specialty in all schools-the word “slöjd ” denoting manual work peculiar to schools, but not strictly belonging to any definite trade; in “slöjd” the same individual finishes the whole piece of work undertaken. There are 860 special schools for this branch of instruction, and each elementary school has one or more workshops where all children exercise one or two hours daily in some branch of the work for which they have particular adaptability. Exhibitions of their work are also given. The criticisms of older pupils, teachers, or friends aid them in their work. The objects made are then utilized in the school room or are sold. In Stockholm 331 hours a year are devoted to this class of work; at Göteborg, where there are also regular industrial schools, pupils devote 6 hours a week, with 40 weeks in the year, to these branches. (XVIII, p. 25.) The work is regarded more as an educating process than as tending specially towards a trade. At Göteborg, for example, at the age of 10 or 11 years the children go into the workshop attached to the elementary school. The first year they are exercised in
wood work (carpentering, turning, and carving), on iron-work (at the forge), in paper and card board (book-binding), in color (house-painting), and in wicker-work (basket-making). The second year the pupil specifies what trade he wishes to pursue, and the apprenticeship lasts un. til about the fourteenth year. (XXXVI, part 1, pp. 11-16.) There is no programme, in any strict sense, after the first year. A master workman gives the instruction to a dozen or nuore pupils grouped together, the exercises giving opportunity for the handling of all tools peculiar to this class of work. (XXXVI, part 2, p. 53.) Every year those who have distinguished themselves by their industry or their progress receive a suitable reward in tools suited to their trade. At the close of the three years the pupils are so trained that they immediately receive pay from their employers. The object of this instruction in elementary grades is to exercise manual skill, to fix the attention and awaken intelligence, to give habits of order, to limit the construction to useful objects, to develop strength, and to present a progressive series, graduated according to difficulties of execution. (XXXVI, part 2, p. 50.) The normal school, “Slöjdlärare. seminarium," at Nääs, which fits teachers for Slöjd instruction, was established in 1875, and for five years its courses prepared teachers for schools of a technical character. The final examinations included theo. retical studies, a practical test in linear drawing and shop work, and a didactic examination in the school of practice. (XXXVI, part 1, pp. 20-25.) Since 1880 tbe course is modified, the theoretical course sup. pressed, and the instruction concentrated on manual work, with instruction in drawing, writing, ciphering, etc. Since then, the school is not limited to teachers merely, but it is open to all persons who have received diplomas from the school and who desire to introduce indus. trial education in the schools where they are employed. (xxxvi, part 1, pp. 20–25.) Lectures on pedagogy are given, and discussions take place in regard to the historical development of education and in regard to methods of manual training for primary grades. (XXXVII, p. 256.) The temporary normal course lasts 6 weeks and a review takes place the following year, covering 5 weeks. In general these two courses suffice for the preparation of teachers iu the construction of the hundred models of the series, if they continue the tool practice during the year which intervenes between the two. (XXXVI, part 1, pp. 20–25.)
The basis of the instruction at normal schools is noticed under train. ing of teachers, but, as a type of study in the higher seminaries, the course of study in the “Högre lärariuden seminarium och den därmed förenade normalskolan för flickor” (higher seminary for teachers and the normal school for girls connected with it) is presented. In eight normal classes and the three seminary divisions the studies are the his. tory of religion, a comprehensive curse in the Swedish, Danish, and Nor. wegian languages and literature with French, German, and English additional, aucieut and modern history, particularly in the Scandinavian countries, geography—both pbysical and political-mathematics, natą.
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ral sciences, and natural history, with lectures in physiology, and prac. tical instruction in pedagogy. Special classes for the preparation of teachers of the "småskolor” are found in the normal schools for women. (IV pp. 6–22.)
In the secondary schools religion, Swedish and German languages, mathematics, natural sciences, history, and geography, caligrapby and drawing, singing, and gymnastics are taught in the three lower classes, and are continued to a certain extent in higher classes. But at tbe commencement of the fourth class there is a division into classical and scientific courses, the former having Latin as its basis; the latter, mathematics and natural sciences. In the “ Reallinien"-so-calledEnglish is commenced in the fifth class; in the - Latin linien" pupils have choice between Greek and English in the sixth class. Those who choose Greek may, if desired, have instruction in the English classics during the last two years of the course. In both courses German lan. guage and literature are taught to the end of the seventh year. Physics, and in the “ Reallinien” chemistry, are included in the course daring the last four years, and philosophical propadeutics, i. e., logic and anthro. pology, in the last two years. (IVI, p. 2838; IX, pp. 8–14; X, pp.37-40.) This course is varied somewhat in different schools. The French language is usually included, and in the “Statens allmänna läroverken för gossar," which include the Latin and Real schools of Upsala, Lund, and Stockholm, Hebrew is a part of the course of instruction. (11, p. 14.) A preponderance of classical studies is especially noticeable in these schools, and in both elementary and secondary schools complaints in re. gard to the number of studies and of hours of study have brought about investigations concerning the health and eyesight of school children, which will be referred to farther on. (Lx, pp. 8–14; X, pp. 31-40; XXVIII, pp. 1-16.) • Special attention is paid to gymnastic exercises, which, according to Swedish methods, omit ropes, rings, parallel bars, etc., and simply present free and easy movementtending to produce suppleness and agility, and to exercise all organs of the boily. In connection with these are the military exercises which tend especially to muscular development. They are given to all the seven classes for half an hour each day; the fifth class has one hour, and the sixth and seventh classes two hours each week in the use of arms. At the beginning and end of each school year a more extended course of training is given in drill, target shooting, and field maneuvres for eight or ten weeks, to the pupils of the sixth and seventh classes. The “Gymnastika Central Institut," or cen. tral institute for gymnastics, founded by Henrik Ling, the inventor of Swedish gymnastics, is an especially poteworthy institution. Its course is in three departments. One to train officers to superintend gymnastics in the army and nary, a second to train teachers of gymnastics for the town and country schools, and a third for the study of gymnastics as a system of medical treatment. The Swedish system, as taught at this school, has been adopted in Germany, England, and other countries. (XVIII, pp. 16, 24; XXXVIII, p. 383.)
The technical elementary schools give both a theoretical and practical education, comprising mathematics, linear and freehand drawing, mod. elling, mechanics, mechanical technology, engineering, natural philosophy, chemistry, botany, zoology, modern languages, bookkeeping, and commerce. Mechanical trades are taught in free evening and Sunday classes. (XXVI, pp. 184, 185; XXXVIII, pp. 383-387; XVIII, p. 51.) The - Kongl. Tekniska Hogskola” in Stockholm, a higher type of technical school, adds geology and topography, road and canal construction, min. ing, and smelting. (VIII, pp. 8--17.) The “Ohalınerska Slöjdskola,” in Göteborg, omits the mining branches. In some of these technical schools there are divisions for art industries to which women are admitted, a regular theoretical course, and instruction in wood-carving, modelling, engraving, etc., being included. (XXXVIII, p. 381; XVIII, p. 50.)
The agricultural schools have a course of study leading up to the agricultural colleges, where the instruction comprises agricultural and rural economy with study of land laws, farm architecture, diseases of domestic animals, cattle raising, etc., in addition to such branches as chemistry, natural philosophy, and practical mechanics ; courses of lectures, finely illustrated, are also given by distinguished professors.
Among the many elementary and secondary schools there are private institutions, the course of study being such as to entitle the graduates to admission to the universities. There are also a large number of private professional and trade schools with courses of study similar to the public secondary and slöjd schools, (XXXVIII, pp. 331–387.)
For students who have successfully passed the examination at the «elementar-skolor” (secondary schools) there are the universities at Upsala and Lund which have complete theological, legal, medical, and philosophical faculties. Each faculty confers three degrees of scholar. ship, viz., the degree of candidate, of licentiate, and of doctor, and it is stated that no man in Sweden can be a clergyman, a lawyer, or doctor unless he has graduated at either Upsala or Lund. The student is free to follow any course that he desires, and all instruction is gratuitous. The academic year is divided into two terms, the one from September 1 to December 15, and the other from January 15 to the first of June. (XLI, p. 87.) Among the teachers are found training masters in music, draw. ing, gymnastics, and fencing, and in horsemanship at Upsala.
Women are admitted as students in the universities after passing the regular examination; they are allowed to follow the studies of their choice, and some are on the rolls as students of philosophy and medi. cine. (XXVI, p. 195.)
Comprehensive courses of study for the professions are found in the mpedico-surgical institute, in the institute of pharmacy, in military and naval schools, and in other higher grade schools. (XXXVIII, pp. 381390; XXVI, pp. 193–195; XXII, p. 737; XVI, p. 2839.)
VII. SCHOOL MANAGEMENT AND METHODS OF DISCIPLINE.
Methods.-The management of the school is left almost entirely to the teacher, and be is free to carry out his views in regard to grading the studies, arranging class work, otc., providing he keeps within prescribed limits for each course. His school is, bowever, subject to inspection from time to time, and the general progress in the schools, lieeds of reform, if any, are reported by the inspectors to the consistory annually, and to the department of ecclesiastical affairs and education every fifth year. (XLI. p. 71.)
Discipline.—The principal keeps a class journal in which he notes from hour to hour the incidents of the day, the cases of corporal punishment, neglect of duty, mistakes occurring, visits received, etc. This journal assists the teacher in exercising control over himself, and aids in keeping up the discipline of the school. (XVIII, pp. 16, 21, 23, 25.)
Study and recitations. The schools of Stockholm, under the direction and inspection of M. Meyerberg for twenty-five years, and which serve as models for the whole country, bave developed the following methods, viz: After forty-five minutes' work, teachers and pupils go out into the court or school yard and reinain ten minutes engaged in exercises of different kinds. Fifteen minutes after the close of the lesson, invigorated by the change, they are back in well-aired rooms with body and mind rested and ready for another lesson. No lesson lasts more than forty-five minutes, and while the programme of studies is very complete, overpressure is avoided by the above arrangement. The school commences at 8 o'clock, lasts till 1, and during that time one of the recesses is extended to thirty minutes so that pupils and teachers can take their lunch. This management is said to bring about admirable results, the physical and the mental being equally in training at the same time. (XVIII, pp. 18, 22.)
Promotion of pupils.—The promotion of pupils from class to class takes place at the end of each year after an examination in presence of the district director, two pastors of the neighborhood, several of the teach. ers, the inspector, parents, and others. The examination is a kind of festal occasion, schoolrooms, blackboards, etc., being decorated for the occasion. The work accomplished by the popils is on exhibition, and the teachers examine orally iu the different branches. The wbole esamination bas a quasi-familiar air, the pupils and teachers seeming quite at ease. (XVIII, p. 16.)
Formation of programmes.—The formation of programmes is unknown to date.
Buildings and grounds.—The school law prescribes that every schoolhouse shall be coustructed according to certain requirements; the school rooms to be sufficient in number, light, and high-studded, provided