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with fireplaces, and arranged with strict regard to the health of pupils, and with necessary conveniences for instruction. As a result of this law the school buildings are large and well arranged with wide stairways and well ventilated and well lighted class rooms, the light usually coming from the left side. New school buildings have furnaces in the cellar, ventilators,* separate buildings for gymnastic exercises, cloak rooms for each class, suitable toilet arrangements, two work rooms where the teachers correct class work, prepare their lessons, rest when they are at liberty, and have lunch. Independent of these is the principal's room, where parents, teachers, and pupils are welcome morning or evening. The court-yards or play grounds for each sex are spacious, and sometimes there is an additional garden for women teachers.
In Stockholm the school buildings are of a high type of architecture with vast covered galleries upon which open the class rooms. The walls of these class rooms are wainscoted and adorned with engravings and plaster casts. The seating capacity of each class room is for thirty-six pupils, each pupil having a chair and table. (XVIII, p. 11.)
Hours of school.-The hours of school are usually from five to six a day, with intermissions of a few minutes between hours, but in some schools instruction is given in the forenoon only. (XXVI, p.' 148; XXV, pp. 11-12.)
Length of recesses.-The length of recesses varies; it may be a few minutes, fifteen minutes, or half an hour. (XVIII, p. 18; XXV, pp. 11-12; XXVI, p. 148.)
Holidays and vacations. The vacations are of three consecutive months in Sweden, and the instruction generally covers eight school months divided into two terms, but sometimes into three or four terms. In a few schools instruction is given during nine or ten months. (XXVI, p. 148; XVIII, p. 18.)
Compulsory attendance.—Attendance upon school is compulsory for children who have attained their ninth year, and all who do not receive instruction at home or in private schools must attend public schools. The instruction generally begins with the seventh and lasts till the fonr. teenth year. Children whose parents are not able to keep them in school during that period are aided by the authorities. (XXVI, p. 146; XXV, p. 9.)
School supply.—The schools are well supplied with apparatus, and every school has a library to which additions of books are made each term. There are also school museums with zoological, geological, and bo
"The statements made in 1383 by the comipission appointed to investigate the hygienic coudition of school buildings, sickness of children, near-sightedness, etc., indicate tbat at that date the school rooms were not well aired or properly ventilated. The ventilators were arranged so near the floor, the pupils could not sit near them ; the ventilation pipes were often filled with mortar, and the air became very impuro; tbe carbonic acid in the air increased from 0.67 before school to 2.34 parts in a thonsand after one hour, even with windows and ventilators open before the commencoment of the session. (XXXIX, pp. 188-205, 194-197.)
tanical collections, and the gymnastic hall attached to each educational institution is fully equipped. (XXXVIII, p. 378.)
Libraries and museums.-Sweden possesses libraries and museums connected with most educational institutions, and in the higher grade schools fine laboratories for chemical experiments are found. There are also public libraries in the various districts containing books of an educational and scientific character, which are freely loaned to the people of the district. Among the most noted libraries, which serve as aids to learning, are the Royal Library at Stockholm, the libraries connected with the universities at Cpsala aud Lund, the library connected with the Academy of Sciences at Göteborg, the polytechnic library, the library connected with the Institut Carolin, that of the central bareac of statistics, and of the Academy of Fine Arts, History and Archæology, the collections varying in numbers from over 200,000 volumes in the first mentioned library to about 15,000 in the last mentioned institution. The museums which serve as aids to education are the national museum, with sections for industrial and fine arts; the state historical museum, or "Ryks museum,” which is rich in antiquities; the unuseum of the Swedish Society for Arts and Trades, “Srenska Slöjdforeningen," aiming to develop industries; the Scandinavian ethnographical museum; and museums at Göteborg and tdderralla. (IIVI pp. 198, 203-210; XXIVIII, rols. 1, 2.)
Societies-A large number of learned and scientific societies may be classed under this head, i. e., the Swedish Academy, founded in 1786, aiming to increase knowledge of the language and history of the country; the Academy of Sciences, “Vetenskaps Akademien:" the Academy of Literature, History, and Archæology, “Vittertets, Historia, och Antiqvitets Akademien;" the Academy of Agriculture, “LandtbruksAkademied;" the Academy of Fine Arts, “Akademien för de Fria Konsterna ;" the Academy of Music, "Musikaliska Akademien;" and the Academy of Military Sciences, “ Krigsvetenskaps Akademien," which aids progress in military sciences; the Society for the Historical Study of Scandinavian Paleography, - Samfundet för Utgifvande af Handskrifter rörande Skandinaviens Historia;" and many other societies which promote the study of geology, anthropology, archæology, medicine and pharmacy, horticulture, pedagogs, etc. (XXVI, pp. 202203; XIVI, pp. 199–203; IL, pp. 96-97.)
Another society, the “Handarbetet-Vänner," established in 1874, encourages and develops home industries for women, especially from the artistic side, instruction being given in embroidery, lace making, and wearing. (ITII, p. 53.)
School sarings banks.-Savings banks and postal savings banks are thorougbly established in Sweden and benefit a large class of employés, but whether there are school savings banks is unknown to date. (Xy, sup.)
Charities.-Public charities for the benefit of the working classes and others are quite numeroas. There are hospitals and societies, twenty charitable institutions to help the ignorant and vicious, temperance societies, and in fact philanthropic institutions too numerous to men. tion. (XV, sup.)
Schools for special classes. Among the schools for special classes is the school for the deaf and dumb at Manilla, which was also open to the blind until recently, but now the blind to the number of 400 are taught in special institutions supported by the state. The instruction for this class is both theoretical and practical, comprising preparatory and primary courses, and special attention is paid to Slöjd training.
Instrumental music and singing and trades suited to their condition are also taught. There are eighteen schools for deaf mutes, four of them state institutions, six established by communities, and the others free schools with scholarships established by the government. A normal department for teachers of this class is attached to the Manilla school. The course of study is two years in duration, and pupils are taught by the articulation method.' (XVIII, pp. 29, 33, 37, 40.)
The Society for the Education of Idiots has established seventeen schools for this class since 1866, allsupported by the state, and with women in charge. The course of study covers object lessons, religious instruction, reading, writing, dictation, singing, gymnastics, domestic economy, and skilled handiwork; for girls, spinning, weaving, lace-making, rug. making, and knitting; for boys, work in the garden, cabinet-making, wood carving, and other suitable occupations. (XVIII, pp. 37, 40.)
Olassed among the institutions for special classes are orphan asylums, those under the auspices of the Masonic fraternity and of the society "Pro Patria” being especially mentioned. An orphan asylum in Stock. holm places its children in the country to be brought up among the agricultural classes. Special institutions for abandoned children are not reported in Sweden. (XXVI, p. 232, 161.)
The people's schools in Sweden, as in Germany, may be said to be a creation of the Reformation, although prior to that there were cloister schools taught by the Catholic priests, while mendicant friars wandered about from place to place teaching the church commandments, but omitting all instruction in reading and writing. During the sixteenth century Catholicism was crowded out, and Protestantism took its place as the religion of the country. The Protestant Kings, Gustavus Vasa, Charles IX, and Gustavus Adolphus, vied with each other in trying to educate the people, and it is stated that in 1637 there were few children of the peasant class who were unable to read and write. In 1610 Queen Christina, aided by her counsellors, established a school or pedagogie in every city belonging to the Swedish Crown. The lowest class was an "ABC" class, but at a later date these schools were metamorphosed into the grade of burgher schools. Forty-six years later King Charles IX commanded his chaplains to see that all children were taught to read, and by ecclesiastical law of 1686 promulgated an order that no person should marry unless he could repeat Luther's catechism and had partaken of the Lord's Supper. As a result of this law, the peasantry endeavored to establish schools and called upon the govern. ment for aid through state subsidies. The government not having the necessary funds at disposal, and the peasants being too poor to carry on the schools themselves, the ambulatory school was considered the best substitute for the desired stationary school, and it was not until a century and a half later that an organization of the schools took place. The ambulatory school of that date is thus described : The teachers were ignorant and frequently unfitted for the position. The schools were held in the peasants' huts, with the domestic affairs carried on in the same room. The "master," as he was called, sat at one end of the table with the "A BO” children near him on benches without backs. The older pupils sat fartber away, with their books on their laps, while only the few who were learning to reckon and to write were allowed to sit at the “master's" table. The text-books consisted of the primer, the smaller and larger catechism, and singing books. When any pupil was competent to read in these books he was supposed to no longer reqaire instruction. In 1786 efforts were made to improve upon this class of schools, and governors of provinces and the church consistory were called upon to establish regular schools, to build schoolhouses, to arrange for the payment of teachers, eto. But unfortunately these plans failed of fruition, for during the eighteenth century not more than 165 stationary schools were established. The first earnest efforts towards an improvement in educational matters were observed in 1820, when the consistory and clergy were ordered to examine into the teacher's fitness for the position occupied, so that no persons of bad reputation should be allowed to instruct children. In 1824 a new order established schools according to the Bell-Lancaster system, and forbade any persons holding the position of sexton (who is the teacher in rural districts) upless familiar with that system. The associations established at Stockholm and Göteborg for the extension of this moni. torial system aided in this matter by the funds wbicb they were able to accumulate. Normal schools were established at Stockholm and Lund for the preparation of teachers, a greater uniformity in meth ods of instruction was brought about, and the general deportinent of teachers was improved upon. Stiil the school was only a private institution, and the attendance of children was left entirely to the parents, so that at that date the percentage of attendance of pupils of school age was very low.
After lengthy discussions in regard to educational affairs, the organization of the schools was taken up in 1840-41, and a law was passed on June 18,1842, which entirely reorganized the school system. As an outcome of that law, the number of stationary schools increased from 165 in 1800 to 786 in 1812, and to 6,448 in 1883. This law was superseded by one of January 20, 1882, which retained, however, many features of the original law. The laws being similar, the main points of that of 1882 are interpolated here. According to that law, every district in the city and every parish in the country was to have at least one stationary school with a trained teacher. Still, in case of a sparse population, several districts were allowed to unite in the establishment of such schools. Each school district was to have a school board, and to pay for its own school buildings. All children of school age were to be enrolled in the schools, and in the principal town of the bishoprio normal schools were to be established.
As will be observed, a special feature of the school system is the influence of the church over the school. While every district bas its school board, the board is under the control of the church authorities, and merely acts as executive for the consistory. The school inspectors have a sort of counteracting influence, however, and act in a measure for the government. Yet, while the teacher is subordinate to the church authorities, the church's controlling action is such that steady progress in educational affairs is observed.
In 1858, by the addition of certain branches the "småskolor” were made preparatory divisions of elementary grades, and higher people's schools were established at which the teachers were expected to have a higher class of attainment, and the school was to be superior in char. acter to any established before. The government granted subsidies to the different districts to aid in the establishment of these schools. In 1871 the schools, Stockholm excepted, had increased to 7,118, among them 10 higher people's schools, 2,268 stationary schools, 1,164 ambu. latory schools, and 2,676 småskolor. The number of teachers' semiDaries required by law of 1842 had diminished greatly during this period, as a centralization of such instruction had been determined upon. The above schools had increased in 1883 to 9,794, among them 13 higher people's schools, 6,448 stationary schools, and 3,346 ambulatory schools. The number of pupils of school age was 716,025, and au average of about 73 pupils of school age to each scbool is observed. According to school regulations every pupil must attend school, or be properly taught at home, and children who are taught at home must come to the school for yearly examination. Instruction is gratuitous, but the parish has the liberty, if additional funds are needed, of demanding a small sum for each child who is not too poor to pay, though this demand is seldom made. Private schools are also under the supervision of the regular board, so that there is perfect correspondence between public and private instruction. (XXII, pp. 707-710; XXIII, pp. 63–54.)
Secondary schools also date from a very early period, the instruction