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being first given in cloister schools and by monks. The secondary schools were a creation of the Reformation, as were the lower schools. An ecclesiastical decree of 1571 is looked upon as the first Swedish school law, unless papal letters of an earlier period may be so called. Accord. ing to this law, each school had a schoolmaster, and if there were too many pupils one of the hearers" aided him. Religion, Latin, Swedish language, and hymns were taught, but whoever desired to learu Greek and Hebrew had to look out for such instruction himself. Gustavus Adolphus first established gymnasia, and in 1649 Queen Cbristina, his daughter, promulgated a decree which divided the schools into people's schools and higher schools. The former had as course of study read. ing, writing, and the elements of arithmetic, religion, and Latin; the latter were divided into the ethnological, the syntactic, the rhetorical, and the logical classes. The lower classes bad class teachers; the upper class, in which Latin was the language spoken, was taught by a rector and assistant rector. The branches were Greek, rhetoric, logic, and arithmetic; history and geography were not taught. The first gerin of the burgher school, the precursor of the Real school, was found at that date in the "writing classes," in which were taught catechism, read. ing, writing, the mother tongue, and arithmetic through the quartanos. This was the basis of the “trivial” i school, which is still in existence to-day after two hundred years. The gymnasia of that period had four classes with instruction in doctrinal theology, Hebrew, natural sciences, mathematics, and the basis of the Swedish laws. History and geography were taught later, but only verbally. A decree of King Charles XI, in 1693, added a fifth class to the gymnasia. Church history and moral philosophy were added to the course, and while it was especially speci. fied that the trivial school was to fit for practical life, the gymnasia was gradually verging towards a church seminary. The consistory had full control of these schools, and by law of 1724 no one except a resident of the church district could be appointed to a teacher's position, From that date to 1807 a more practical turn was given to the trivial schools ; physical training was attempted, physics, anthropology, history, geography, and bookkeeping were added to the course. The school law of 1807 added Swedish statistics and modern languages to the course in the gymnasia, changed the pedagogier of tbat period into burgher schools, and planned to have a general course of study for the lower classes of gymnasia, burgher, and trivial schools. (XXI, pp. 718-721, VII, pp. 1-17.) This plan was opposed by the charch consistory, and a commission was appointed in 1820 through whose efforts new regulations were made which brought out the distinct subdivision of classical and non-classical schools or those which dealt with the old-classic humanities as apart from those which dealt with the encyclopædic realities; but this law failed to meet the requirements of the Real and burgher schools, and agaiu in 1828 another commission was appointed to investigate the whole subject of education. New methods were adopted which sanctioned greater freedom of instruction, introduced optional branches, allowed each student to go to a higher class whenever he showed fitness for such change, grouped all students together in one large room where the teacher could go about from pupil to pupil and suggest as to methods of study, brought about a state of monitorial instruction, the farther advanced helping those less so, and permitted the passing of graduation examinations for the universities with the classics omitted. The so-called new elementary schools, “ Nya elementarskolor," of Stockholm were established on this principle. Even this plan failed to satisfy the learned men of Sweden, and from 1828 to 1845 discussions took place in regard to a revision of methods by which a reuniting of the higher classical schools and gymnasia was accomplished. (XXII, pp. 721-723). On July 16, 1819, a royal decree united the writing classes (burgher schools) and trivial (or Real) schools into an institution in which instruction was given in all branches taught in both; made the gymnasia preparatory schools for the univer. sity, and created the “elementar läroverken” which were the means of greatly increasing attendance in the higher grades of schools and in tbe universities; but this decree brought in a class of pupils unfitted for the bigher courses and unable to keep up with them. (XXIV p. 347.) The opposition of the consistory, the lack of system, and the superficial knowledge of too many studies were very perceptible at this period of affairs, and in 1856 when the encyclopædic methods of study were at their height other attempts were made to still improve upon former educational plans, but the new decrees only served to add to the confusion, while those of 1859 simply adhered to the so-called new methods, strengthened the study of the classics, and limited the special studies. From that date gradual changes were made until a new law of November 1, 1878, was promulgated. This law still holds good. But again in 1882 a new commission was appointed to remodel the secondary grade of instruction. The results of the investigations of this commission were presented in 1884, but their antipathy to the classics was so apparent as to awaken opposition among the school officials, and it is doubted whether the proposed reorganization will be carried out. One point specified by the commission was the removal of the secondary schools from the control of the ephor (bishop), and the appointment of a special higher school officer or council, to have direct charge of these schools. This officer was to deal directly with headquarters, and to relieve the ephor and school inspectors under his charge in regard to all points appertaining to school organization, hours of study, programmes, reports to higher school officers, etc. But so much oppo. sition to this plan was engendered, that latest advices would indicate its non-acceptance by the people. (VII, pp. 23, 137, 144-160; XXII, pp. 723-724.)
1 In the Middle Ages the trivium, from which the word trivial school is derived, in. cluded the studies of grammar, rhetoric, and logio; to-day the term is understood to include the ordinary branches required in practical life.
Among other questions proposed by the commission were whether studeuts who had not pursued classical studies could be admitted to university examinations, and whether the preparatory examinations were suitable for all university requirements, these queries being an outgrowth of discussions concerning the preponderance of Latin and Greek in the secondary schools. The answers presented by the members of the different university faculties varied somewhat in character, but the decision as a whole was in favor of more modern studies suited to the progressive movements of the times, and with less Latin and Greek. (VII, pp. 155–160; 1, pp. 236-238.) The medical faculty at Stockholm considered the superabundance of Latin in the classical schools unnecessary and the studies in natural sciences and other branches found in the Real schools better suited to requirements for physicians, and it was conceded that botany and zoölogy as well as chemistry and physics were needed for the preliminary merlical examination.
The school commission appointed by the Swedish Government in 1883-84 to inquire into the organization of the higher grade schools also examined as to their hygienic conditions, the investigations covering general health of school children, overpressure, and near-sightedness. The commission examined 14,722 boys and 3,246 girls and found that 13.5 per cent. of the boys were suffering from headaches, 34.4 per cent. of boys in the lowest classes of middle schools were troubled with sickness, that the illness-curve (the results being given in diagrams and tables of ratios and percentages) increased from 37 per cent. in the sec. ond school year to 40 per cent. in the fourth year, as the burden of work increases from class to class. This sickness-curve corresponds with the growth period of the boys, or from the seventh to the thirteenth year. In the Latin schools, the sickness was about 50 per cent; in the real schools, about 40 per cent.; in Stockholin the per cent. of sickness was greater than the general average throughout the Kingdom. The percentage of near-sightedness rose from 6.1 per cent. in the lowest class of the secondary grades to 37.3 per cent. in the highest Latin class. (XXVIII, pp. 1-16.)
In the girls' schools 61.7 per cent. were suffering from disorders, many from constant headaches, 10 per cent. from spinal complaint, and here again it was apparent that a reorganization of the school system was necessary, as the overpressure of studies and the number of hours of work caused this liability to illness. The regular gyınpasial schedules presented seven hours of work daily in the lower classes, with an increase to eleren or twelve hours in the higher classes, and this did not include private instruction or optional studies. As the girls' schools are modelled on similar plans to those for boys, the canses of illness are easily determined. Computations as to the average time of work in each class of the boys' schools indicated that the amount of illness of those who worked longer than the average was 5.3 per cent. higber than that of those who worked a less number of hours. That is, among the boys who worked a shorter time than the average 50.8 per cent were ill, while among those who worked more than the average 56.1 per cent. were classed as sick. A comparison between the bigher grade schools and elementary grades was not made, as the commission did not take these lower schools into consideration. This was done in Denmark, however, in 1881, when the hygienic conditions there were investigated, and the results presented by the Danish commission were such as to indicate a similar percentage of sickness in both elementary and secondary grades. (XXVIII, pp. 1-16.)
The reorganization brought about by the investigations of the Swedish commission is to include the appointment of a school physician. He is to visit each school once a month to consider hygienic conditions, to measure and weigh the pupils at the beginning and end of the year so as to report upon their growth, to examine as to nearsightedness, etc. He is also to be consulted about school programmes and hours of study, 80 that there will be less liability to over-pressure and consequent illness. The teacher is expected to act as his assistant, so far as daily watchfulness is concerned, and to consult with him in regard to possible changes of method. Since the publications of these investigations other edacational reforms have been attempted from year to year, all tending towards improvement in methods and with the special object of shorten. ing the number of hours of study. The present plan of reconstruction seems to be to throw Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Sanscrit out of the intermediate schools and gymnasia, and place them in a special department of the university. (XXXIV, p. 10.) This is probably the result of a suggestion to the Goverument made by the Swedish university committee that the youngest students should receive instruction similar to that given at the school; that the professor is personally to advise beginners how to plan and commence their university studies; that he is to ascertain by oral and written examinations whether the students fol. low his advice, and finally that none but those who pass an examination are to be admitted to the higher elasses, where scientific lectures by the professors are the students' sole guide.* (XXV, p. 32.)
* The latest progressive movement is that of the studonts of the University of Upsala, who, in 1891, are to present a request to the King that instruction in military adininistration and organization be given at that university. The course to cover military history and strategy of defense in case Sweden is attacked. Fifteen to twenty lessons a year to be given. (XL, p. 628.)
II.-THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF FINLAND.
AUTHORITIES CONSULTED. 1.-Statistisk Arsbok för Finland, 1888–90, pp. 95-119, 161-162. II.--Statistisk Öfversigt af Elementarläroverkens i Finland tillstånd och verksam.
bet, läveåret, 1888-39, pp. 1-47. III.--Polytekniska institutet i Finland: Berättelse för läseåret, 1838-'89, pp. 1-27. IV.-Brahestads Borgare och Handelsskola. Berättelse, 1856–87, pp. 22-28.
V.-Vor Ungdom. Haefte 1-2, 1890, pp. 70-80; Haoft 1, 1891, pp. 83-90.
position Universelle de 1878 à Paris), pp. 47–57. VII.--Rovista do Educação e Ensino, Lisboa, Oct., 1890, pp. 459-467; Nov., 1890,
pp. 497-504. VIII.-Larousse : Dictionnaire Universel, t. 9, p. 401. IX.-Fortnightly Review, Jan., 1891, pp. 50-65.
X.-Barpard's Journal of Education, v. 24, 1873, pp. 209-224. XI.--Statesman's Year Book, 1890, pp. 816-391, 843-844. XII.-Almanac de Gotha, 1890, p. 981. XIII.-Buisson's Dictionnaire do Pédagogie et d'Iustruction Primaire, t. 2, 1re partie, p. 2659. The references in the following statement correspond in nuniber to the foregoing.
INTRODUCTORY. Finland; Grand Duchy; area, 144,255 square miles; population, 2,270,912 in 1887. Capital, Helsingfors; population, 55,740. (XI, pp. 846, 891.)
Department of ecclesiastical affairs, sciences, fine arts, and public instruction, Dr. G. Z. Yrjö.Koskinen in charge of educational affairs. (XII, p. 981.)
Finland has been annexed to Russia, but not incorporated in it. Since it was ceded to Russia on September 17, 1809, it has preserved, by special grant of Alexander I in 1810 (renewed by his successors), some remains of its ancient constitution, which, dating from 1772, was reformed in 1789, and slightly modified in 1869 and 1882. There is a national Diet consisting of nobles, clergy, burghers, and peasants, who discuss laws proposed by the Emperor. Schemes of laws are elaborated by a committee for the affairs of Finland in St. Petersburg. Four of the members of this committee are nominated by the Crown (two of them being proposed by the senate). The senate, which sits at Hel. · singfors, is nominated by the Crown. It is under the presidency of the governor-general, who represents the Czar. The senate is the supreme administrative power in Finland, and consists of two departments, justice and finance, which have the administration of various divisions of the internal affairs of Finland. The educational system of Finland is separated from that of Russia. (XI, pp. 813, 814; XIII, p. 2659.)
1.-GENERAL FEATURES OF THE SCHOOL SYSTEM. The school system includes four classes of schools, grouped as elomentary, higher, professional, and for the education of the deaf, dumb, and blind. All except the professional schools are in charge of a cen. tral board of education at Helsingfors. (VI p. 47.)