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Establishment. The establishment of public schools was brought aboat by a decree of April 19, 1858, which required rural districts to establish stationary schools, and promised them governmental support. The diet of 1863–64 having voted necessary funds for promoting popu. lar education, a decree of May 11, 1866, definitely organized elementary instruction in Finland. According to this decree each town was to provide a sufficient number of elementary schools for all children between seven and fourteen years of age, who were not being educated at home, or in schools of a higher grade. Schools must be established also for pupils of a more advanced age who were without earlier advantages. According to this decree elementary schools were to be divided into lower and higher grades, the former for children between six and ten years of age, the latter for those between ten and fourteen years. In rural communes the earliest instruction of children is given in families, but by this same decree the authorities are required to see that if such instruction is not given the children attend either a stationary or ambulatory school. (VI, pp. 47, 48; VII, pp. 459–461.)
Control.—The control of the school system is vested in a higher school board_"Öfverstyrelsen for Skolväsendet”-at Helsingfors. This board is an adjunct of the Imperial Senate of Finland, and especially con. nected with the administrative section of public instruction and wor. ship. An inspector in chief, appointed by the Czar, as suggested by this higher council, acts as inspector of elementary and normal schools. There are also local inspectors, provided for by law of 1869, in each gov. ernmental subdivision of Finland, and in each district, or commune, a local board of education composed of from four to six members. (x, p. 218; VII, pp. 464, 465.)
Maintenance.-The schools are maintained by both state and local funds. The state gives an annual subsidy for the payment of teachers, providing the district constructs suitable school buildings and furnishes the teacher with lodging and ground around it. Private schools also receive state subsidies. The school budget contains subsidies for second. ary, higher, professional, and special schools. (VI, p. 48; I, p. 161.)
II.-STATISTICS. Population, 2,270,912 (in 1887); enrollment in elementary schools, 62,893; ratio of enrollment to total population, 2 per cent. (XI, p. 846).
Elementary schools, pupils, and teachers. There were 971 elementary schools (fasta folkskolor) reported in 1887–188 in Finland; teachers (lärarepersonal), 1,261; pupils in elementary and infant schools (barn. skolor), 62,893; boys, 34,113; girls, 28,780. (I, pp. 106, 107).
Secondary schools, pupils, and teachers. The secondary and professional schools' (elementarskolor and realskolor) in 1887–88 were 27 in number; teachers, 172; pupils, 1,051. The lyceums (lyceer) were 28 in number; teachers, 432; pupils 4,461. The 4 preparatory schools (förskolor) for pupils desiring to enter the lyceums had 13 teachers and 159 papils. Classed under secondary schools are 52 institutions for girls, with 559 teachers and 4,057 pupils. There are also 5 industrial schools (indnstriskolor), with 37 teachers and 255 pupils. (I, pp. 100–117; VI, p. 51.)
* Finland, as well as Sweden, classes its secondary schools under the heading Ele. mnentarläroverkeo. All schools inentioned in this paragraph are included under that head.
Higher education.—The 4 normal schools (folkskollärare och lärarinueseminarier) had 45 teachers and 563 pupils. The " Universitet i Hel. singfors” had 90 professors and 1,703 students, 14 of them women. Classed under secondary and higher education are the following special schools : The “Polytekniska Institutet,” with 31 professors and 132 stn. dents in 1888–89; 7 navigation schools (navigationsskolor), with 113 pupils; 6 commercial schools (handelsskolor), with 57 teachers and 297 pupils; 31 Sunday schools for apprentices in 1886, with 111 teachers and 2,111 pupils ; 12 agricultural schools (landtbrukslärorerken), with 44 teachers and 279 pupils; and 16 dairy schools (mejeriläi overken), with 41 teachers and 148 pupils in 1887–88;, trade schools (handtverk. skolor), 12; papils, 965; teachers, 68 in 1888–189. Then there are the 5 deaf and dumb schools (döfstumsskolor), with 22 teachers and 225 pupils; the 2 institutions for the blind (blindanstalter), with 11 teachers and 54 pupils; and the asylums for idiots (idiotanstalter), with 2 teachers and 9 pupils, which also report for the year 1888–89. (1, pp. 95–118.; VI, p. 53.)
Length of school year,—This is not specified for the elementary schools, but it is stated that instruction must be given at least 30 weeks and 30 hours a week during the year, in order that the higher elementary schools may receive governmental aid. Secondary schools are kept open from September 1 to December 20, and from January 14 to May 31; the university from September 15 to December 15, and from January 15 to May 15. (X, p. 215; VII, pp. 466, 497.)
Ages of pupils. According to decree of May 11, 1866, districts are required to establish schools enough for all children between 7 and 14 years of age who are not receiving instruction either at home or in a higher grade school. Still older pupils are required to have school facil. ities allowed them if their early education has been neglected.
In the lower grade elementary schools the age is 0 to 10 years; in the higher elementary grades from 10 to 14 years. (VI, p. 48; VII, p. 460.)
Income.-The income for school purposes is derived from governmental subsidies and from communal funds. The government gives an avnual subsidy of $154 for the payment of each male teacher, and of $116 for the payment of each woman teacher in the commune, providing the district establishes stationary schools and furnishes the teachers with lodging, ground, etc. City districts receive 25 per cent. of their expenses.
The amount voted by the Diet in 1887 for elementary education was : $246,395, namely: For elementary schools in cities and rural districts, $155,801; for teachers' seminaries fitting teachers for primary schools, $75,960; for inspection of elementary schools, $11,260; incidentals, manual training, etc., $3,374. (VII, p. 464.)
The amount raised in the communes or districts is not known to date.
The amount received from tuition fees is not known. Tuition fees are, however, requisite in secondary schools, the fees varying in amount according to the subjects of instruction. (X, p. 216.)
Expenditure. The expenditures for the year 1889 included the followlowing amounts: For the university and polytechnic school, $168,453; supervision of schools and for higher educational institutions, $466,264; norinal and public elementary schools, $254,670; professional schools, 854,413; institutions for blind and deaf mutes, $17,518; incidentals, 85,539; rental of buildings, $13,802; reserve funds for elementary schools, $77,200; agricultural and dairy schools, $57,707. (I, pp. 161, 162.)
IV.-SUPERVISION AND ADMINISTRATION.
State supervision. The " Ofverstyrelsen for Skolväsendet,” or higher council of education, at Helsingfors, has supervision of elementary, secondary, and special schools. This board or council is an adjunct of the imperial senate of Finland (administrative department), and of the section of public instruction and ecclesiastical affairs. It regulates the programmes for schools from the pedagogical and technical side, and attends to apportionment of school material, etc. Private schools subsidized by the state are under the supervision of this central organization. There is also an inspector in chief for elementary education and normal schools, who is appointed by the Czar at the suggestion of the board or council. His duties as presiding officer of the central board are to decide upon all questions appertaining to elementary instruction. The University as reorganized by law of 1852 is under control of the academic authorities, consisting of the rector and 12 professors; in cases of special importance 32 professors are added to this board. Any project modifying its organization must be referred to the senate and there receive imperial sanction ere it can be carried out. (VII, pp. 462-464, 497, 493.)
Local supervision.-A local inspector has charge of elementary schools in each governmental subdivision or province. A council of education has the immediate inspection of the communal schools. This council is composed of 4 to 6 members, who serve without pay. (VII, p. 464.)
The local supervision of secondary schools is in charge of a council
In 1873 it was stated that secondary schools, though public, were not free, the tuition fees varying as above mentioned. Later legislation may have modified this statement.
of state composed of 3 to 5 members appointed by the central or higher council of education, the names of the appointees being suggested by the communal authorities. (VII, p. 465.) !
Preparation.—Teachers for the elementary grades receive the requisite preparation at the normal school in Jyväskylä (Jyväskylä seminarium), which, founded in 1863, has, with its two divisions for men and for women, the special object of preparing toachers for the districts where Finnish is spoken. The normal school for women at Ekenäs (Ekenäs lärarinne seminarium) established in 1871, and the normal for men at Nykarleby (Nykarleby lärare seminarium), established in 1873, prepare teachers for the Swedish-speaking population. There is also a school with two divisions, the “Sordavala Seminarium,” which has 16 teachers and 122 pupils. The schools have a four years' course, the last year being more particularly for practice in the elementary schools of higher and lower grade, each seminary having such schools attached to it. The normals for women have each a kindergarten and infant school, so that the pupils may early train themselves to fill positions in such schools. The normals receive both boarding and day pupils, the greater proportion being day pupils. The age at which pupils are received in the seminaries is eighteen years.
Many of the professors connected with city schools of elementary grade have received a university education; the women teachers in similar schools formerly attended pedagogical courses at Helsingfors. (I, p. 105; VI, p. 48; VII, p. 461.)
Examinations.—There are examinations at the close of the normal school course, the passing of which entitles the graduate to a certificate of qualification to teach, but further information as to examinations and licensing has not been obtained. (X, p. 215.)
Appointment. The appointment of teachers is made by the higher council of education. (X, p. 215.)
Tenure of office.—The tenure of office is for life, subject to removal after trial by the higher authorities. (X, p. 205.)
Salaries. The salaries of teachers in district elementary schools average $154 for men, and $116 for women. This salary is paid by the governmental authorities, and the district authorities add lodgings, containing at least two rooms and a kitchen, with ground for gardening, and pasturage enough for a cow. Salaries' of teachers and professors in higher grade schools not known to date. (VI, p. 49; VII, pp. 461, 462.)
1 According to a statement made in 1873, after the first ten years' teaching, the salary is increased 20 per cent. for 5 years, and 10 per cent. for each subsequent 5 years. The salaries of regular teachers in Real schools ranged at that date from $463 to $579 with lodging; in lyceums, from $540 to $887 with lodging; in girls' schools from $379 to $772 for men, with lodging; and from $307 to $463 for women, with lodging. The principal of each school received from $57 to $193 additional compensation.
pp. 215, 216.)
Teachers' pensions.- No information to date.I
Teachers' institutes.? --No mention is made of any such meetings, but the advanced educational movements noted in Finland would imply that such conferences were held from time to time for the discussion of educational questions.
VI.-COURSES OF STUDY.
Kindergarten.-Instruction in the kindergarten not specified, but doubtless Fröbel's methods are carried out. The earliest teachings for children are cominenced at home, or else they learn to read in ambulatory schools, which move from district. to district every 2 or 3 months. (VI, p. 50.)
Elementary schools. The course in elementary schools is 4 years, divided into two parts of 2 years each. These form the higher and lower grade of elementary schools. The course of study is so arranged that the two lower classes are complete in themselves; the higher classes simply continue the course and introduce new methods. The studies for the higher elementary grades are religion, mother tongue, geography, history, arithmetic, elements of plane and descriptive geometry, natural sciences and their applications, drawing, singing, gymnastics, manual training for boys, and feminine handiwork for girls. In the lower ele. mentary grades the same studies, omitting history, geography, geometry, and natural sciences. Manual training is made a specialty in elementary grades, and occupies about 5 hours a week in each class. (VII, p. 462.)
The course of study in the industrial schools is either a continuation of that found in the elementary schools, or it is adapted to prepare students for special schools. (VI, p. 51.)
Secondary schools.-The secondary schools form three groups, i. e., lyceums with eight classes or years, with course of study leading directly to universities or special schools; elementary schools for boys with two, three, four, or five classes or years, the programme corresponding to that of similar classes in the lyceum ; elementary schools for girls with five classes. Papils are admitted at 9 years of age in the boys' schools, and 11 years of age in the girls' schools. Studies for these grades are religion, Swedish, Finnish; Russian (in boys' schools); Ger.
Teachers' pensions: In 1873 it was stated that teachers of elementary schools after 30 years' service were entitled to a retiring pension for life, equal to the Government allowance for the last year's salary of the teacher. Teachers of secondary grades who have taught 35 years, may retire with an annuity equal to the salary at that date; after 30 years with three-quarters of his salary; and after 25 years with the half; after 20 years' service with one-quarter salary; and if afllicted with incurable disease at an earlier period, he is entitled also to a pension. Later information in regard to this point is wanting. (X, p. 216.)
"A teachers' association was organized in 1863 at Tavastehus, its central organization being in Helsingfors, however, with branches in several cities. Meetings were held once a month Regular conventions were called every 3 years for discussion of educational matters. (X, p. 221.)