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man, French, English (in Reallyceums); the classics, history, geography, botany, zoology, physics, mathematics, drawing, singing, gymnastics; and in girls schools feminine bändiwork. (V, p. 466.)
Two normal lyceums (Swedish and Finnish) in Helsingfors serve as practice schools for persons who intend to become teachers in secondary grades. Two Swedish and Finnish continuation schools for girls in Helsingfors have each a 3 years' course of pedagogical study.
The seven schools for girls supported by the Grand Duchy comprise in their courses of study modern languages, whatever scientific branches are required to give a solid education, and the pupils receive instruction in feminine handiwork. Private schools, most of them boarding. schools, prepare pupils for the secondary schools, or have courses similar to the public secondary grades. Among the prirate schools are six lyceums, five Swedish, and one Finnish, where boys and girls are edu. cated together. (VII, p. 466; VI, p. 52.)
As a type of the course of study in commercial schools, that of the “Brahestads Borgare och Handelsskola” is given. It includes Swedish, Finnish, German, and English languages, Russian and French optional, (these branches so taught as to cover grammatical construction, keeping of books, correspondence, etc.); mathematics, commercial bookkeeping (including double entry), pbysics and chemistry, national economy, geography and history, penmanship and gymnastics, through all classes. (IV, pp. 23–28.)
Higher education. The course of stndy in normal schools prepares teachers to be instructors in the primary grades; the studies are not specified. The university has the four faculties : Theology, law, medicine, science and letters, including an historical pbilological section, and a physico-mathematical section. (I, p.95.) Connected with this institution are anatomical and pathological institutes; chemical and pharmaceutical and physiological laboratories; an astronomical observatory; a gymnasium; kindergarten; library, museum of history, ethnography, sculpture, etc. (VII, p. 497.)
Classed under special schools, some of which are of secondary and others of bigher grade, is the polytechnic school “Polytekniska Insti. tutel,” which in a 4 years' course prepares its students to be either architects and builders or mechanical engineers, land surveyors, or as “Kemisk Teknolog,” (that is, to have knowledge of chemistry as applied to building materials used in construction). During the first year's course the studies are in common. The course in land surveying, however, is only of 2 years' duration. (III, pp. 1-27, VII, p. 498.)
Another technical school, the Agricultural Institute, which bears the same relation to the fifteen agricultural schools that the university bears to the secondary schools, has a number of specialists connected with it who are experienced in all branches of agriculture. The aim of this institute is to diffuse general knowledge of agriculture and other cognate matters, to aid and advise in regard to agricultural machines, to the cultivation of foreign plants, to form plans and estimates for reclaiming waste lands, etc. The course of study may be inferred from the following classification of the members of the teaching force, namely: One agricultural engineer, one governmental agronomist, eight provincial agronomists, ten assistant agronomists, one expert to give instruction in flax-growing and flax-scutching, two teachers of dairy farming designated by the Government, and two by provincial authorities, eleven women teachers from the provinces to teach dairying, two masters of forestry, one lecturer on arboriculture, six teachers of horticulture, two controllers of grain and seed, three instructors in the art of plowing, and one inspector of fisheries. Courses of popular lectures on agricultural subjects are also carried on in remote divisions of the Grand Duchy. The Institute of Forestry, by its course of study, also aids in instructing the people to make the most of nature's gifts. It forms an advanced course for the school of forestry. (IX, pp. 50–65.)
The methods employed in teaching children in both city and rural schools follow the latest developments in pedagogical science.
Corporal punishment is not employed; the teacher relies on the honor of his pupils. (IX, pp. 50–65.)
The pupils in elementary and secondary schools are examined annu. ally for promotion. (X, p. 216.)
Little is known in regard to methods of study and recitations, but it is stated that most of the subjects are taught from the text-books and orally, and that in the plan of studies five hours a week are devoted to instruction in manual training in each class of the elementary grades. The methods of study and formation of programmes are determined, however, by a commission appointed by the higher council of education, this commission having authority to investigate as to the very latest improvements in pedagogical methods. Formerly boys and girls were taught separately. Of late years coeducation has been attempted in many schools, the first schools of this kind being established in Hel. singfors in 1883, and womeu are admitted to the university as students. (VII, P, 462; X, pp. 215–216; V, pp. 70–80.).
Buildings and grounds.-Information is wanting in regard to the general condition of school buildings and the grounds, if any, around them. But it is stated that in Helsingfors the school buildings are constructed with vast corridors, spacious and well-ventilated class-rooms, lighted by electricity, and large halls for gymnastic exercises. The buildings are supplied with all necessary school inaterial, and have extensive playgrouuds connected with them. (IX, pp. 50–65.)
Hours of school.--The number of school hours a day is not speci. fied, but, as has already been stated, at least thirty bours'instruction a week must be given in the higher elementary grades in order to obtain funds for school purposes from the state. (X, p. 215.)
Holidays and vacations.-Date of holidays and vacations in elementary grades not known; in secondary grades, the Christmas holidays-December 20 to January 14-and the vacation months of June, July, and August are specified. (VII, p. 466.)
Compulsory attendance.- Attendance is compulsory for children between seven and fourteen years of age, earlier instruction being given either in the family, or in the ambulatory schools established in farmhouses in rural districts. Teachers of these schools, which more from point to point every two or three months, are paid by the commune, or receive small fees from the children taught. (VI, p. 48; VII, p. 461; X, p. 214.)
School supply.—The regularly established city schools are reported as well supplied with apparatus and school material. (IX, pp. 50–65.)
Libraries and museums.-Aids to intellectual growth are libraries and museums, either of a public character or connected with institutions in cities and in a number of rural districts. There are also read. ing rooms for special study connected with people's libraries in different parts of Finland. The largest library and the most important collections are affiliated with the University of Helsingfors. These include a library of 200,000 volumes, a small library of Russian literature, and a choice library of classical philology, an anatomical and zoological museum, a cabinet of numismatics, an ethnographical and bistorical museum, a collection of mineralogical specimens, an art museum, and a collection of armor and weapons of different periods.
The archives of Finland aid in the study of the country's history, as they contain a collection of acts dating back to 1265, and a fairly com. plete collection of Finland's administrative reports since 1531. (VI, pp. 56, 57, VII, p. 498–501.)
Associations and societies.-Numerous societies and associations are reported in Finland, several of which hare initiated movements to premote progress in scientific, literary, and educational matters. The ma. jority of these societies are under the direct intluence of the university (VI, p. 5:3). The Finnish scientific society (Finska Vetenskaps Socie. tet), founded in 1839, has three sections-physics and mathematics, natural sciences, history and philology. Its “ Acta Societatis Scientia. rum Fennicze," contain papers on dirers subjects and biographical notes. The central meteorological observatory is under the direction of this society.
The societas l'ro Fauna et Flora Fennica," founded 1821, has a com. plete collection of the country's fauna and flora, as found by prominent naturalists in annual excursions for such purpose. From 1848 to 1875, a bulletin of this work was presented to the public; since 1876 the “Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica” takes its place. (VII, pp. 501-503.)
The Finland Archæological Society, established in 1870, has united its collections with the historical ethnographical collections of the uni. versity.
The “Suomen-Muinaismusto-yhdistyksen aikakauskirja,” published since 1874, is the organ of this society.
The historical society, founded in 1875, investigates history, archæ. ology and cognate sciences, publishing documents relating to such sub. jects. Two geographical societies were established in 1888—the one for general study, the other for the study of the geography of Finland.
The society for the study of Finnish literature, founded in 1831, comprises three sections-pbilology, history, and fine arts. The “ Suome," or annual publication of this society appears in the Finnish tongue. Its most notable collections consist of national songs and folklore. In contradistinction to this society is the one for the study of Swedish literature in Finland, which, established in 1855, publishes annual reports of its investigations. (VII, pp. 501-503.)
The Society for Fine Arts, founded in 1846, for the purpose of art study, owns at present, through gift and purchase, a collection of sculpture and paintings, which forms the basis of an annual exhibit of works of art.
The Society of Arts, as applied to industries, established in 1875, maintains a professional school at Helsingfors. There are also societies or associations for promoting technical, horticultural, and agricultural pursuits.
An imperial economic society for Finland, dating from 1797, aims to promote progress in agriculture, dairy farming, etc. It publishes annual reports and separate papers on similar subjects. A society founded by the women of Finland in 1884 aims to ameliorate the condition of women, and to give them opportunities for higher edu. cation (VII, pp. 501-503). Many other associations work for the education of the poor or are engaged in philanthropic and religious work. One such society has opened a people's library, where books, jour. nals, and reviews are at the disposal of the people, and it is stated that “the workingmen come in thousands in autumn and winter to read them.” It also gives an annual subscription to an asylum for poor children between 4 and 7 years of age, who are taught to read, write, and mend. It supports a school of domestic economy for girls, and a school for the children of the poorest classes, where they are given ele. mentary instruction and are taught a trade, and are taken care of from 6 in the morning until 7 or 8 o'clock in the evening. It also helps sup. port a reformatory for children of criminal propensities.
Schools for special classes.-Subordinated to the central administration are two institutes for the blind, one in Helsingfors and the other in Kuopio; four schools for the deaf and dumb (Döfstunnskolor), in Åbo, Borga, Kuopio, Jakobstad, and a private school for the deaf and dumb at Hvittis. (VII, p. 465.)
The governmental schools for the deaf bad 205 pupils in 1888–89, the private school, 20 pupils. Expenditures by the state, $10,558; for the school at Hvittis, $434. The two institutions for the blind (Blindanstalter) had 54 pupils, and the state expenditures were $7,684. (I, p. 110.)
The course of study in these institutions extends from three to eight years. Information in regard to methods is wanting.
A private institute for the educaţion of idiots, in Jakobstad, had nine pupils—Swedes-in that year (1888–89). To support this school $579. were required. (I, p. 110; VII, p. 465.)
Public charities.-Information is wanting in regard to charities, although the statements made above as to philanthropic effort indicate that much is accomplished by the people of Finland for the benefit of all classes.
The school system of Finland is distinct from that of Russia, of which Empire it is a grand duchy. Its main features are similar to those of Sweden, to which country it belonged until 1809. Prior to 1611 education was under the control of the monks, as in Sweden; after that date the schools were subject to governmental regulations. (X, p. 213.)
In 1630 the first gymnasium was founded at Åbo. In 1640 a uni. versity was established at Åbo, but on account of loss of the buildings by fire, it was removed to Helsingfors in 1827. According to its pres. ent constitution, decree of 1852, the government of the institution rests with the chancellor and consistorium. The Czar is really at the head of the university, but he is represented by one of the grand dukes. The consistorium, composed of the rector and regular professors, attends to the internal management of the university. (X, pp. 213, 217; VIII, p. 401.)
In 1649, 1693, and 1724 important school laws were passed, and in 1686 an edict of Charles XI, which is still in force, required the clergy to hold an annual examination for the purpose of ascertaining whether the children of Finland could read, and whether they knew their catechism. That law led to the establishment of schools for the common people, for it prohibited the marriage of parties who had not been confirmed, and could peither read nor pass an examination in regard to the doctrines of the Lutheran Church.
In 1780 the military school of Frederickshams was established, with a three years' course and three years' preparatory department; the graduates to enter a higher school of special service. (X, pp. 213220.)