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In 1812 three navigation schools were created. The courses continge from the middle of October to the middle of April. In 1837 agricultural institutes are first mentioned. (X, p. 220.)

In 1843 a new school law was promulgated, which was moditied by acts of 1856, 1862, and 1864.

In 1847 the polytechnic school at Helsingfors was established, but a reorganization took place in 1872.

In 1858, April 19, a decree required rural communes to establish stationary schools, governmental aid being guaranteed. From this year dates the first school for deaf mutes. (VII, p. 460; X, p. 220.)

In 1863 the first Teachers' Association was organized. It held monthly meetings, and its membership fee was $1.50 a year. (X, p. 221.)

A normal school for teachers was established in 1863–64, iv Jyväskylä, which had for its director Uno Cygnæus, the organizer of primary in. struction in Finland. (X, p. 214.)

In 1863-64 the Government voted the necessary funds for carrying on the public schools. (VII, p. 461.)

In 1865 a “ Folkskole-förordning” or school law was passed, which, with modifications in 1869 and 1872, withdrew the higher public schools from ecclesiastical supervision and control, and instituted a system of governmental supervision for all the schools of Finland. (X, p. 213.)

A decree of May 11, 1866, definitely organized elementary instruction in Finland, each commune or district' being required to establish a suffi. cient number of schools for all children between seven and fourteen years of age, or to see that they were instructed in reading, spelling, and the catechism, either at home or in an ambulatory school. Governmental grants were to be withheld if the communal authorities failed to carry out this decree. (VI, p. 48; VII, pp. 460-461; X, p. 214.) This law also provided for three normal schools, the course to extend through four years, the last one devoted to practice in model schools and kindergarten attached to the schools. During this year a school for the blind was founded at Helsingfors; the one at Kuopio dates from 1870.

A law of 1869 created a central board of education (Öfverstyrelsen för Skolväsendet), consisting of a president and six members, two of whom were to be governmental officials, and the other four engaged in educational or scientific work. One of the four members was to supervise ? the common schools; the other three the higher schools.

Finland for purposes of civil administration is divided into 8 läns (circles or territorial divisions), which are again subdivided into 51 härader (districts for tax purposes), and again into 249 Länsmans (districts for other civil purposes). For ecclesiastical purposes the country is divided into 3 dioceses (Åbo, Borga, Kuopio), which contain 485 parishes. (X, p. 210.)

"The position of supervisor of common schools was held at that date by Rev. Uno Cyguæus, who was commissioned by the Government to visit Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland for the purpose of studying their common-school systems, preparatory to reorganizing the school system of Finland.

In 1871 a normal school for the education of women teachers was established in Ekenäs; in 1873 a second normal, for male teachers, at Nykarleby; in 1880 one at Kymölä, near Sordavala, for both sexes. (X, p. 213; VII, p. 460.)

An act of 1872 classified the real schools, lyceums, and higher schools for women under the heading “Elementarläroverken;" the Real schools to receive pupils from'nine to twelve years of age, to continue their elementary education and prepare them for special schools; the lyceums to include all the old gymnasiums and higher elementary schools; the schools for women to instruct in similar subjects to those of the Real school, with bookkeeping omitted. These schools were under the supervision of the central administration, and although public they were not free, except to those who were unable to pay fees. Tuition fees varied according to studies pursued; in the lower classes of the Real schools the fees were $2.50 a year; in the higher classes $5. In lyceums and schools for girls $7.62 was considered a requisite amount for tui. tion. (X, pp. 215-216.)

The university, according to the constitution of 1852, has the four facalties: theology, law, medicine, and philosophy, each faculty awarding its own diplomas.

To enter the university students must pass a final examination at the lyceums, and an examination conducted by a committee of professors designated by the academic authorities. The student is required to enroll himself in one of the four faculties, and in one of the six • nations" into wbich the students are divided. These nations—"Nyländska," Savolaks-Karelska, Tavastländska, Westfinska, Wiborgska, Osterbötniska-indicate the subdivision of the dachy from which the students come. Each “nation" supervises the morals of its members, and its disciplinary power even extends to the suspension of a refractory member from the university for a period not exceeding 2 years. (X, p. 218.)

The nation” taxes its members for necessary expenses for both special and general purposes. A professor or “inspektör,” designated by the chancellor for a 3 years' period, stands at the head of each of these bodies. His aid is a vice president elected by the members from among the graduates belonging to the nation. To obtain a regular professorship in any given faculty, the candidate must hold the degree of doctor in that faculty and write a thesis on the subject he is to teach. To obtain the degree of doctor he must be an M. A., and have submitted to a second examination. To be an extraordinary professor, a doctor's degree and evidence of learning and ability are required. The senatus academicus requires satisfactory credentials of candidates for the position of docent or instructor. (X, p. 217.)

Any change of university organization or statutes—those of 1852 being still in vogue-must be examined by the academic authorities and senate, and then receive imperial sanction. (X, p. 497.)

As regards technical education, it is stated that numerous agricul. tural schools, as well as other special schools, have been opened since 1863. Among them dairy.farming schools, forestry schools, a groom's school (for theoretical and practical instruction in the breeding of horses), a cattle-breeder's school, two schools of horticulture, and two farrier's schools. There are also agricultural, chemical, and seed stations in various parts of the country, where, for a nominal sum, the peasants and farmers can have analyses made of the composition and agricultural value of the soil, etc., and can watch practical experiments in gardening, forestry, and dairy farming.

The growth of education within the last 20 years may be inferred from the fact that, according to a statement made by a late traveler?, there are probably at the present moment not 5,000 persons in the grand duchy unable to read and write, and a large percentage of those who are inscribed in that category are not Finns. The ambuJatory school is still indispensable, however, as a single parish is sometimes scattered over a dozen islands, but the stationary elementary school compares favorably with corresponding educational establish. ments in England and the United States. The teachings of the university and the discoveries of the laboratory are also brought within the reach of the humblest classes, while the peasants of the remotest hamlets have their paper, and so keep up with the world's progress. (IX, pp. 50-65.)

Article in Fortnightly Review, January, 1891.



Spain, a constitutional monarcby; total area, 197,670 square miles; total population, 17,550,246, census of 1887. The country is divided into forty-nine provinces, each of wbich administers its own affairs; the provinces are subdivided into municipios (municipal districts).


The following tabulation presents the latest general educational statistics :

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* The term "primary instruction" (instruccion primaria) has a more extended signification in Spain than in the United States, including as it does, in a great measure, both elementary and high school instruction, as those terms are commonly understood in this country. It is classified into preparatory, elementary primary, and superior primary instruction. a Public and private establishments.

cTechnical, art, and industrial schools. For public establishnients only.



In the absence of full official information respecting education in Spain, various educational works and papers have been consulted for general information as to the condition and progress of the Spanish school system. These make it evident that Spain, which several cen.


turies ago reached its zenith in learning, and whose university of Salamanca equaled the famous universities of other nations, is at the present time somewhat behind other civilized nations in respect to education.

A law of September, 1857, provided for a system of public primary instruction, which if fully developed would bear excellent fruit; but the practical application of this law has been sadly hindered and retarded by political disturbances and the resulting depletion of the treasury of the Government.

The census of 1883 showed that 45 per cent. of the population above seven years of age were illiterates, a proportion surpassed only by Russia, Roumania, Servia, Portugal, Bulgaria, and Turkey. This is a sufficient proof that elementary education has not been widely diffused among the people. The educational statistics show a fair supply of teachers; for example, in 1880 there was 1 head teacher to every 120 children of school age (4-14), and including assistants 1 teacher to every 102 of the poprlation of school age. The inference is that the low condition of the people with respect to education comes largely from their own indifference to the subject. In respect, however, to the diffusion of education, Spain shows the same want of uniformity as is noticeable in other countries, certain communities having attained a much higuer level of general intelligence than others.

Liberal and broad-minded men, scientists, and philosophers have worked faithfully for several years to advance the cause of public instruction, and to call the attention of the state and the public to the disheartening condition of education in general.

Since 1881 several favorable changes have been made by the Gov. ernment relative to school buildings and their equipment, and higher institutions have been established, so that the general prospects are more promising than formerly; but the latest results can not be shown as yet.

Primary schools, how maintained.-Public and private primary schools are maintained either by religions corporations and associations, or by communities, provinces, and the state.

The law of 1857 made primary instruction obligatory upon all children and gratuitous for those who could not pay tuition fees; a law of 1868 extended this gratuity to all pupils. Parents are free to choose whether their children shall be instructed in public or in private schools or at home.

Secondary instruction.--Every province is obliged under the law to maintain one or two institutos (i. e., classical schools for secondary in. struction). Each of these institutos has in affiliation with it or under the supervision of its officers a number of local colegios.

See Schmid's Encyclopädie des Erziehungswesens ; Buisson's Dictionnaire de pédagogie, Tome I: Compilacion legislativa de instruccion pública, Tomo I.

* See Boisson's Dictionnaire de pédagogie, Tome I, and Compilacion legislativa de instruccion pública, Tomo II.

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