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Universities. There are ten universities partly supported by the State. The fees largely cover the expenses of the universities. The Government also supports numerous special schools.
DETAILED VIEW OF PRIMARY INSTRUCTION. A statistical work, Reseña geográfica y estadística, prepared by Sr. Ibañez, giving a detailed view of the operations of the primary schools in 1880, and a report covering the year 1835 enable us to compare the condition of education at the beginning and the end of the half decade.
The number of pupils enrolled in public primary schools in 1880 was 1,442,577, in 1885 it was 1,552,431, or an increase of 74 per cent.
The enrollment in private primary schools, which in 1880 was 326,879, had fallen to 290,749 in 1885, or a decline of 11 per cent. The enroll. ment in both public and private schools in 1885 was 1,813,183, as against 1,769,456 in 1880. The enrollment in public primary schools in 1885 was equivalent to 9 per cent. of the population (census of 1887), while the enrollment in private schools increased the number to 10 per cent. of that population. The average attendance, public and private schools included, does not show improvement, standing in 1880 at 73 per cent. of the enrollment and in 1885 at 70 per cent.
Sr. Ibañez notes the good effects of the compulsory law up to 1880. 6. This law,” he says, “has accomplished remarkable results. The census of 1860 and the census of 1877 show a difference in the number of illiterates, a difference in favor of the latter census. Of 100 inhabit. ants only 20 could read and write in 1860; in 1877 we find 25. Data are wanting for carrying this comparison to 1885.
The relative number of boys and girls enrolled in the two years may be seen from the following:
The distribution by age in the public schools was as follows:
EXPENDITURES. The expenses for primary instruction are borne by the municipal districts, the provinces, and the State.
1 Republished in the Boletin de enseñanza primaria, Montevideo. All the statistics given in this article for the year 1885 have been drawn from the above report, all relating to 1880 from the work of Sr. Ibañez. The comparative estimates have been made in this Office.
State grants. For the year 1879-80 the sum of $4,060,828 was in. cluded in the general appropriation for education. It was distributed as follows: Salaries of teachers inInfant schools ...
$91, 445 Schools for boys. ........
1,408, 989 Schools for girls........
762, 225 Mixed schools.........
337, 230 Schools for adults and Sunday schools ...........
42, 402 Compensation agreed upon between the teachers and the municipal councils in lieu of residences......
305, 697 Total.........
-$2, 947,988 Material-Construction, maintenance of school buildings and houses for teachers ....................................
446,495 School material and other expenditures....
639, 455 Expenses for local school counsellors and prizes for pupils
....................$1, 112, 840 Provincial appropriations—For the same year (1879-80) the sum for primary instruction included in the provincial appropriations amounted to $339,850, i. e., $275,762 for salaries and $64,088 for school material, which sums were distributed as follows:
Provincial juntas (boards) of public instruction .........
Male teachers ........
The expenditures for the year 1887 amounted to $1,909,481, of which $3,614,156 were paid for teachers' salaries and $1,295,325 for material.
ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION.
State authorities.-According to the law of 1857 the highest educational authority is the minister of education and public works, etc. (ministro de fomento); under him there is a general director with a council (consejo de instruccion pública). There is also at least one inspector for every province. These officers are appointed by the King and are responsible to the minister. In 1885 they numbered fifty for the inspection of primary schools, besides three general inspectors for normal schools.
For complete register of officials see Anuario estadístico de instrucción pública, 1889, Pp. 3-21.
Local authorities. Every province has a provincial board of edacation (junta), and every town its local board, consisting of the principal officers of the province or town, a priest, and at least two heads of families.
In 1885 the local juntas for primary instruction comprised 50,000 persons, of whom 48,264 could read and write, 352 could read but not write, and 1,384 could neither read nor write.
TEACHERS OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS.
Appointment, number, and classification. From the report by Señor Ibañez it appears that teachers of public schools are appointed by the government, while teachers of private schools are appointed by the local juntas.
The number of teachers engaged in public primary scbools in 1880 was 23,783 and in private schools 9,751, making a total force of 33,534. At the beginning of 1885 the teaching force for the public primary schools numbered 25,271 persons. At the earlier date there was 1 pub. lic primary school teacher for every 60 pupils enrolled, and for every 43 pupils in average attendance, while in 1885 there was 1 teacher for every 61 pupils enrolled and for every 41 in average attendance.
The force reported for 1885 was composed as follows:
Qualifications.—The decree of October 14, 1868, modifying the law of June 2, 1868, permitted Spaniards not provided with diplomas to give primary instruction, but the government has continued in a certain measure to exact a diploma or at least a certificate of its public teachers. The law provides that teachers must be at least twenty years of age and must give proof of good moral character. An idea of the guaranties actually offered by the teachers may be formed from the number of teachers and assistant teachers who have nothing to show but a certificate of aptitude. These certificates are obtained by means of an examination before the local juntas or before the board of counsellors of the normal schools; that is to say, the certificates are obtained from persons who do not understand anything about teaching. In 1880, according to Señor Ibañez, 67 per cent. of the teachers of public schools had obtained diplomas, 23 per cent. had only certificates of aptitude, 9 per cent. had neither, while the status of a small proportion was un. known. The intellectual level of public school teachers is in general higher and their preparation niore complete than is the case with private school teachers. In the same year, 1880, of the private school teachers 33 per cent. had diplomas, 5 per cent. certificates of capacity, and 56 per cent. neither,
The report for 1885 classifies the teachers of public schools with respect to diplomas as follows:
Ten thousand two hundred and forty-six masters had obtained diplo. mas, i. e., were profesores titulares ; 5,015 had only certificates of aptitude; 581 had neither; 7,070 female teachers had diplomas, 143 certifi. cates, and 121 neither one nor the other.
The proportion of teachers having diplomas increased slightly from 1880 to 1885.
Salaries of teachers.--Teachers' salaries are very small and, owing to the exhaustiod of the Spanish treasury, are paid irregularly. They ranged in 1880 from $24 to $386 per annum.
In 1885, the distribution of teachers with respect to salaries was as follows: One hundred and eighty received an annual remuneration of $386; 1,450 received an annual remuneration of $212 to $328; 14,926 less than $193; 8,715 from $24 to $81.
Training of teachers.-Article 110 of the law of 1857 makes provision for the establishment of a primary normal school for the training of teachers in each of the principal cities of the provinces.
Normal schools. In 1885, 48 normal schools for men were maintained ; 20 in buildings specially devoted to the purpose and 20 in rented buildings; 7,467 candidates presented themselves for final examination, some for national schools (enseñanza oficial) and others for private schools (enseñanza libre). Of this number 6,008 were approved ; 4,320 for elementary grades, 1,438 for superior elementary schools, and 250 for normal elementary schools. Thirty-three normal schools were at the same time supported for the training of female teachers; 8,896 can. didates presented themselves for examination ; 4,577 obtained certifi. cates for elementary schools; 2,574 obtained certificates for superior primary schools; total, 7,151.
Pensions.--Teachers of public schools are, by the law of 1857, entitled to a pension, and this right extends to their widows and orphans. The age for pensioning is sixty years, exceptions being made in severe cases of illness. All teachers of public primary schools are likewise entitled to a respectable dwelling house, large enough to accommodate their families.
PRESCRIBED STUDIES AND ORGANIZATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS.
The courses of studies in the elementary primary schools is substantially that prescribed by the law of 1857; it includes religion, scriptural history, reading, writing, the elements of Spanish grammar, and the rudiments of arithemetic. The superior primary course comprises the elements of geometry, of linear drawing and surveying, history and geography, chemistry, and natural history.
Classification and distribution of schools.-In the category of public schools are included infant schools (escuelas de párvulos), primary day schools for children of six to fourteen years of age, Sunday schools for
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secular instruction (Sunday schools not in a sense of religious schools, but ordinary schools held on Sunday for the accommodation of those who can not attend at other times), and adult classes.
The statistics of enrollment and attendance already given (p. 236) include all the classes of scbools; information as to their relative number in 1835 is wanting; the showing for 1880, which is presumably not far from the actual state at the end of the half decade, is of value, as it throws much light upon the conditions of school attendance.
The classification of schools in that year was as follows:
These schools were distributed irregularly throughout Spain, the number of inhabitants to a school varying greatly. In the province of Alava there were 265 inbabitants to each school district; in the province of Cadiz, 1,185. These numbers give the extremes; the general average in Spain at that date was 561 inhabitants for each school district. Between 1850 and 1880 the number of schools was almost doubled, a result undoubtedly of the law of 1857. In the period 1871-80, 5,828 schools were established, but only 2,132 were permanent.
In the institutions supported by the State education is free.
The union of public and ecclesiastic agencies in the work of elemen. tary instruction is indicated by the following:
Statistics of public and private schools in charge of religious corporations and dirers asso
ciations, October 30, 1850.
810 Assistant teachers belonging to the laity......
672 Assistant teachers belonging to religious orders
...... 195,00 Appropriations for the abore schools. From public funds...........
..... $119, 203 From religious establishments............................
31,214 Total ........... ....................
........................... $130,46 The above number of schools includes 64 private institutions belong. ing to other denominations than the Catholic; 13 were Methodist, 18 Evangelical, 7 Protestant, 10 Presbyterian, and 16 unknown.