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Nearly all these schools were pay-schools, 14 were supported by the contributions of the pupils, 2 by a society in London, 7 by other foreign societies. As to the remainder, their sources of support are not re. ported.
These schools instructed 2,032 boys and 1,344 girls; their teaching force, small in number, consisted of 1 male or 1 female teacher for each school ; 42 assistant teachers carry the total number of teachers to 106.
School buildings and material.-Official regulations are issued prescrib. ing the minimum size and capacity of school-rooms, the modes of lighting and ventilation, and the equipments, as follows: A platform 2 feet high and from 10 to 12 feet wide, with steps; a writing desk and arm. chair for the teacher; a crucifix and the portrait of the king; a wall clock; two cases with shelves; two tables with chairs for the inspectors; six chairs for persons who visit the school ; writing material; desks for the children 24 to 30 inches high and 12 to 14 broad, 3 to 4 inches distant from the benches; the benches should be 14 to 16 inches high and 6 inches wide. The table and bench form a single body with 14 inches mean length. The space between the walls and the first row of benches is 6 feet. Blackboards, slates with the number of the classes, reference books and apparatus with which to teach arithmetic, maps, etc., are objects belonging to school-rooms according to the actual system. A school-room holding 60 to 70 children should be 14 varas in length and 9 in width, or 11 metres 70 centimetres by 7 metres 52 centimetres.
The condition of the Spanish schools with respect to hygiene is unsatisfactory, and the necessity is felt of selecting localities which will better nuite the conditions of health and comfort required in school buildings. The private schools are as unhealthy as the public schools. In 1885 there were 1,375 public schools occupying buildings which were the property of the respective localities ; 10,184 school buildings were mediocre or bad ; 8,210 dwellings, designed for residences of teachers, were in a deplorable condition.
The chief establishments for secondary instruction are the provincial institutos ; in affiliation with these are local colegios.
According to a regulation of May 22, 1859, the directors of the institutos are nominated by the King from among the incumbents of university chairs, or if circumstances require, a director may be appointed from the rank of doctors or licentiates of science, philosophy, and letters. In some cases selection may be made of a person not having the specified degrees, but of recognized qualification for the duties.
From the report of Señor Ibañez it appears that in 1878-79 the prov. inces had established 61 institutos (i. e., secondary classical schools), which, with 356 colegios, made a total of 417 secondary establishments.
The official report for 18891 gives the number of institutos as 59, with 481 colegios, or a total of 540 secondary schools.
The papils under secondary instruction at the two dates were distributed as follows:
Expenditures for secondary instruction. In 1878–79 the total expendi. ture for secondary instruction in public institutions was $475,381, viz: salaries, $416,677; material, $58,707. In 1888–89 the expenditure had increased to $651, 356.
Receipts. The receipts, in addition to public appropriations, amounted in the former year to $208,436; in the latter to $333,177.
The following itemized statement for 1878–79 indicates the sources of income other than public appropriations from which public secondary institutions derive their support: School fees..
.... $119,893 Examination fees and fees for the diploma of baccalaureate..
27,779 Rents and other funds belonging to the several establishments.
..... 208, 436 Teachers of secondary schools.-The law of 1357 prescribed that all teachers in secondary schools should be at least twenty-four years of age and should hold the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The revolutionary government of 1868 required a competitive examination.
In 1880 the number of professors in secondary institutions was 2,619; 888 tanght in institutos, 1,761 in private colleges.
Pensions.-The provision of the law relative to pensions extends also to teachers of secondary schools.
Course of studies.-Secondary instruction consists of two distinct courses, i e., a course of general study and a course of applied study or practical course. The former is subdivided into two parts, the first comprising religion, scriptural history, reading, writing, universal and Spanish history, modern languages, Spanish and Latin grammar, composition, the rudiments of Greek, logie, psychology, and drawing. The second part comprises religion and morals, analysis, exposition of tests, and composition in the Latin and Spanish languages, elementary course of Greek, universal and Spanish history, pbysics, chemistry, natural
. All the statistics in the following pages relating to secondary and superior instruction for 15 bare been takea fro'u the fad e si iesi de instrucción pública. Sve Schunki's
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history, logic, and psychology; also modern languages. These studies prepare for the degree of Bachelor of Arts.
The course of applied studies comprises linear and object drawing, mercantile arithmetic, and all branches connected with agriculture, arts, trades, commerce, and navigation. In 1878–79 there were 69,325 pupils undergoing the ordinary and special examinations; 9,247 were judged incompetent; 30,317 passable; 13,150 good; 9,184 reinarkable; 7,427 superior; 659 prizes were distributed, and 396 pupils were honorably mentioned ; 3,057 candidates received the diploma of bachelor.
The institutos offer the instruction which leads to the degree of bachelor, forming the preparation for university courses; a few institutos add to their programme preparatory courses in commerce and industry.
"In order," says Sr. Ibañez, “that Spain may be brought to the intel. lectual level of other countries in Europe, it will be necessary to mul. tiply the institutos, to give a vigorous scope to technical instruction, to create everywhere schools of arts and trades. In this manner a large number of young people who do not devote themselves to a uni. rérsity career will find a practical secondary instruction, preparing them to follow agricultural and commercial pursuits, arts, and industry; i. e., all vocations which form the veritable force of nations."
Superior instruction is given in the universities and special schools.
The universities are ten in number: each has a faculty of law; each except Oviedo a faculty of medicine ; Madrid, Barcelona, Grenada and Santiago have schools of pharmacy; Madrid, Barcelona, Grenada, Salamanca, Seville and Saragossa faculties of philosophy and letters.
In 1888–89 these ten universities had 9,737 students in the regular courses and 573 special students; there were also 6,050 students following private university courses, or a total of 15,787 students in courses of letters, pbilosophy, law, etc., as against 16,874 in 1878–79.
The university faculties confer three degrees, viz: bachelor, licentiate, and doctor. The number conferred in 1878–79 was 2,257, of which 2,003 were licentiate degrees. Very few students take the degree of doctor, the largest proportion being found among thestudents of science. The number of students who continued their studies far enough to receive the higher degrees in the year specified was as follows:
Expenditures.—The State appropriates a sufficient sum to cover the expenditures of the universities and special public schools, the receipts from fees being passed over to the public treasury. Three faculties only make an exception to this rule, viz., the faculty of science and the faculty of medicine at Salamanca and the faculty of medicine at Seville, which are supported by the juntas (i. e., provincial and local coun. cils). The expenses of the universities are in general much greater than their receipts from fees. The universities of Madrid and Barcelona appear to be the only exceptions. The total expenditures for the ten universities in the scholastic year 1878-79 was: For salaries .....................
$412, 116 .................................. For material......
78.366 Total......... ................. .. .
... 520, 482 The corresponding total for 1883-89 was .....
....... 611,056 Receipts.-The receipts consist of tuition fees, examination fees, and fees for diplomas. In 1878-79 the amounts from the first-named source was $169,928; and from the last two, $327.305, or a total of $497,236. These details are not given in the report for 1888–89, but the total reached the sum of $372,219. On an average $40,000 are used every year for the purchase of scientific material, scholarships, books, and divers prizes for the pupils. This sum is taken from the university fees.
Professional schools, i. e. technical, art, and trade schools, constitute a noticeable feature of the public educational provision of Spain. These schools are conducted in accordance with special decrees, prescribing the courses of study and the conditions of admission and graduation.
The following statistics show the number of these schools and their attendance as reported in 1885-89:
Statistics of public special schools.
SCHOOL YEAR 1888–89.
Superior schools of architecture ....
The income of the professional schools in 1888–89 was $41,464, and their expenditures $127,395.
In concluding, it may be added that Spain possesses many popular libraries; 678 of these establishments, containing 101,909 works, or 114,075 volumes, were opened from 1869 to 1880. The Government has also tried to instruct prisoners by means of libraries introduced in the reformatory establishments; 9,130 volumes are at present at the disposal of the prisoners.