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Sex of teachers.—Diagram VI sufficiently explains itself. The part of the diagram below each divisional line may be considered as represent. ing the male teachers of such division at any epoch, and the part above, up to the 100 line, the female teachers. The almost continuous dis. placement of male teachers since 1879 is apparent. This movement is found continued on into 1889, when, for the first time in any State, the proportion of male teachers falls below 10 per cent. in Massachusetts (8.9 per cent.).
Table 14.- Expenditure for common schools in the United States, 1870 to 1889.
TABLE 15,- The total school erpenditure compared with the total population and with the
VII.- Diagram showing the total amount oxpended for common schools por capita of population, being a graphic representation of the Arst part of Table 15.
VIII.- Diagram showing the total amount expended for common schools per capita of averago daily attendanco, being a graphic roprosentation of the second part of
Erpenditure. The accompanying tables and diagrams exhibit very fully and clearly the amount of money expended for public schools since 1870, and its relation to the population and to the average at. tendance. The periods of increase and decrease of expenditure stand out prominently in the diagrams. The concurrence of these at the same epochs of time in different sections of the country is remarkable, and points to a widespread similarity of circunstances and conditions tend. ing to produce liberality or economy in school expenditure simulta. neously over a large extent of territory. The parallelism of the lines of expenditure is especially marked in Diagram VIII, giving the ex. penditure per capita of average attendance, in which no one of the division lines crosses another.
In the Northern States a period of maximum per capita expenditure occurred about the middle of the last decade; from that time on until about 1880 considerable decrease took place; after 1880 a rise again, which has been going on to the present time; the maximum which occurred in 1875 or 1876 has already been exceeded in all the northern and western divisions, with no indications of coming to a standstill. The action is intermittent, but the general resultant is a gain. This marked increase of expenditure per capita of population in the Northern States is one of the most noticeable facts developed by an examination of the educational statistics of those States for the present decade. The amount expended per pupil is now largely in excess of what it has been before, and the upward morement is still going on.
The decline in the comparative expenditure of the Northern States from 1875 to 1880 may be attributed to a reaction which followed upon the “flush” times succeeding the war. À period of profuse expenditure was followed by a period of retrenchment and economy. There was also a shrinkage of values going on, so that the same tax-rate would produce from year to year a smaller revenue. In three years the property valuation of Massachusetts fell off nearly $240,000,000.
This falling off in the per capita expenditure from 1875 to 1880 in the Northern States, however, did not result in any diminution of the amount of schooling given. The schools were maintained as before, but the wages of teachers were lowered, and fewer buildings were constructed. There was where the retrenchment took effect. For instance, in the North Atlantic States the arerage wages of male teachers decreased from 834.67 in 1874 to $13.28 in 1880; of female teachers, from $34.67 in 1874 to $30.08 in 1880. The effective falling-off in wages was not so great as these figures would show, as the purchasing power of money was increasing. The decrease of activity in the building of schoolhouses at this epoch will become apparent from an examination of the diagram of school property, p. 22.
The Southern States, equally with the Northern, form a characteristic group in the matter of school expenditure, of which the distinguishing feature is the small amount expended per capita, as compared with
STATISTICAL EXHIBIT. the North. From 1871 to 1879 there was a net loss in the South in the expenditure per capita of population. This was a formative period, a time of change and of experiment; school systems were formed and reformed; in some instances systems were copied in extenso from the North, only to be laid aside and replaced by otbers better adapted to existing local circumstances. Moreover, much of the money nominally expended for schools was diverted into other channels, and teach. ers were often paid in notes or certificates which they were obliged to dispose of at a ruinous discount.
Since 1879 there has been in the South a nearly continuous, but very slow, increase in the expenditure per capita of population, showing that the expenditure is slightly outstripping the population; it is, however, barely keeping pace with the averago attendance, as will appear from Diagram IX.
TABLE 16.-- Expenditure for common schools in mills per dollar of assessed valuation. .
of the preceding there was osponded for salaries of superintendents and teachers.
Proportion of wealth expended.—The number of mills expended for common schools for each dollar of assessed valuation is given in Table 16 for the years 1870, 1880, and 1889, and the same facts are represented graphically in Diagram IX. The design is to furnish an answer to the questions, What proportion of their wealth were the people of the different sections espending for public schools at such and such a date, and Was that proportion increasing or decreasing? If the line slopes downward in the diagram the proportion was decreasing, as is the case with the proportion of the assessed valuation expended in the North Atlantic and North Central States from 1870 to 1880; this does not imply, of course, that there was less absolute expenditure or a less per capita expenditure, but a less proportion of actual wealth expended.
The rapid development of education in the South shows itself also on this diagram. Both the southern divisions commence in 1870 at a low point. In 1899 the South Central States are found expending more relatively of their wealth than the North Atlantic States, and the South Atlantic only a tritle less.