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CHAPTER IX.
EDUCATION IN BRAZIL.

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED.

I. Rolatorio do Ministerio dos Negocios do Imperio, 1874, pp. 1-36. Anexo A-B;

Law Schools, pp. 11, 12; pp. 62, 63.
II. Camara dos Deputados. No. 224, 1882. Riforma do Ensino Primaria, pp.

1-366.
III, Actos e pareces do Congresso do instrucção, 1883, 24- Questa, pp. 26, 27.
IV. Annaes da Escola de Minas do Ouro Preto, p. 165.

V. Musou Escolar Nacional: Regulamento, I; Statutos, II; pp. 1-7, 1-9.
VI. L'Instruction Pablique en Brésil-Perez de Almeida, pp. 267; 845-850; 748-

794; 1098, 1056; 1020-1053; 514-520; 786, 810-814, 852-860, 645, 646, 275,
803-807,845–848, 971-973, XXIX-XXX, XXIV, 426, 750-752, 1006-1010, 3, 9-13,
22-45, 60-63, 96, 100-106, 132, 163–169, 177-180, 185–190, 195–197, 229-239, 248,

314-317, 1056-1096. VII. Brisson, Dictionnaire de Pédagogie et d'Instruction Primaire, vol. 1, 1re partie,

pp. 152, 278-9, 286.
VIII. Larousse, Dictionnaire Universel. Supplement 2, p. 657.
IX. Encyclopædia Britannica, v.: 4, Brazil, p. 238.

X. Brazil at the Centennial. Philadelphia, 1876, p. 164, 167, 201-206, 197.
XI. Interview with Senhor Borges, of the Education Commission to the United

States in 1883, as reported in the New England Journal of Education, March

22, 1883, p. 183. XII. Evang. Luth. Schulblatt, 1886, No. 1, pp. 45, 46. XIII. Letter from Senhor Amaral-Valente, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plen

ipotentiary to the United States of America. XIV. Statesman's Year Book, 1890, pp. 391, 392, and 1889, pp. 573, 574. XV. Bulletin Administratif du Ministère de l'Instruction Publique, 10 mars, 1883,

pp. 540,541.
XVI. Allgemeine Deutsche Lehrerzeitung, March 2, 1890, p. 94.
XVII. Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, pp. 109, 110.
XVIII. Portugal: Codigo administrativo annotado, 1863.
XIX, Diccionario de legislacion y jurisprudencia, por Don Joaquin-Escriche, 1847.

XX. Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Education, 1883-84, p. CCLIX.
XXI. Le Petit Journal, 2 avril, 1887. (Scrap Book, v.1, p. 113.)
The references in the following statement correspond in number to the foregoing.

Brazil. Constitutional empire (republic in 1899-'90): Area 3,209,878 square miles; population, 14,002,335 (1888). Capital, Rio de Janeiro; population, 357,332 (in 1885). Minister of Education (under the Repablic), General Benjamin Constant B. de Magalhaes. (XIII; XIV, pp. 391, 392.)

Declared a republic November 15, 1888. * Death reported January 22, 1891.

1.-GENERAL FEATURES OF THE SCHOOL SYSTEM. The system of public instruction in Brazil includes elementary,' sec. ondary, and higher schools in Rio de Janeiro and throughout the prov. inces, the organization in Rio serving as inodel for the provinces. (VI, p. 267; VII, pp. 278–9, 152.)

Elementary schools are subdivided into two grades, inferior and superior. The completion of the elementary course of study leads to the secondary grades, and these to the higher grades. Normal schools for the training of teachers, professional schools for technical and industrial education, and also special schools for the defective classes are found. (VII, pp. 278-9.) Supplementary to these institutions, as aids to intellectual growth, are school and public libraries and museums, while numerous societies have as their object the establishment of schools for the instruction of the masses in the ordinary school branches and for certain industrial pursuits. (VI, pp. 815-850, 748_ 794.) The present educational system is based upon the constitution of 1824, and upon laws of 1851 and 1854, although later decrees have a bronght about modifications of those laws. Elementary instruction is gratuitous. (VII, p. 278.)

Control. The schools are under the control of both state and local authorities, the central administration at headquarters being a branch of the Ministry of Postes and Telegraphs (Ministerio dos Negocios). Since the establishment of the republic a minister of education is in charge of eclucational affairs. As auxiliaries there are inspectors-general and a higher council of education. This central authority has control of elementary and secondary schools in the “Municipio Neutro" (Rio de Janeiro and its environs), and of higher education throughout the provinces. Each province has charge of its elementary and sec. ondary schools, the provincial assembly arranging school affairs, except in the case of the higher institutions. (VII, pp. 152, 278; I, pp. 121; VIII, p. 267.)

The governor of the province fills the place of a provincial minister of education. He is aided by superintendents, inspectors, school committees, and local committees. (VII, p. 278.)

Maintenance.--The schools in the Federal District are maintained by the Government, those in the provinces by the municipalities and provincial legislatures. Private schools are also under the supervision of the authorities, and can only be opened by their consent. For a more complete exposé of the system, see under the different heads below. (VII, p. 278; XIV, pp. 391, 392.)

II.--STATISTICS. With a population of 14,002,335 (in 1888) and a school population of 1,902,455 (in 1881) Brazil has only about 2 per cent. of its population

By decree of April 19, 1879, each district of the “Municipio Neutro” (Rio and its environs) was to have a kindergarten.

in school (XIV, pp. 391–2), due io part to the distance between schools in poorly settled districts and in part to a want of united effort on the part of the authorities in regard to school inatters. (VI, pp. 1056–1098.)

The number of children registered (inscripções) in 1888–89 as receiv. ing elementary instruction (instrucção primaria) in the Municipio Neutro and in the provinces was 266,100 in 8,064 schools, but a careful investigation of the tabulated statements from the different provinces shows that this number includes pupils in asylums, apprenticesbip schools, schools established by aid societies, evening schools, two agri. cultural schools, a farm school, etc. Separated from these institutions the numbers read: Public elementary schools (escolas publicas), 6,030; pupils, 207,973; private schoois (escolas particulares), 989; pupils, 20,846. The private schools include subsidized and non-subsidized schools. The secondary and higher grades (escolas secundarias e superior) grouped together present a total of 24,898 students in 138 schools. Included in this number are 25 normal schools (escolas normaes) with 3,514 pupils; the college of Dom Pedro II, which is a sort of faculty of letters, has 569 students; the 2 faculties of medicine (faculdade de medicina) report 240 students (at the faculty in Rio), and 705 at Bahia; the 2 faculties of law (faculdade de direito) report 535 students at São Paulo (in 1834) and 858 at Récife; the polytechnic (escola polytechnica) has 161 students, and the school of mines at Ouro Preto (escola de minas de Ouro Preto) has 79 students. Included also under the totals for secondary and higher education are military and naval schools, theological schools, each diocese having a seminary for theological instruction, lyceums, and schools established by various societies. (VI, pp. 1020-1053; I, pp. 1–104 and A-B.)

The elementary school age is nowinally from 6 to 15 years, but in reality the lower elementary grades are open to children of 5 years of age, while an extension of from 12 to 18 years of age is accorded to the higher elementary grades. (VI, p. 278.)

Coeducation is not allowed by law, the boys being taught by men and the girls by women, but about the year 1885 Dom Pedro II estallished a number of schools where boys and girls recited together, but outside of the recitation rooms they were kept apart. About 500 of these schools are reported in 1885-89. (VI, pp. 520, 708–721, 10201053; VII, p. 278.)

III.-FINANCES.

Income. The schools are supported by taxes imposed by the central governinent, as voted by the Chamber of Deputies, seconded by local taxation in each province. The government provides for the elementary and secondary schools of Rio and its environs, and for higher education throughout the Republic. The provincial authorities provide the funds for elementary and secondary schools of the provinces (XI, p. 183; IX, p. 238; XIV, p. 392). The amounts voted for the schools vary in the different provinces as the authorities realize the Deed of funds to carry out the plan of gratuitous instruction imposed by the constitution, of providing free text-books, and of clothing poor children so that they can attend school. In high schools and colleges a fee is charged. The provincial and state funds amounted to $5,639,255 in 1888. In 1887–88 the budget for Rio and environs was $305,858. (XIV, p. 574; VII, p. 278; XI, 183; VI, p. 1054.)

Expenditures. The expenditures for school purposes throughout Brazil have averaged, according to tabulated statements, over $5,000,000 annually during the last 5 years, that is from 1884 to 1889 (VI, p. 1054). The total expenditures for public instruction in 1889 in the 20 provinces and the federal district, or Municipio Neutro (VII, p. 278), which includes Rio and its environs, were $5,217,539; the expenditures by the government at the same date for elementary, secondary, and higher instruction were $1,746,153, but this does not include expenditures for professional education in the military arseuals, for text-books of a scientitic character, and other similar expenses. The state expenditures for higher education throughout the Empire were $405,234 in 1889. The state and provincial appropriations for the year 1890 were $5,310,841; government alone $1,913,383. The amounts to be expended for teachers' wages, incidentals, etc., are not specified. (VI, pp. 1054–1056, tables.)

IV.-SUPERVISION AND ADMINISTRATION.

State.-Education is under state and local supervision. An inspector-general of public instruction, who forms with his aids a division of the “ ministerio dos negocios” has direct charge of the schools in the Municipio Neutro. This central administration, which has also a governing influence over education throughout the country, consists of the inspector-general, and a higher council of studies composed of well known educators, four of its members being subject to election and seventeen being persons delegated by the district authorities, eleven of them from Rio alone (VII, pp. 152, 278). The inspector-general, who fulfils the functions of a minister of education, can neither be a pro. fessor nor a director of an institution. His duties are to have charge, either personally or through the members of the higher council, or through the delegates in the different provinces, of all educational institutions of Brazil; to preside at the examinations of professors and instructors and confer diplomas; to authorize the opening of schools and revise classical text-books or to replace them by others, if need be; to combine tbe reports forwarded to him from the different provinces with his own, and compare them with his annual report of education in the Municipio Neutro, so as to observe how far the schools of the federal district have served as models for the schools of the provinces; to so organize public instruction at the capital that it may serve as a model for the provinces; to prepare regulations by which all schools are te be governed and to formulate rules for the examination of professors and assistant teachers; to appoint teachers, and indicate when their salaries shall be increased and when they shall be pensioned; to sag. gest the establishment of elementary schools, and to indicate when it is advisable to extend the course in the college of Dom Pedro II by the establishment of new chairs. (VI, pp. 266-270.)

*The newly appointed minister of education seems to have taken the place of the inspector.

The council of education, with the inspector-general as presiding officer, has for its duties the investigation of the best methods and systems of public instruction, the choice and revision of text-books, discipline in private and public schools, the form and programme for examinations, etc. The council is consulted in regard to all subjects appertaining to elementary and secondary instruction. (VI, p. 268.)

In the capital, elementary and secondary schools are under the direct slipervision of the minister. In the provinces he delegates his authority to the head of the provincial government. (VII, p. 152.)

Local.-Each province has its provincial assembly, which decides questions appertaining to elementary and secondary education. The governor of a province-thero are twenty provinces-is in charge of public instruction in that province. He is aided by superintendents or general inspectors, while, as local officers, there are district school committees and local committees, which usually have two teachers “emeritus "—that is, those who have had twenty years' service as teachers-connected with them (VII, pp. 278, 286). The superintend. ents visit annually all the schools in their division, and each one publishes an annual report. The district delegates visit the schools once a month, and report to the minister every three months (VII, p. 152). The local school committee attends to the management of the schools. Private schools are also under the supervision of the school authorities and must submit to inspection as far as morality and hygiene are concerned. (VII, p. 278.)

V.-TEACHERS. Preparation.—Teachers are prepared for the position which they desire to occupy either at the College of Dom Pedro II, or at the "Esco. las Normaes" (normal schools) in Rio and in the provinces (X, p. 161). There are also pedagogical courses connected with sereral secoudary schools. (VII, p. 278.)

Eraminations and licensing.–The diploma of the normal school, or of the courses in pedagogs in secondary schools, is a prerequisite for the teacher's position (VII, p. 286). If, howerer, the applicant be a col. lege graduate a special license may be obtained. If he be a foreigner he must have a diploma from a university or pass an examination (XI,

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