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p. 183). A certificate is accorded after a certain number of years' serv. ice as assistant teacher in the lower eleinentary grades, if the theoretical and practical examination is passed, and this certificate is required if an increase of salary is desired. The questions for the examination of teachers are determined each year by the Council of Studies (VII, p. 286). Candidates for the position of teacher must be at least twenty. one years of age, and twenty-five years if the aspirant desires to be the principal of a school. (X, p. 164; XII, pp. 45, 46.)

Appointment.--The Government appoints teachers throughout the country and they are chosen from the graduates of normal schools or from the assistaut teachers who have passed the requisite examinations for assistant teachers in lower grade schools, receiving a diploma for the same, and who have had at least three months' experience. After five years' service a teacher may be appointed for life. Changes in location are authorized by the provincial department of instruction. (VII, p. 279; XI, p. 183). - In order to open a private school the teacher must be provided with a certificate of morality and capacity. (VII, p. 278.)

Salaries.—Teachers' salaries are said to be the same for men and women. If the third examination has been passed, teachers receive about $33 a month salary; prior to that, as assistants, they get from $15 to $30 a month. (VII, pp. 278, 279, 286.)

Marked differences in salary are noticeable, however. The largest cities pay at least $379 a year to a lower-grade teacher, and from $675 to $739 to elementary teachers of the higher grade. In the city of Rio a higher grade of salary is reached, however. Free lodging and ground around the house are also allowed. for each pupil who succeeds in passing the examination, a certain premiun is accorded to the teacher. When the regulation number of 30 per class is exceeded, 33 cents a month is accorded to the instructor for each boy added to the class limit, and 50 cents a month for each additional girl. (VII, p. 279.)

Teachers' pensions.--After ten years' service as a teacher, a pensioa is accorded which is sufficient for the teacher to insure his life. After ff. teen years' service the amount is augmented 25 per cent.; after twenty years, he becomes a teacher emeritus." (VII, p. 279.)

Teachers' institutes.-A decree establishing "conferencias pedagogicas" (teachers' conferences) was promulgated in 1872, and as a result of this decree, the first conferences were held in Rio ju 1873. These gatherings seemed to be of great interest to teachers, and many pedagogical questions were discussed, among them, the subject of coeducation. Over 500 of these conferences were reported in Brazil between the dates 1872 and 1899. (VI, pp. 514-520, 852–860.)

In 1883 the “Congresso do Instrucção,” held in Rio, brought together the most proininent educators of the country. (VI, p. 785.)

This association was divided into two sections, the first taking up questions appertaining to elementary, secondary, and professional education; the second section discussing biglier education. The discus.

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sions covered reorganization, courses of study in different grades, nor. mal training, technical branches, etc. Educational progress in other nations was brought before the assembly in the various papers prosented. An outgrowth of this congress was the “Primjera Exposicção Pedagogica do Rio de Janeiro," held in 1884. This, the first pedagog. ical exhibit of the country, was stated to be of incalculable benetit to teachers, as by means of it they were able to form some estimate of progress in education as realized in other countries. (III, pp. 17, 18; VI, pp. 810–814.)

VI.-COURSES OF STUDY. The grades of schools are, as stated above, the elementary, which with its two divisions corresponds with the primary and grammar grades of the United States; the secondary, which corresponds with the high and academic grades of the United States; and the schools for higher education (XI, p. 183). Olassed under elementary, on account of the course of study, are a few normals and lyceums, the remainder coming under secondary or higher instruction. Also classed under secondary instruction are asylums for those who have no one to care for them, although not necessarily orphans (VII, p. 785), evening schools for adults, and preparatory schools for apprentice boys desiring to enter the naval or military service (VI, pp. 1020-1053). The schedule of studies for all elementary institutions includes: Lower grade primaries.

Higher grade primaries. Portuguese grammar.

(Additional branches.) Reading, writing.

Geography, national history. Arithmetic, systems of weights and Applied arithmetic, geometry. measures.

Natural history. Religion, morals.

Sacred history and Cbristian doctrine. Sewing (in girls' schools).

Drawing, music, and gymnastics. (VII, 278.) |

(VII, p. 278.) By decree of April 19, 1879, the following branches were added for the elementary schools in the “Municipio Neutro,” which, as before stated, serve as a model for similar grades in the provinces :

Lower grade primaries.

Higher grade primaries. (Additional branches.)

(Additional branches.)

Algebra and geometry. Linear drawing.

Elements of pbysics, chemistry and natElements of music.

ural history, Gymnastics.

Duties of citizenship.
By decreo of November 6, 1883, wore added : Constitution of the Empire.
The metric system.

Elements of agriculture, horticulture, Elements of history, and geography of and of social economy (for boys). Brazil.

Practice in certain trades.
(VI, p. 804.) | Domestic economy (for girls).

(VI, p. 645.)

1 By this decree a kindergarten was to be established in each district of the "Muni. cipio Neutro."

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The secondary schools include in their course of study Portuguese, French, English, and Latin languages; arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry; geography, history, rhetoric, mental and moral philosophy (XI, p. 183).

The College of Dom Pedro II, which occupies the highest rank among secondary institutions, has a seven-years' course of study in two divisions leading to the degree of B. lit., and admitting to higher schools without other examination (XX, p. COLIX). Its course of study is as follows: Lauguages, Latin, Greek, English, French, German, and Italian; literature, Portuguese language and literature; rhetoric and poetry, mental and moral philosophy; history, general and national; geography, cosmography, and chorography of Brazil; arithmetic, algebra to equations of second degree, geometry, and trigonometry; natural sci. ences, physics, and chemistry; drawing, music, dancing, and gymnas. tics. (VI, p. 275; X, p. 157.)

The normal schools vary in character, but, as in other countries, their main object is to prepare teachers for both city and rural schools. In order that the normal students may be cognizant of the products of the earth and of the industries appertaining thereto, courses in liorticul. ture were established in some of the schools similar to courses reported in France, Austria, and Germany (VI, pp. 743–744). The regular course of study in the higher class norinals in Brazil may be judged from a proposed reorganization of the “ Escola Normal da Corte” at Rio, as suggested at the “Congresso do Instrucção" of 1883. The course, to cover four years, is as follows:

Science and letters.

Course in arts.

(Additional branches.)

Portuguese and French languages and

national literature.
Geography and history.
Mathematics through elements of me-

chanics.
Moral and civic education.
Pedagogy and methods.
Astronomy and physics, chemistry and

elements of mineralogy.
Biology, with elements of botany and

zoology. Sociology; social and domestic economy,

Drawing.
Caligraphy.
Music.
Gymnastics.
Sewing.

(III, pp. 26–27.)

This proposed reorganization must have been carried out in part, as it is stated that a decree of October 13, 1888, modified this plan to a certain extent. The course was to be limited to three years. The studies were to include religion, moral and civic education, with elements of political economy; Portuguese, elements of Portuguese history and literature; French; geography, particularly that of Brazil history, and above all that of Brazil to the present day; arithmetic and elements of algebra ; bookkeeping for pupil teachers; geometry, elements of physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and geology, with the principal applications of these sciences; writing, drawing, vocal music; manual training for pupil teachers, and sewing for girls; gymnastics and military exercises. Criticisms of this change in the course of study were noticed, and it may not have been carried out. (VI, pp. 962–963.)

Classed under higher education are the two faculties of medicine at Rio and Bahia, which with a six-years' curriculum cover medicine and surgery, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, botany and zoology, gynæcol. ogy, and pharmaceutics (IX, p. 239; X; p. 197). The two faculties of law have each a five-years' course covering natural and administrative laws, civil, public,' Roman, ecclesiastical, constitutional, criminal, and commercial laws; also procedure before the courts, political economy, etc., (I, pp. 11,12; XIX; XVIII). The polytechnic school, a development since 1874 of the “ Escola Centrale,” in which school were taught scientific branches and military engineering, has undergone many transformations since that period. In addition to its preparatory and general courses, it has a special three-years course for natural sciences, a similar one for mathematics, one for engineers and geographers, one for civil engineers, one for mining, and one for arts and industries. Its laboratories are especially well equipped (IX, p. 239; XII, pp. 45, 46; VIII, p. 657). The “ Escola de Minas de Ouro Preto” includes in its elementary course arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, physics, chemistry, botany, and zoology; in its higher course, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, mining, mechanics, descriptive geometry, analytical geometry, topography and surveying, geology, assaying, metallurgy, applied mechanics, stereotomy, and the securing excavations with timber (IV, p. 165). There are courses of study in naval construction in the higher national schools. The higher branches of military science and engineering, wbich formerly were taught in the central college, are now a part of the polytechnic course, and there are regular schools for military and naval science, artillery practice, etc. (IX, p. 239.)

VII.-SCHOOL MANAGEMENT AND METHODS OF DISCIPLINE.

Methods and management.-In regard to school management it is stated that by a decree of November 6, 1883, enforced from January, 1881, the following regulations were applied to the lower clementary schools of the “ Municipio Neutro," which schools, as mentioned above, are inodels for the whole country. The principal is responsible for the management of the school. A teacher usnally has charge of about 30 children, although 40, and sometimes 50 boys or girls are under the charge of one teacher. If there are more than 50 pupils be must have an assistant; it more than 100 pupils, 2 assistants, and 3 assistants if there are 150 pupils. The principal must by his example inculcate habits of neatness, morality, and good breeding. He must be at his desk 15 minutes before school opens, and remain until the close of school. He must maintain order and regularity in the class, and try to make himself beloved by his pupils. He must be ever ready to furnish verbal or written information to the authorities in regard to schools, and permit persons to visit the classes, if no disturbance is caused by it. He must report at the end of each trimester as to the enrollment and average attendance. He must see that religious instruction' limits itself to the sign of the cross, the Lord's prayer, and the angelical salutation recited at the opening of the school for the lowest class; for the second class, the apostles' creed and a prayer to the virgin are to be added; for the higher class, the ten commandments, and those of the church, the works of charity, and the seven sacraments. Added to this, moral teachings are to be inculcated mostly by example, and it is considered the duty of the principal to thoroughly imbue his pupils with the love of God, love of country, etc. (VI, pp. 803–807.)

1 Direito publico: Laws which govern the whole social body in contradistinction to those governing each individual as such. Direito civil: Laws appertaining to each people or nation in contradistinction to laws common to all nations. Direito patural: Laws that govern the human race.

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Discipline.-A general statement in regard to management and methods throughout the country is as follows: Corporal punishment is positively forbidden in the schools. (XI, p. 183 ; VII, p. 278.) If the teachers do not properly fulfill their functions they are subject to censure, suspension, dismissal, and in extreme cases they are forbidden to teach again. (II, p. 366.)

Promotion of pupils.- Promotions are made from elementary to secondary schools through examinations given by the teachers; from the secondary to the higher grades on the basis of governmental examinations arranged by the minister of education, i. e., the inspector-general. (XI, p. 183.)

Formation of school programmes.—The formation of school programmes is left to the principal, and no elementary school of either grade can be opened until the Governinent has been informed in regard to the programme of studies. (X, p. 165.)

Text-books are provided by the department of public instruction, and the best text-books in use are translated from French, German, and English sources; still, any book may be adopted save those expressly forbidden. (XI, p. 183; X, p. 165.)

VIII.-SCHOOL ORGANIZATION.

Buildings and grounds.—Public edifices are constructed from the plans and under the direction of national architects, and it is stated that city schoolhouses are fairly well built. (VI, p. XXIV.) In the rural districts an inferior class of buildings is reported. (XI, p. 183.) The

Since the establishment of tbe Republic religious instruction is omitted in the state schools, and these religious exercises may possibly be omitted also, although this is not distinctly stated. (XVI, p. 94.)

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