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size of rooms, seating of pupils, and conduct of schools have been discussed by those interested in bringing about educational reforms in Brazil, but the decisions are not known to date. (II, pp. 336-340.)
Hours of school-Holidays. The hours for school are from 9 to 12 a. m., and 2 to 5 p. m., Monday to Saturday inclusive, except on national and religious holidays. What these holidays are is not specified. A month's vacation in the schools at Christmas is reported, however. (XI, p. 183.)
Compulsory attendance.-Attendance is compulsory in the schools, and in the larger cities where there are graded courses the law is carried out to a certain extent. Most of the provincial councils have also voted for this measure, but have been unable to enforce it. (VII, p. 278.)
No distinction is made in schools as to color; blacks and whites are admitted on equal terms. (XI, p. 183.)
Libraries and museums.-Among the institutions which serve as aids to intellectual growth are the “Museu Nacional” at Rio with its ethnological and paleontological collections, and the “ Bibliotheca Nacionale,” which possesses 170,631 volumes, 1,761 specimens of Brazilian flora, 30,000 engravings, 12,000 manuscripts, etc. (VI, p. 845.) There are also many school and society libraries in Rio, and in the larger cities of the provinces public libraries supported by the provincial aathorities. In addition there are libraries connected with the majority of colleges and academies. Provincial museums, too, are quite numerous, many of them containing material especially valuable to those who are carrying on scientific or educational work. (XII, pp. 45, 46.) In Rio the Museu Escolar Nacional,” established in 1883, has, as its stat. utes indicate, five sections, viz: (1) Legislative, administrative, and statistical documents relating to education. (2) Didactic and other pedagogical works. (3) Plans for the construction of school buildings. (4) Types of school furniture. (5) School furnishing and apparatus, models, geographical, scientific, and technological collections, etc. (V, pp. 1-7, 1-9; VI, pp. 810-816.)
Societies. -Other aids to progress in education are educational and scientific societies in Rio and the provincial capitals. (VI,pp. XXIX, XXX.) Among them are the “Instituto Historico, Geografico e Ethnografico" (Historical, Geographical, and Ethnological Institute) of Brazil; the “Gabinete Portuguez de Leitura," with over 70,000 volumes in its library; the “Sociedade Propagadora das Bellas Artes” (Society for Art Culture) with its schools; the “Conservatorio de Musica” (Conserv. atory of Music); the “Sociedade Amante da Instrucção” (Society for Promoting Education), which maintains several elementary schools, and an asylum for orphans, and has courses in French, Latin, stenography, linear drawing, music, etc.; the “ Lyceu Litterario Portuguez,
which has professional courses, and aims in every way to develop popu. lar education. (VI, pp. 748, 760-768, 928–933; I, pp. 64-67.) There are many other societies with a similar object in view, and also numerous lecture courses on scientific subjects, for which a merely nominal fee is charged. (XII, pp. 45, 46.)'
School savings banks. -School savings banks were established by a decree of April 19,1879, which called for such institutions in each school district of Rio. . In the province of Pernambuco a decree regulating public instruction instituted school savings banks as a part of the regu. lar school programme. The statute refers to them as “of great educational value," and as “ of the utmost importance in connection with a thorough civic education." (VI, pp. 645-646; XXI.)
Schools for special classes.-As a means of educating the special classes there are such schools as the “Instituto dos Surdos Mudos ” (Institute for the Deaf and Dumb), which, founded in 1826, and supported by the Government since 1868, has an elementary course of study, and gives instruction in boot and shoe making, bookbinding, horticulture, and floriculture; the “Instituto dos Meninos Cégos” (Institute for the Blind), with both elementary and secondary courses, and with complete instruction in vocal and instrumental music, harmony, rules of counterpoint and instrumentation, typographical art, bookbinding, and piano-tuning, and for the girls needle-work; the asylums maintained by the “ Socie. dade Portugueza de Beneficencia ;” by the “Sociedade S. Francisco de Paula ;” by the “ Sociedade Amante de Instrucção"-all of which have elementary courses and generally instruction leading to a trade. Added to these is the institute “ Providencia," where the native population of the provinces of Amazona and Para is taught such trades as black. smithing, carpentry, tailoring, the mason's and locksmith's trade, etc. They also receive instruction in the elementary branches, the rights of citizenship, and Christian doctrine. (VI.pp. 983–992, 846–847, 971–973, 1006-1010, 750–752; X, pp. 201-206; I, pp. 62–63.)
X.-HISTORICAL STATEMENT. The history of education in Brazil may be traced to the advent of the Jesuits from Portugal, in 1549, and the establishment of numerous schools by that order in different parts of the country, during the period preceding the events which led to the expulsion of the Order in 1758–60. A school founded by one of the fathers at São Vicente may be said to be the cradle of elementary instruction in Brazil. At the beginning of the eighteenth century are noticed the first traces of official intervention in regard to the studies directed by the Jesuits. The municipality controlled education until the first quarter of the present century. Since then a tendency towards centralization is noticeable. In 1730 instructors and professors were called “ministros de lettras," and were consulted by the highest authorities. Secondary studies at an early date were found only in Episcopal seminaries, where arithmetie, algebra, geometry, Latin, Greek, rhetoric, and philosophy were studied. For higher branches students went to the University of Coimbra, in Portu. gal. The secularization of education in the early part of the eighteenth century brought about the so-called "Letters Patent, which aimed at reorganizing the stadies of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and rhetoric, and to bring about a higher intellectual development. Royal letters of Sovember 10, 1772, established a " literary subsidy" for the special main. tenance of primary schools. This was supplemented by a deeree of October 17, 1795, by which the municipal authorities were to use the amount raised by soch taxation for the payment of teachers and professors. And again, on July 6, 1797, the subsidy was placed under the control of the boards of finance of that period (VI, pp. 3, 9–13, 22-45, 58, 60–63). In 1816 this library subsidy was repealed ; on March 16, 1816, a director general of studies was created, and the municipal chambers ceased to have a direct induence upon education (VI, pp. 6063).
From 1808 to 1818 date many of the higher institutions of learning, sneh as a naral academy in 1803; medical and sargical courses in 1809; in 1812 a medical and surgical board, which could confer the baccalaureaute and doctor's degrees; in 1814 sehools of agriculture and botany and a commercial school; in 1813 the ngeleus of a publie library at Rio, formed by the sending of 50,000 rolames from Lisbon ; in 1818 the Sational Museum at Rio was established. During this same period elementary education was not neglected, and according to the law of October 20, 1823, any citizes could open an elementary school without having to pass an examination or obtain any license or author. ization. Monitorial schools according to the Lancastrian system were nest attempted, and a ministerial decree of August 22, 1825, arged the necessity of establishing such schools. (VI, pp. 9), 100-106, 132, 163–167.) The next step Fas to formulate a law-October 15, 1827– by which a sufficient number of elementary schools for those des ring to attend school were to be established in cities, tosas, and populated districts. From the formation of the constitution in 1824 to the laws of 1551 and 1874, which form the basis of the present educational system in Brazil, various progressire efforts were made. In the provinces the general councils of education created elementary schools for both boys and girls and founded chairs for secondary instruction, which included the studies of pbilosophy, rhetoric, geometry, French, and agri. culture; faculties of medicine Fere created in 1832 to take the place of the former courses in medicine (VI, pp. 177-186): reforms in the constitution in 1934 brought about a number of lars and decrees ar pertaining to edacation, but there was little plan or method in the arrangements made (VI, p. 191); teachers' wages were increased in Rio, but suitable training for teachers bs means of normal schools, etc., was not chronicled till a later date. (VI, pp. 193–195.) In 1836 a special control and inspection of elementary schools in the capital were established, and a director of schools free from municipal surveillance was created. (VI, p. 196.) From 1837 date the first attempts towards a faculty of philosoplay in the establishment of the College of Dom Pedro II. (VI, pp. 237–249.) In 1840 with the advent of Dom Pedro II upon the throne (XVII, p. 110), new constitutional reforms were ef. fected. At that date Brazil had a population of 6,000,000 inhabitants. As 2,500,000 of them were natives and slaves they formed no part of the school population, but even then only about 1 school to 520 pupils was reported. (VI, p. 229.) This lack of schools was so manifest that in 1845 the Government was authorized to furnish funds for school build. ings and apparatus, and in 1817 a commission was appoiuted to visit both public and private schools—the Government's intervention in private schools is here noticed for the first time. (VI, p. 233.) To the pres. ent day more attention had been given to secondary and higher education than to the elementary grades, and a reorganization of elementary instruction was said to be absolately essential. A vote of the Chamber of Deputies, September 17, 1851, gave the Government full power to reorganize elementary education in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, and this act was supplemented by a decree of February 17, 1854, which holds good to the present time. These decrees extended public instruction, exacted better training for teachers, required proofs of capacity, investigated the pay of teachers, regulated private instruction, appointed inspectors for the schools of the capital, and placed the organization of secondary instruction in charge of the provincial assemblies. (VI, pp. 229–239.) From 1854 on, general progressive movements were noted in schools of the provinces, and extraordinary efforts were made by the Government to develop public instruction in all parts of the Empire. Evening schools were opened for adults and day workmen. Methods of instruction in the capital were improved upon; additional schools were opened ; new school buildings supplied with modern apparatus were built; the best text-books adopted by the authorities were translated from French, German, and English sources ; teachers' salaries were increased; poor children were given suitable clothing so that they could attend school, and even texi-books were furnished them; large suins of money were voted annually by the Government for higher instruction throughout the Empire, and for elementary and secondary instruction in the capital and its environs. (VI, pp. 1054-1056; XV, p.540; VII, p. 278.) With the abolition of slavery in 1871, special measures were taken to educate all children born to that class. (VII, p. 278.) Progress in higher intellectual development was brought about by the fact that in Brazil, as in other countries-Germany and Italy, for instance-many situations under Government require proficiency in practical mathematics aud pataral history, and hence a taste for such studies was encouraged. The advent of foreign engineers and naturalists also gave the people knowl. edge of late achievements in Europe in regard to mathematical and ex
perimental sciences. (IX, p. 239.) The discussions before the Camara dos Deputados (Chamber of Deputies) from year to year in regard to reform of elementary education have brought out many facts appertaining to educational movements in other countries, and the result of these combined efforts has been to cause marked progress in educational matters in Brazil within the last twenty years. (VI, pp. 1056–1096.)
A tabulated statement of the amounts given for education in the prov. inces and by the state from 1874–75 on, will exemplify this to a certain extent, although the lack of school statistics from year to year militates against a clear exposition of the gradual increase in school facilities during that period. Total appropriations for public instruction in the provinces and in the "Municipio Neutro." 1874-75. ............ $3, 257, 097 | 1832-83
......... $4,545, 345 1875-76 .. 3,518,715 1883-94
.. 5,024, 178 1876-77 3,819, 376 1884-85
... 5, 228, 572 1877-78 3,718,740 1885-86
5, 385, 167 1873-79 3,558, 523 | 1886-87 .
5, 430, 290 1879-80 3, 516, 886 1888 ..
5, 639, 255 1880-81 4,046, 227
5, 217,538 1881-82. 4,243, 671 | 1890 ......
5, 310, 841
| 1859 ......
Appropriations by the state for elementary, secondary, and higher instruclion.' 1874-75 .. . $1,097, 017 | 1882-83
....... $1,526, 236 1875-76 1,189, 6721883–84 ....
.. 1,526, 333 1876–77 ..... 1, 285,543 1884-85
1,779, 257 1877-78 1, 302, 686 1883-86
1,797, 839 1878-79 .... . 1,185,056 1886-87 ..
1,774, 009 1879–80 1, 241, 646 | 1888
1, 730, 699 1880-81 . 1,375, 137 | 1889 .....
.. 1,746, 153 1881-82 1,377,949 | 1890 .
1,913, 383 Incomplete returns in 1874-75 for 18 out of the 20 provinces gave 5,562 elementary schools, with 169,895 pupils. Data for the succeeding years are not available, but in 1889–90 this nuinber had increased to 8,064 schools, with 266,100 pupils. That is, in 16 years an increase of 2,502 elementary schools and of 96,205 pupils is observable, and during the same period the total appropriations for public instruction increased $2,053,744, and the state appropriations $816,306. And yet it is stated that the result of such expenditure is not especially satisfactory. The cause of this is, the lack of density of population in many of the prov. inces; the non-enforcement of laws pertaining to school attendance; the indifference of parents in regard to the education of their children, and lastly, a lack of unity in school matters, a spirit of local pride dom. inating that national spirit which would bring about a centralization of educational interests, and with that a national system of education. (VI, pp. 579, 1015–1056.)
These do not include professional instruction in the naval and military arsenals, nor amounts for printing educational and scientific works.