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education of teachers. But the only academies that had devoted the amounts received to the establishment of teachers' training classes were the last three mentioned abore. Of the success attained by the St. Lawrence Academy class the committee speak in high terms. Almost all the public-school teachers of the vicinity bad been educated within its walls and the average salary of the teacher had risen from thirty to forty dollars above the average that obtained before the school had been established.
CURRICULUM OF THE FIRST PUBLIC NORMAL SCHOOL.
On the 12th of March, 1838, the secretary of the Massachusetts board of education notified the legislature of the State tbat“ private manificence has placed conditionally at my lhis) disposal the sum of $10,000 * * * to be disbursed under the direction of the board of education, in qualifying teachers of our public schools.” The condition was that the State should contribute an equal amount. The agitation of the question had been commenced eleven years before.
The question before the board, when the State had accepted Mr. Dwight's “muni. ficence," was, “Should the board concentrate its efforts and expend its funds upon a single school? Should it attempt to engraft a department for the qualification of teachers, upon academies in different parts of the State Should it attempt to obtain the coöperation of public-spirited individuals and establish private institutions in the center of convenient sections of the Commonwealth ?” “If existing academies were selected," says Mr. Mann, “and a new department engrafted upon them this department would be but a secondary interest in the school; the teachers would not be selected so much with reference to the incidental, as to the principal object, and as the course of instruction, proper to qualify teachers, must be essentially different from a conimon academical course [compare the opinion of the New York committee above) it would be impossible for any preceptor duly to superintend both.” In another connection he remarks on tbis subject: "The course of studies commonly pursued at the institutions which are worthy to be called academies consists rather in an extension of knowledge into the higher departments of science than in reviewing and thoroughly and critically mastering the rudiments or elementary branches of knowledge. Yet the latter is the first business of the normal pupil. * * * Few intellectual operations are more dissimilar than those of acquiring and imparting. The art of imparting is the main portion of the normal papil's qualification; while acqnisition, as our academies are generally conducted, is the main object of the academical student."
The deliberations and the smallness of the appropriation resulted in the establishment of three schools in different parts of the State and that municipal “muniticence" was invoked, and invoked not in vain. To the honor of the Commonwealth seven towns (townships) responded, and many made generous offers with a view to partaking in the benefits. Two schools were immediately provided, that at Lexington and that at Barte, and a third about the same time at Plymouth.'
Mr. Mann, speaking of the term “normal school,” says that France, baving copied to some extent the Prussian system, has " borrowed the name" from that country, "wbere schools for the qualification of teachers bave long been in successful operation," and where “they are universally known by the epithet normal.” “A normal school," he contingos, signifies a school where the rules of practice and the principles of guidance and direction in the various departments of education are taught. The name is short, descriptive from its etyinulogy, and in no danger of being misunderstood or misapplied."
The curriculam of the schools thus established is given by Mr. Mann, secretary of the board of education, as follows: 1. Orthography. Reading, Grammar, Composi. 1 7. Music. tion and Rhetoric, Logic.
8. Constitution and History of Massachusetts 2. Writing. Drawing.
and of the United States. 3. Arithmetic, Mental and Written, Algebra, 9. Natural Philosophy and Astronomy.
Geometrs, Book. Keeping, Navigation, Sur | 10. Natural History veying.
11. The Principles of Piety and Morality Com. 4. Geography, Ancient and Modern, with Chro.
mon to all Sects or Christians. nology; Statistics and General History. 12. THE SCIENCE AND art of teaching, WITH REF. S. Physiology:
ERENCE TO ALL THE ABOVE NAMED STUDIES. 6. Mental Philosophy.
(We reproduce the type of the original.)
""This contly mistake of New York," says the State superintendent of Connecticut, Mr. Northrop, in his Fourth Appunl Report as secretary of the board of education of that State, "did not present its repetition in Kentucky and Maine," and after a few lines, "The early failure of the experiment both fa Maine and Keotucky was no matter of surprise to the intelligent friends of education. When
portal department is a mere sufix to another institution, it must obviongly lack that unity and com. pleteness of plan and those professional methods of training which are essential to a trio normal school. * * * There remain in certain States a few feeble academies, whose tumid circulars assume the normal" prefix, while they resemble the thing only in name, and stint in performance as much as they excel in promise."
To enter, candidates-females only at the Lexington school, both sexes at Barremust have attained the age of 17 if males, 16 if females, and bave passed an examination in orthography, reading, writing, grammar, geography, and arithmetic. The minimum term of study was fixed at one year. Mr. Mann does not give the reasons for the adoption of each of the studies of the curriculum, but says in genoral
"The most material point, in regard to the normal schools, relates to the course of instruction to be therein pursued. The elements for a decision of this question aro fonod in the existing wants of our community. We want improved teachers for the common schools, where the mass of the children must look for all the aids of education they will ever enjoy * a * In establishing the regulations for the normal schools, and the course of studies to be pursued therein, the idea hay not for a moment been lost sight of by the board (of education), that they are designed to improve the education of the great body of the people."
Pausing to comment on the normal-school course as above outlined, it is a matter of some surprise to find the subject of bookkeeping introduced here as in the New York course. If it be maintained that it was a practical feature inasmuch as it was one of the qualifications that make a olerk (we hear a great deal nowadays of the propensity a public school course gives to engage in clerical work), how is navigation or surveying to be justified, especially when it is considered that it was the great body of the children that the normal-school graduates were to teach 1
Touching the sex of the pupils, Mr. Mann maintains the superiority of the female teacher over the male in teaching young children, and he thinks the system of New York, in which but one academy had a class for training female teachers, to be so far faulty, and claims that the Massachusetts board of education had acted wisely (in appropriating their first normal school exclusively to the qualification of female teachers," a proof of its belief in “the relative efiiciency of the female sex in the ministry of civilization and the value of female services in the education of the young."
In the following year, 1840, a majority of the committee on education which had been directed by the Massachusetts house of representatives to consider the expediency of abolishing the board of education and the normal schools," reported among others the following conclusions:
"Auother project imitated from France and Prussia, and set on foot under the superintendence of the board of education, is the establishment of normal schools.
* * Comparing the two normal schools already established with the academies and high schools of the Commonwealth, they do not appear to your committee to present any peculiar or distinguishing advantages, *
It is insisted by the board, however, that the art of teaching is a peculiar art, which is particularly and exclusively tauglit at normal schools; but it appears to your committee that every person who has himself undergone a process of instruction must acquire, by that very process, the art of instructing others. This certainly will be the case with every person of intelligence; if intelligence be wanting no system of instruction can supply its place. An intelligent mechanic, who has learned his trade, is competent, by that very fact, to instruct others in it; and needs to normal school to teach him the art of teaching his approptices. * * *
“Even if these schools did furnish any peculiar and distinguishing advantages, we have no adequate security that the teachers, thus taught at the public expense, will remain in the Commonwealth; and it seems hardly just tbat Massachusetts, in the present state of her finances, should be called upon to educate, at her own cost, teachers for the rest of the Union.
“If it be true that the teachers of any of our district schools are insufficiently qualitied for the task, the dificulty originates, as it appears to your committee, not in any deficiency of the means of obtaining qualifications, but in insufficiency of compensation * * * and the want of means or inclination to pay an adequate salary is not a want which normal schools bave any tendency to supply." (Compare this last assertion, however, with that made by the committee of the New York Board of Regents respecting the influence exorted by the St. Lawrence school.]
We can not give the argument of the majority as to the grave political evils that would arise were the process of contralization inangurated by the creation of a board of education, public libraries, and the normal schools persisted in ; space and our object forbid it. Nor the reply of the minority farther than to say that they treated the “imaginary evils" of the majority with quite as much penetration as their opponents had displayed in fastening on the weak points of the normal schools. In 1846 the course of the Lexington school then at West Newton was given by the circular and register for the period 1839-1816, the earliest aunual document of tho school that this Ofice has in its tiles, as follows:
UDDLE-CLASS-continued. 1. Orthography-Worcester's Dictionary, and 8. Algebra-Colburn's, Davies', Sherwin's.
promiscuou9 selections, Fowle's Common 9. Geometry (plane, solid)—Thompson's Legen. School Speller and Companion to Spelling
10. Grammar-De Lacy's, Fowle's, Wells's. 2. Enunciation and Reading-Russell's Ortho. 11. Scripture reading.
phony, the Normal Chart, Bumstead's and 12. History-Willson's United States.
Fowle's Tablos. 3. Geography and map drawing-Fowle's and
SENIORS. Morse's Geography, and various outline mapa.
1. Algebra-Sherwin's, Davies', Bourdon's. 4. Writing-National Writing Book.
2. Geometrs-Davies'. 5. Arithmetic-Colburn's First Lessons and 3. Reading, and scripture reading, Sequel, Greenleaf's, etc.
4. Orthography. 6. Physiology-Combo's Cutter's.
5. Natural philosophy-Olmstead's. 7. Punctuation-Rules from Wells's Grammar 6. Astronomy-Olmstead's. and examples.
7. Rhetoric-Newman. 8. Phonograpby.
8. Constitution of the United States, Story's; 9. Drawing-Fowle's "Eye and Hand."
Sullivan's Political Class Book
9. Bookkeeping-Thomas's or Winchester's, also MIDDLE CLASS.
by general lessona, and Conver's.
10. Moral philosophy-Wayland's, Combo's. 1. Orthography,
11. Mental philosophy. 2. Writing. 3. Reading.
EX-SENIORS. 4. Ancient geography and map drawing-Worcester's Ancient Geography.
Some of the foregoing together with 5. Arithmetic. Selections from various 1. Trigonometry-Davies'. . Phonography. 3 authors.
2. Surveying-Davies'. 7. The Globes-Problems.
3. Spherical Geometry--Davies'.. The pupils were taught vocal music, drawing, and composition during the entire year. Moral philosophy was given daily by the principal in familiar lectures. One day of the week was devoted to practice in teaching, "when the pupils choose their sobjects, and teach before the whole school,” Written questions in various departments were occasionally given out.
A model school was connected with the school and used as a preparatory school to the normal school classes. In this model or preparatory school the pupils of the senior class of the normal school taught in rotation, under the supervision of the principal.
Speaking of this school the Rev. S. J. May, the successor and biographer of Mr. Pierce, the first principal, says:
"As soon as practicable after opening the normal school at Lexington, Mr. Pierce instituted the model department, a school composed of the children of the neighborhood, just such as would be found in most of our country district schools. lu that he lead his pupils, by turos to apply and test for themselves the correctness and the excellence of the principles of teaching which he was laboring to instill into them. This was the most peculiar part of the institution. In the management of it he evinced great adroitness, as well as indomitable perseverence and untiring patience. In that model department the future teachers under his supervision practiced the best methods of governing and instructing children, so that each one when she left the normal school carried with her some experience in the conduct of a common school."
In 1841, Mr. Pierce describes his method of training in the normal school or department, properly so called, thus: “You (meaning the Hon. Henry Barnard, then superintendent of common schools of Connecticut and subsequently the first United States Commissioner of Education) ask for a full account of my manner of instruction in the art of teaching. This is not easy to give. From what I say you may get some idea of what I attempt and of the manner of it. Two things I lave aimed at especially in this school : (1) To teach thoroughly the principles of the several branches studied, so that the pupils may have a clear and full understanding of them ; (2) to teach the pupils by my own example, as well as by precepts, the best way of teaching the same things effectnally to others. I have four different methods of recitation: First, by question and answer; second, by conversation ; third, by calling on one, two, three, more or fewer, to give an analysis of the whole subject contained in the lesson; and fourth, by requiring written analyses, in which the ideas of the author are stated in the language of the pupil. * * * At all the recitations we have more or less of discussion. * * * Sometimes, instead of reciting the lesson directly to me, I ask them to imagine themselves for the time acting in the capacity of teachers.
* At many of our recitations more than half the time is spent with reference to teaching' the art of teaching.'”
It may possibly be overcautious to say that by this was not meant Pitman's or any other system of stenography.
Mr. Pierce was not only the head teacher but the only one for the forty-one pupils in attendance in 1841; the school opened with three. (May's Memoir and Boston Com. Sch. Journal, 1841.)
The sessions of this school, of which there were two for each of the 5 school days of the week, continued from three to three and one-half hours. Out of school the pupils were expected to devote two or three hours of each day to study.
In the sixth annual report (1843) of the Massachusetts State Board of Education the following occurs: “The board would be far from intimating that all tbe pupils of the normal schools bave given satisfaction to the districts in which they have been omployed. This would be a consummation rather devoutly to be wished than reasonably to be expected. For the purpose of disseminating as far as possible the advantages arising from these schools amongst all the people of the State, it bas been the object of the board rather to make a partial improvement in the minds of many papils than to perfect a few in the business of instruction.”
NORMAL SCHOOL OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK.
The normal classes of the academies of New York seem pot to have been altogether satisfactory, and by act of May 7, 1844, the legislature provided for a State normal school at Albany, in conformity with a lengthy report reviewing the establishment of schools on this and on the other side of the Atlantic, and, especially, the working of the schools in Massachusetts. The school was placed under the control of an "executive coinmittee," one of whom was the superintondent of public instruction, who said in his remarks on the opening of the school, December 18, 1844:
"It is not expected that individuals will be received as members of this institution who are not already acquainted with those departments of education which are usually taugbt in our schools. Their knowledge of all the elementary branches is here to be reviewed and made perfect; and in addition to this they will be carefully and practically exercised in the best modes of teaching all these branches. For this pur. pose arrangements are now in progress, although not yet completed, for providing inodel classes of little children of the different ages and descriptions usually found in our country schools. These classes will be taught by the pupils of this institution, under the supervision of the principal, from the learning of the alphabet upwards through all the grades of common school education. *
“In addition to the ordinary branches of study pursued in our common schools, it is intended that vocal music and drawing shall form a part of the course of instruction here to be communicated. Physiology also, so far as it embraces the science of vi. tality and the laws to be observed in the preservation of health, will be taught."
The executive committee, in addition to the studies indicated above, added algebra, geometry, surveying, application of science to the arts, use of globes, intellectual and moral philosophy, "and such other branches as the executive committee may from time to time direct." Coeducation was practiced. In the earliest catalogue this Office has of this school (1845), the programme is given as follows:
Chapel exercises, etc., in lecture room.
.. Mise Hance
11:15 to 12 m
Wednesday is derotrd to ponmanship, composition, declamation, "sublectures," lectures, and general exercises.
3 to 4:30 p.m.....
Vocal music-Monday, Wednesday, Friday ... Mr. Isley.
The experimental school was under the charge of "a permanent teacher," who was aided by two teachers' and two visitors' each week; it being understood that the visitors of the one week shall become the teachers' for the next."
THE NORMAL SCHOOL OF PHILADELPHIA,
We have spoken of the necessity when considering the question we have in hand, of beginning with the action taken in New York, but by the fifth section of the act of the 6th of March, 1818, for the education of children at public expense within the city and county of Philadelpbia," the controllers of the public schools were “to es. tablish a model school to qualify teachers for sectional schoo!s in other parts of Pennsylvania." The building and furnishing of this “model school" cost $4,938, the teachers' salaries, stationery, etc., $2,157, and furniture $862, as reported on the 31st of December, 1819; this was the first schoolhouse erected by the city school authorities. The city had adopted the Lancasterian or monitorial system, in which“ one teacher, aided by monitors from amongst his own pupils, was considered sufficient for the care and government and instruction of 300 children."
In the eleventh annual report of the controllers (1829) we find that "geveral persons of both sexes have recently availed themsolves of the privilege of acquiring a knowledge of the Lancasterian plan of instruction by attending the model and other schools, and some of the individuals thus qualified are candidates for employment in Pennsylvania ;” and that “the principal of the boys' model school has compiled an epitome of geography especially adapted to seminaries of mutual instruction." In 1834, sixteenth annual report, an “experimental intant school was established in the bailding occupied by the model school, exbibiting" under the directions of its accomplished teacher, a constant and rapid improvement in the children, and at the same time has furnished an admirable seminary for the instruction of infant-school teachers, numbers of whom have regularly devoted their time to the acquirement of practical skill in conducting these schools, and are believed in several tent to take charge of similar establishments."
About 1836 a system of "infant schools” and another of “primary schools" hav. ing grown up by the side of the “monitorial schools," and a committee havirg visited Boston and New York, the monitorial system began rapidly to decline, and au effort, “ an experiment” as the president of the board calls it, was made to supply tbe place of " juvenile monitors, often incompetent and always indifferent to the improvement of their fellows" by well-qualified teachers, of whom a number should be of the gentler sex, that the “ peculiar benefits to be derived from their presenco and influence” might be secured. The high school establisbed in the following year was for boys only; many of its graduates, however, became teachers.
In the twenty-fourth annual report (1842) "a plan for organizing a branch of the high school for females and a school for female teachers, in the model school had been discussed during the year, but nothing definite had been determined on in relation to them." One of the three courses of the high school was the classical coarse for teachers and others.” In 1844 - Saturday classes, to consist of girls and female teachers, connected with the public schools, were formed. The following is