« السابقةمتابعة »
The results recorded in this table and diagram are somewhat vitiated on account of the different rates of assessment prevalent in the different States. The rate of assessment in two or three of the North Central States is particularly low, which serves to raise the position of that
section somewhat higher than would otherwise be the case, though it SISI er does not affect the increase or decrease of the Division itself; the slope some wiem not affectsofts 1
upward of the North Central States shows that the proportion of their means expended for salaries is increasing nearly as fast as in the South.
The assessed valuation for 1870 and for 1880 is taken from the United States Census; that for 1889 mainly from reports to this Office.
TABLE 17.—Daily cost of education per pupil.
1 of the preceding there was expended for Average daily amount expended for each pupil.
salaries of superintendents and teachers in
18TO.. 1871. 1872. 1813. 1874. 1875. 1870. 1877. 1878 1879
Cents. i Oents. Cents. Cente. Cents. / Cents. I Cents. Cents.
12.40 20.26 8,00 7.97
12.16 20.22 7.86 7.84 11.08 11.38
11. 40 18.98 7.67 7.64 10.36 10.50
10. 76 19. 87 7.35 7.26 9.96 10.03
10.43 17. 72 7.14 7.04 9.75 9. 83
82 10.30 17.49 6.98 6.98 10.46 10.80
10.95 17.80 7.26 10.74 10.80
11.45 17.86 11.20 11.28
12.17 10.16 7.50 11.33 11.78 7. 78
12. 1918. 45
7.56 11.57 11. 77 7.841
12.61 19.07 7.61 7.37 11.55 11.83 7.85
12. 43 19.51 7.77 7.63 11.47 11.68 7. 69
6,55 12.44 6.59 12. 39 6.98 13. 49 7.42 14. 59 7.49 14.88 7.82 13. 93 7. 86 14.26 7.63 14.35 7.45 14.38 7.22 13.41 7.02 13. 10 7.30 ! 12.99
12. 4 7.76 7. 68 8.04 13. 88 8.04 13. 44 8.16 113. 69 8.18 14.30 8.50
1881. 122 1883, 1864. 1885. 1886.
* 1858. 1889.
A COMPARISON OF THE SCHOOLS OF THE UNITED STATES,
GERMANY, AND FRANCE.
Distinctive Features of American and German Schools, with Historic References-Statistics
of the Schools of Prussia (Diagram I, II, III)-Other Items of Interest Concerning the People's Schools in Prussia-A Foreigner's Views of German Schools-Statistica of Schools in America-Criticism of American Schools --Statistics of the Schools in France-Criticism of the French Schools-Summary of Comparative Statistics ( Diagrams)-Other Points of Comparison-Distinctire Features of the Courses of Study in Prussia-Graphio Presentation of the Courses of Study-Explınatory Remarks to Charts I-IV- Number of Hours per week Derotel to the Different Branches--Causcs of Rapid Adrancement in the Studies---Typical Courses of Study for Prussian High Schools, Prussian Middle Schools, French Superior Elementary Schools, and French Lycécs or Classical Schools-- An Amerioan Opinion of the Vital Differences-French
Students in German High Schools---An Englishman's Opinion of German Schools. SOURCES OF INFORMATION.-Historical: (1) Das Preussische Schulwesen, Schneider
and von Bremen-—(2) Das höhere Schulwesen, Wiese-(3) Recueil des Lois et Actes de l'Instruction Publique, Paris-(4) Schmid's Encyclopaedie der Erziehung und des Unterrichtswesen8--(5) Dittes' Geschichte der Erziehung und des Unterrichts(6) Karl Schmidt's Geschichte der Erziehung-(7) Hahn's Unterrichtsuesen in Frankreich. Stalistical: (1) The Statesmau's Yearbook-(2) Richter's Jahresbericht of 1887--8--(3) Das preu8818che Schulwesen, see above-- (4) Annual Report of Inspector-General, 1. Buisson --(5) Reports of the Bureau of Education for 1885, 'e6 and '87-(6) Allgemeine Schulzeitung, Leipric. Miscellaneous Sources: (1) Sonnenschein's Encyclopedia of Education --(2) Dr. Laishley's Report of the Schools in Europe and America-(3) Stundenpliine der Gymnasien, by Chlich-(4) Lehrpläne für höhere Schulen-(5) Plan d'Etudes des Lycécs--(6) Lois et Actes de l'Instruction Publique, (1881, 1886)--(7) Das Unterricht8100sen des preussischen Staates, by Rönne(8) Das deutsche Schulwesen nach seiner historischen Entwicklung.by Dr. Mascher--(9) “ European Schools,” by Dr. L. R. Klemm-(10) A great number of annual catalogues of German schools-(11) The current educational press in Europe and America.
1.-DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF AMERICAN AND GERMAN SCIIOOLS,
WITI HISTORICAL REFERENCES.
The German “ people's school” is a historic growth. Its beginnings date back a thousand years, but not until the time of the Reformation did it assume the shape of a school for the masses; not until then did it draw into the pale of its influence the lower and lowest strata of soci. ety. It has at all times felt the influence of political, religious, and
social commotion and had to accommodate itself to the ruling spirit of the times. A frequently quoted political axiom in Germany is (in literal translation): “He who has the school commands the future." From being tbe handmaid of the church, as in Luther's time, the German school- to use a collective title-became a powerful auxiliary of the state at the beginning of the present century, a time of political disaster, and ever since it has, mirror-like, reflected the different phases of the political life of the nation.
While there are many points of similarity between the German and the American school, yet the German school is not a common school. In this respect the "primary school” in France, in theory at least, comes much nearer our ideal than the German “people's school.”
Germany has been for more than a thousand years (with short inter. rals) an empire consisting of more or less independent sovereign states. Hence the establishinent and management of schools in Germany are, as in this country, matters of local concern, like all other matters not pertaining to the defense of the nation or its intercourse with foreign powers. The schools are supported partially by the state; partially by the communities. 12.02 per cent. of the expenses are borne by the state, which thereby derives the right of legislation regarding courses of study, supervision, etc.; 87 per cent. of the expenses are borne by communities, which secures them the choice of sites, erection of build. ings, and election of teachers; endowments and even private enterprise contribute something to this work. The government of the German schools is a most intricate affair, since there is no uniformity except in the people's schools. There is nowhere in Germany a system of national schools such as was contemplated by the foremost thinkers of the French Revolution, or is desired and advocated by German reformers of to-day.
Though a powerful sentiment is now awake in Germany to make the schools of the empire truly national in character and organization, free of charge, and common to all; and thongh many teachers, mindful of the social tendency of the nineteenth century, are supporting the idea of a common school (“ Einheits-Schule") for Germany, first of course for each separate state, it is a fact that as yet there is a great variety of schools in existence, perhaps a natural outgrowth of the independent mode of thinking of the people. The people's school (Volks-Schule) in its extent, organization, management, and results, perhaps, is the near. est approach to a common school.
This, then, must be borne in mind when contemplating the structure of the German school system. The variety of schools of which it is composed is so great that it puzzles the collector of statistics who has to classify them, about as much as the nomenclature of American private secondary schools does. That the differentiation in German society must be reflected in its schools is self-evident, if we consider that in a monarchy an aristocracy is an absolute necessity. A king of citizens of equal social rights is an anomaly. A monarch must needs have a pedestal, which is
ED 89- 3
forand is an asceslogseale of sociéy. Tie Agezicar common sehool is the expressiva of social de socracy, hezee is a co2 radiction to the moDarctical system.
IL-STATISTICS OF THE SCHOOLS OF PRESSIA.
Different strata of society in Germany hare diferent schools. For the parpose of comparison they may be elasses in three groups.
(4, Love schools, or the people's schools so called. They are purely elementary and attended by both sexes.
(B, Middle schools : (a) the citizens' schools for lys, (b) the girls' academies. Both are more extended in scope and course than the people's schools.
(C, High schools : (a) the “Realschule" b) the "Gymnasium," (c) the "Real-Gymnasium.” These are the schools which prepare for the uni. versity and polytechnicum.
This classification in three groups, lower, middle, and higher schools, is somewhat arbitrary, but it is convenient and sufficiently minute for practical purposes. Though there is a great variety among the schools in each of these groups, it is particularly puzzling in Group II, middle schools.
The sabjoined diagrams may illustrate the organization and composite Dature of the German school in contradistinction to the simplicity of or. ganization of the American school. Since reliable and minute statistics from all states of Germany are not available, those of Prussia, the leadand largest state, are used as a basis of comparison. It is reasonable to suppose that they are indicative of the essential facts in other parts of the empire.
The population of Prussia, according to the census of 1885, was 28,318,470. This number is taken because no satisfactory estimate for 1887 is published, and the school statistics graphically presented in Diagram II are of the year 1887, the latest available to this Bureau. ACcording to the information at hand there wereChildren enrolled in the people's schools.............
.... 4,874,347 Children enrolled in preparatory elementary classes with a view toward entering middle and high schools..
299, 280 Students attending the middle schools.
203, 310 Students attending the high schools. ........................ .... 153, 602 Total number of pupils enrolled in Prussia.......
.... 5,530,539 According to these numbers we see that of the population there were
Per cent. ............................. 17.2
In the people's schools....
In schools between kindergarten and university ........