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Place of pedagogy in the official programme of Bolgium-Continued.

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CANADA. We take the following information from the papers read at the International Congress of Educators," at New Orleans, in February, 1885. From the paper entitled "The normal schools and their work in Ontario,” by School Inspector Joseph H.

Smith, we obtain the curricula in of the two normal schools of that province; from the “County model school system of the province of Ontario," by J. J. Tilley, inspector of county model schools, we obtain the programme of the Ontario County model schools.

NORMAL SCHOOLS.

1. Education.-In this subject a course of eighty lectures is given, embracing the history of education, the science of education, the principles and practice of teaching, school organization, and school management.

2. English language and literature. The study of these subjects consists in the critical reading of one of the plays of Shakespeare or the work of some other standard author, together with a course of twenty lectures upon words and their uses, the proper construction of sentences, and the correct use of language,' and the beauties and defects of style as found in the writings of standard authors.

3. Hygiene.--In this subject a course of twenty lectures is given on the preservation of health, the air we breath, the food we eat, the clothing we wear, the fluids we drink, and the physical and mental exercise necessary for the highest development of man.

4. Chemistry.- Thirty lectures on elementary chemistry are given, illustrated by simple experiments. The objects are (1) to make the experiment understood, (2) to have the students explain it, (3) to cause the student to reason on natural pbenomena, apd (4) to enable the student to repeat the experiment when a teacher. There is laboratory work under supervision of a science master.

5. Botany.-This subject is made as practical as possible by the examination of specimens collected from time to time, and cousists of a course of twenty lectures, embracing the chemistry and histology of plant life, the structure of flowering plants, and the general classification of plants.

6. Zoology.-A general outline of this subject is given in a course of twenty lectures.

7. Physics. The course in this subject consists of a series of thirty lectures upon heat, light, and electricity. In this, as in chemistry, great importance is attached to the explanation of the physical phenomena of daily life.

8. Drawing.–This subject is taught by a specialist, who gives a course of forty lessons, in which designing, model drawing, free-band, perspective, constructive drawiog, scientific perspective, and practical geometry are taught.

9. Music.—This subject is also taught by a specialist, and consists of a course of forty lessons, in wbich the scales and their various transpositions are taught, combined with the siuging of songs in two, three, and four parts.

10. Calisthenics. The course in this subject consists of a series of calisthenic exercises, under the direct supervision of a competent drill master.

11. Military drill. The exercises in this subject are taught similarly to those in calisthenics and by the same person.

12. Methods of instruction. -A course of 115 lectures in which the following subjects are reviewed with the object of illustrating the best methuds of teaching them, viz: Language lessons, grammar, composition, spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic, algebra, Euclid and mensuration, history, geography, and object lessons.

13. Practical teaching.—During the early part of each session the students, accompanied by the normal school masters, are required to visit the model school and observe the methods of teaching the different subjects, as practically illustrated by the teachers in the model school. They are also required to observe the methods adopted for securing attention and interesting the pupils in their work. After sufficient opportanies have been given to the students of witnessing the manner in which the different subjects are taught in the model schools, they are called upon to teach before each other in the normal school, under the guidance and supervision of the masters, and to criticise each other's teaching in a friendly way.

14. School law.—Under this head is given a knowledge of the elementary principles of law and of their application under the statnte of trustees, teachers, inspectors, etc.

Finally they are required to take charge of classes in the model school, under the supervision of the teachers, and are expected to teach at least three times in each department of the model school.

There are two sessions of the two normal schools in each year. The first opens in January and closes in June, the second opens in Augnst and closes in Deceunber. Candidates for admission are required to comply with the following conditions, viz: To be native born or naturalized subjects of Her Majesty ; to have passed the prescribed examination for second-class non-professional certificates; to hold a thirdclass professional certificate or its equivalent; to have taught successfully for at least one year as certified to by the public school inspector in whose inspectorate the teaching was done; to give satisfactory evidence of good moral character at the time of making application; and, if females, to be not less than eighteen years of age, and, if males, nineteen.

COUNTY MODEL SCHOOLS OF ONTARIO.

Course of study. 1. Principles of education.-School organization, management, and discipline, methods of instruction, and practice in teaching.

2. Physiology and hygiene.-(a) Laws of health, temperance, cleanliness; hours for study, rest, recreation, and sleep. (b) Heating and ventilation of the school-room. (c) Functions of the brain, eye, stomach, heart, and lungs.

3. Music drawing and calisthenics.

4. School law. - A knowledge of school law, so far as it relates to the duties of teachers and pupils.

5. Review of non-professional work. --The teachers in training are required to review and supplement their knowledge of the principal subjects of the public school curricu. lom, such as composition, spelling, arithmetic, and literature. For this purpose the principal gives a jew exercises on these subjects during the term, and by oral and written examination tests the student's knowledge of matter as well as of methods of instruction.

Management.

First section of term (troo weeks).-(1) Teaching by the principal: For the first two weeks of the session the principal teaches in the separate room provided for this purpose those subjects with which he intends the students subsequently to begin. In teaching a class as above the principal first lays before the students the plan of the lesson and illustrates this plan by his teaching He also requires the students to take notes of his methods and these are discussed in the criticism hour. In this way about ten lectures, combined with illustrative teaching, are given on the best methods of teaching some of the primary subjects. During this time the students are not required to visit the different departments of the school for observation, as it is believed that no one can observe intelligently or with profit until he has some idea of the object to be attained by the teacher.

(2) The students having noted and discussed the ncethods as outlined by the pripcipal and having observed the practice of these methods are now themselves prepared to begin to teach. They are therefore next required to teach classes in the separate room, under the guidance of the principal, and subject to the criticism of their fellow students after the conclusion of the lesson.

(3) Observation : The principal next prepares the students for taking observation in the different rooms set apart for model school purposes, their attention being specially called to the matter of the lesson, to the method of presenting it, and to the class.

Second section of term (three weeks): -(1) Observation and class teaching in the separate room in (a) obsurving class teaching by the principal, (b) class teaching before the priucipal and their fellow students, (c) criticisms.

(2) Observations in the different divisions: During the second half of the day the students are engaged in observing teaching by the assistants in the different rooms and in taking notes. These notes are afterwards given to the principal and discussed in the separate room. The assistant teachers are required to explain to the students the purpose and the plan of the lesson before they begin to teach, to call attention to points in the progress of the lesson, and to summarize at the close.

Third section of term (seren weeks).-T«aching by students in the divisious: The students baving seen the principal teach a number of subjecte, having taught the subjects themselves under the direction of the principal, having observed how classes are taught by the assistants, and having some idea of the matter and method of a lesson, are now able to take charge of classes in the subjects already illustrated. The assistant teachers are required to take notes of the work done by the students and to report the same to the principal. Students when assigned to a room remain a week in one division. The average number of lessons taught by each student during the session is thirty

Fourth section of term (one week).-Review and examination: Students are not required to do any school work during the last week of the term.

CHAPTER XII.

THE TEACHING FORCE OF NEW ENGLAND FROM 1866 TO

1888.1

PURPOSE AND CONDITIONS OF TIIE STUDY.

In no other manner can statistics be used to greater advantage than by employing them in the spirit of the “historical method." Especially valuable is ihis method when applied to the study of educational affairs. Had statistics of the teaching force been given by all or by a majority of the States of the Union some conclusions of a definite pature might bave been drawn from comparing State with State, but such a comparison of synchronous facts is far different from comparing the present condition of a State with its record at times past-from comparing it with itself.

From the fullness of their statistics, the New England States have been selected as best adapted to the purposes of the historical view of the condition of the teaching force that we are about to undertake. It must not be supposed, however, that the statistios of the six New England States are uniform or complete ; quite the contrary. But such as they are we shall attempt to use them to show the movement in the past and the present condition of the teaching body in each of the several States of the section under review : (1) As to the annual changes that occur; (2) the proportiou of men to women; (3) the average wages paid; and finally, and most important for the purpose of this chapter, (4) the number of inexperienced persons that enter upon teaching, and the educational attainments of the teaching force, as far as those attainments are indicated by the place of education.

In selecting a period at which a beginning shall be made in prosecuting this undertaking, that has been chosen which saw the termination of the War of the Rebellion. The call to arms undoubtedly caused many vacancies in the teaching corps. Monsieur F. Buisson, president of the French educational commission to the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, observes in his report on elementary instruction in the country in 1876:

"In the United States the teaching corps is made up of a large number of females, to whom classes containing boys of every age are frequently intrusted. The superiority of the female element of the teaching body over the male in point of numbers dates from the war of secession, the original cause being the voluntary enrollment of all the young men who were teaching, as soldiers."

In 1862 the superintendent of Obio estimates that 5,000 teachers in that State had entered the Northern arıny. One can surmise without fear of contradiction that the case was not otherwise in the South.”

One of the most annoying tasks of the statistician, though one in which he would seem to take particular delight from the frequency with which he discusses the matter, is the imperfection of his statistics. Without dwelling then on this subject, we will mention two points that should be remembered. First, in obtaining the ratios of Tabulation G we have given, wherever it was possible, the relation which the number of teachers necessary to supply the schools bears to the di fferent teachers employed during the year. Were every “necessary place” filled and were there no mutual exchange of schools, and no promotions, this tigure would be of more value than it is, as indicating the changes that have occurred during the year, to say nothing of new schools and departments established during the interval elapsing be

Seo note, p. 275. ? In the fourth annual report of the superintendent of public instruction of Kansas, we find the fol lowing:

"School teachers are proverbially patriotic. No class have been more ready to do for their country. Illinois bas furnished for the Army 3,000 teachers. Among those was Protonsor Hovey of the State Normal School. With him enlisted nearly a regiment of his own pupils. Duis sent 5,000; nearly half of her male teachers. New York sent from the schoolroom to the battletield, 3,000 of her teach.

ers."

tween the beginning and closing of the school year. Second, as the “nomber of teachers necessary to supply the sohools” has not been given in the case of Maine, New Hampshire, Verinont, and Connecticut, we have been obliged to use the number of " public schools” or “departments" instead of the "number of teachers required” by the system.

1.-SOCIAL CONDITIONS. Preparatory to canvassing the statistics of Tabulation L (p. 323) we will anticipate and illustrate one of its indications. It is evident that the columns of that table for Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island show much more favorably for those States, considered either individually or collectively than similar columns f ir Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont show for those States whether taken also individually or collectively. This suggests an inquiry as to the social conditions of the two sections thug marked off by the figures, and first of all as to the geographical distri. bution of the population of the two groupe. The following tables will show how far apart they are in this respect and in others.

DISTRIBUTION OF THE INIIABITANTS OF THE NEW ENGLAND STATES, THEIR OCCU.

PATION, AND WEALTH.

TABULATION A.-Density of population of the New England States.

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As this is somewhat vague, inasmuch as in Maine, for example, the population is concentrated in the southern part of the State as in Massachusetts it is the eastern, the following table is presented. It should be considered in connection with the fore. going one.

Tabulation B.-Percentage of population in New England States in cities of 4,000 and

over.'

1870.

1880.

Per ct. Per et.

Gronp I:

Maine.
New Hampshire....

Vormont...
Group II :

Massachusetts..
Connecticut ...
Rhode Island..

The indications of the first of these tabulations is corroborated by those of the second; although the villages of 1,000 to 4,000 have not been included. It is very evident that the New England States inay be separated into two groups, when considered as to the density of their population. An examination of lithograph map 27, Vol. I, of the last census shows that the population of Vermont, Maine (southern part), and New Hainpshire are quite evenly distributed over those States, while Massachusetts and Rhode Island have comparatively many centers of concentration of population. Connecticut is evenly divided into a rural and urban society.

Having found the distribution of population to vary so widely in the two groups of States, our next inquiry is to ascertain what the industrial character of the popnlation of eacb group is; for it is well known that manufactures flourish in New England.

These percentages have been computed on the figures giren on p. 416 et seq. of Vol. I, of the Cen. sus of 1880, and not on those contained in the table on p. Xxx of that volume.

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