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TABULATION C. - Population ten years of age and over in New England employed in man

ufacturing and mining industries and in agriculture.

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As in the previous tables, these States were plainly divisible into two groups when considered as to geographical distribution of their respective population, so, too, in the case of the population employed in manufacture and mining and in agriculture inay they be placed in two groups, each group being made up of the same States as before. It appears from the figures that abont 30 per cent. of the population over ten years of age are engaged in one of the two occupations which may be said to have the object of supplying the necessities of lito-food and clothing. In Group I these occupations have very nearly an equal following ; in Groop II no gucl equality appears. If the statistics for 1870 be compared with those of 1889, we find that the two groups show very much the same thing, a tendency away from agriculture and towards industries of an artisan cast. It will also be noticed, thongh the fact is well known perhaps, that the States of Group II have received the largest increase to their population; and even New Hampshire, which is almost on a par, with Connecticut as to mannfactures, far surpasses her sisters of Group I in respect to the increment to her population during the decade.

Bearing in mind that a factory is a nucleus of a town, the preceding tabulations are corroborated by this.

It is not the people, however, who, immediately at least, support the schools, but the taxable property. Let us then compare the capital invested in manufactures with the value of the farms. It is known that the valuation per capita of New England far exceeded that of any otber section of the Union in 1880. It is necessary to ascertain if the States of this section differed among themselves as to the character of money values in the two particulars of manufacture and agriculture.

TABULATION D,-Capital invested in manufactures and value of farms, live stook, and in

plements in Nero England for the year 1880.

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Disregarding Connecticut, it is evident that the other States of Group II have much more invested in manufactures thau in agriculture. But the difference between Connecticut and the other States of Group II is not nearly so great as that between the two groups. In Group I agricultural values are far in excess. Connecticut and New

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Hampshire require a word of separate comment. In Tabulation C it is observable that the percentage of persons engaged in manufacture in New Hampshire is much larger than the same percentage for the other States of Group I; while in the case of Connecticut the percentage of persons engaged in agriculture is much larger than the other States of Group II. In the tabulation under consideration the capital in Connecticut invested in manufacture is larger per capita than in Massachusetts, and the value of farms, etc. per capita is larger than that of Maine, and it is doubtfol whether Connecticut belongs to Group I or II. Perhaps it would be more proper to consider it as a State in which urban and rural life are equally well represented; in fact, a State, from an educationist's standpoint, worthy of study as a type.


In the six communities thus circumstanced as to geographical distribution, occu. pation, and finances at the epoch of the censuses of 1870 and 1800, the phenomena represented in the following tables occurred during the eighth and ninth decades:


TABULATION G.–Number of different teachers employed to each 100 places for them.

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Had the number of schoolrooms under the charge of a single teacher been given, it would have added materially to the value of the foregoing tabulation. Had the onmber of teachers and of supervisors not in charge of a schoolroom been given, the value of the table would have been still further enhanced. If to these had been added the assistants (teachers) to teachers in charge of a single school and the assistants (teachers) to teachers or to supervisors not in charge of a single school, the table, if we are not greatly mistaken, might have been made to show, with all desirable accuracy, the number of teaching places to be filled. Until some general attempt is made by those in whose bands the initiative lies to obtain complete statistics, the statistician will be compelled to guess, to patch, and to do the best under the circumstances.

But though the reader may acquiesce in the propriety of dismissing thus summarily the question of heterogeneity, it would be inexcusable not to point out which of the two meanings that the statistics we present are capable of conveying, is the true one. In the case of Massachusetts, for instance, tho "pumber of teachers required


by the public schools" (Report 1885-86) was 8,275, the number of persons employed as teachers in the public schools during the year" was 9.670. It is evident that these figures are for the period beginning with the first day of the annual session 1885-86 and ending with the last. And this fact we imagine is what is told by the statistics we bave just given in the table. They show the change during the school year but say nothing about the change in the personnel between the last day or week of tho preceding school year and the first day or week of the school year under consideration.

Suppose we were to consider every place in a system of public schools to have become vacant before the first day of a new school year. Then we might ask, “How many of last year's teachers have been reëmployed ?" and if this inquiry could be answered we would be able to come to a conclusion as to the permanence of the force as shown by the proportion that one year has of the teachers of the preceding year. This would be a far more accurate way of estimating permanency than the rather rough and ready process of comparing the number of places with the anmber of different teachers employed during the year as we have done to show the changes occurring during the year. There will be an opportunity to investigate the changes that occur from session to session when speaking of the summer and winter session" of the New England States.

We thonght at one time that the Rhode Island report-very full and encouraging on the points under consideration-made the distinction expressed in the foregoing paragraph. That report gives the number of changes in teachers from report of last year.” But in turning to page 96 of the report for 1883 we find that “ nearly onethird of the whole number (of teachers) in the State have changed their location during the year," the one-third being the 346 " changes in teachers from report of last year." "If we drop out of our calculation, the school commissioner continues, “the towns where the town system prevails, we find that nearly one-half of the teachers in the remaining towns where the distriot system holds, are changed during the year."

Subject to correction, then, let us take the actual number of changes occurring in Rhode Island and place the ratio they bear to the number of teachers necessary to supply the schools, by the side of the Rhode Island column of Tabulation G, which also is estimated on the number necessary to supply the schools.

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We would attribute the discrepancy between the two columns to the omissions we have mentioned in discussing Tabulation G.

The division into two groups which has been justified in the foregoing is still possible in the table under discussion. In Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island the number of teachers employed to each one hundred places is much nearer and lower than in the other three States of the geographical section upder consideration, although New Hampshire is much nearer the southern group than the northern. But Connecticut is computed on the basis of school-rooms or departments as are the computations for all the New England States except Massachusetts and Rhode Island. It must not be forgotten that there are two bases of calculation in Tabulation G, and that it is far niore adapted to permit the comparison of the figures for the different years in the same State than the figures for the same year of the different States.

The statistics of Ohio have been introduced to compare with those of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, while the statistics of Wisconsin serve the same purpose for New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Vermont. Wisconsin is preöminently an agricultural State, and in 1880 Ohio was undoubtedly in the same category, over half of her population “having an occupation," being on farms.

It is not necessary to say that the number of different teachers to a place is rapidly growing less. Massachusetts leads in this respect; but it must be borne in mind that the number of school-rooms has been used in the case of Connecticut, though nndoubtedly it is too small; for in 1874, 1878, and 1881, periods for which the "number required to teach the schools" is at hand, there were only 136, 127, and 121 teachers to each hundred places. If the diminishing tendency shown by these figures has been maintained Connecticut would perhaps be on an equality with Massachusetts in respect to the relation which the different number of teachers bears to the number required to teach tbe schools.

If the basis of calcolation for Vermont may be trusted, the table shows but little sign of advancement for that State. As we have before remarked, an examination of lithograpb map 27 of the last censas shows Vermont to bave a population almost witbont those centers of concentration which are comparatively numerous in the southern part of New Hampshire and of Maine, the other less densely populated States of New England.


To the student of the political institutions of New England who had failed to disting ish between a New England “town" and "a collection of houses," the peculiar phraseology in this respect of the States of that section would be misleading; no less inisleading to the uninitiated is their use of the term "school year," as used in the past. Every twelve months saw two or more school terms in these States, and it is doubt. ful whether their “ annual report," which covers the period called a school year in other sections of the Cpion, is not more properly to be viewed as representing to all intents and purposes what is covered by the so-called biennial report of several States, and whether in trying to treat the statistics of two terms as the statistics of a single continuous period, tbings bave been put together in these annual reports which should have been kept apart. In two States, however, this has not been done; these are Maine and Connecticut, whose statistics therefore will enable us to examine into the change that has taken place at the date when one consecutive school period is ended by the vacation that intervenes before the beginning of another period of school.

In Tabulation G we have compared the different number of teachers with the places for them. We will now compare the number of different women employed as teachers during each term with the whole pamber of different persons-men and women-employed daring that term.

TABULATION H.-- IPomen in the winter and the summer teaching corps of Connecticut.

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For Maine the number of teachers employed during the summer as well as during the winter term is not at hand. But it is possible to find the relation which the number of women ia the summer corps bears to the number of women in the winter corps.

TABULATION I. -- Iomen in the winter and the summer teaching corps of Maine.

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It is quite observable that in Connecticut tbe number of men employed is steadily retrograding, while the continuity of service is still more rapidly advancing. The converse of this is shown by the statistics of Maine, There we find that until lately the porcentago of women in the winter corps has been quite wiform, while the number of wonien in the summer corps has been equally uniform and nearly twice as large as the number employed in winter. It must be remembered in the case of Janue that this is the minimum change that occurred during the year, it does not necessarily follow because there is a female teacher in a school for the winter tern, and a female teacher in the same school for the summer terin, that this statistically one teacher is the same wom:).

These facts while helping out the showing of Tabulation G, lead us to inquire what has been the


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Not only did the calendar year in New England see two distinct scholastic periods, but each period saw a scholastic revolution, a sort of educational somersault'. In winter the larger pupils attended school and were taught by young men; in summer the little children attended and were taught by young women. The change, as far as it was a change in sex, is readily seen from the following percentages of women in each corps for 1858 :

Winter. Summer. New Hampshire (1855). ........... Massachusetts....

.................................. 51 Rhode Island.... Connecticut...

"Previous to twenty years ago," says the State superintendent of Maine in 1878, in discussing the change in the character of the attendance at the schools, “it was the almost universal practice, in the country districts at least, for young men and women to attend school (in winter) till their majority; now they aro rarely found in them after they are sixteen or seventeen years of age. Of this change * * " the following figures give conclusive evidence: Average annual oumber of scholars in State forFive years, including and following 1850, for winter ...........

.. 147, 158 1874–78, for winter....

.. 130, 627 Decrease for winter ..............

15, 531

Sammer schools (1850-54)....
Summer schools (1874-78)......

. 122, 391

123, 801

Increase for summer..................................................................... 1,467 "One of the most frequent causes for the change of teachers," says the State superintendent of Maine in 1866, “is to be found in the long-cherished idea that thero must be a male teacher for the winter and a female teacher for the summer. This idea donbtless originated in the olden days of our New England life, when the education of the females had received but little attention and when needlework and knitting were deemed indispensable qualifications to be acquired in the schoolroom, and the literary attainments of the mistress were not expected to go much beyond the ability to manage the little pupils in reading (for the larger ones were not expected to be present) and hear them read and spell."

The Rev. Birdsey G. Northrop, in 1863, while agent of the Massachusetts Board of Education, speaks incidentally of this matter thus: “In chemistry, in the arts and agriculture, experiments, however expensive, are often necessary and useful. Persevering trials and repeated failures usually precede, and sometimes suggest valuable inventions. But of all experimenting, the most needless, costly, and fruitless, and yet the most common, is the practice of placing a new hand at the wheel, annually or even twice a year, in our scbool bouses. * * * And yet not a few prudential agents in our districts, from mere wbim, or pique, or more often from nepotisin, practice a system of cbange in teachers which introduces confusion, waste, weakness, discouragement, and often retrogression, in the place of system, economy, efficiency, and progress. * * * There are still towns which retain the old system of semiannual changes, male teachers in the winter and female in the summer, and even each successive summer and winter, in some towns, the same teachers are seldom reëmployed. In such places I find the schools in the lowest condition, with no uniform methods, or well-arranged plan consistently and persistently sustained. * * * It often requires nearly a term to initiate a new teacher into the policy of the school committee who officially direct his course. * * * It has long been a conceded point among successful teachers that a second term in the same school is worth at least (to the pupil] one-third more than the first. The schoolroom is the most unfortunate place for those experiments which rotation in office,' must here involve-entailing a dead loss of more than 30 per cent. of the expenditures made for the schools. * * * Many towns seem, from precedent, to take it for granted that there is a necessity for male teachers in the winter, and therefore of semiannual changes, as they can not afford to continue maies in the summer. This was formerly the general practice thronghout the State." 2

Speaking of the "Duration of Schools," the superintendent of Vermont in his report for 1867, says: * Taking all these facts together, then, it will appear that in a large proportion of the schools the prevalent custom most be to secnre the services of a teacher to sustain a school for two aud one-half months, and then at the close of that term to allow a vacation of three and one-half months, after which another teacher in engaged and a school supported for another term of two and one-half months, to which succeed. another vacation of three and one-half months."

In an account giveni of a "common school from 1801 to 183:." by "a teacher," in the October, 1831. puniber of the American Annals of Education, we ind it recorded that "male teachers baie breit uniforuly employed for the school) in winter and forgales in sunner. The instructors lave usually

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