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a Computed by this oflice from (probably) incomplete returns. bIn 1875 this number represented those who " had attended a normal school:" in 1876 in one place the 226 is given as those "froin a normal school "and in another as those who had attended a normal soliool."
a The language to which these answers were made runs "Number of teachers who have attended the Massachusetts !) normal schools.
In "a preliminary note" to the work from which we have taken the matter here given as to the pay of teachers in foreign parts, Mr. Ernest Pelletier, assistant chief of the bureau immediately attached to the French ministry of public instruction and fine arts, speaks as follows of the sources from which his information had been obtained:
"The present compilation has been forined by the courtesy of the representatives of France abroad and her diplomatic and consular agents, through whom the original documents have been obtained. Many heads of departments, notably Monsieur Germain, director of primary instruction in Belgium ; Signor Rivera, chief of primary instruction in Italy, and others, have had the courtesy to lend their assistance in consummating the work."
In Germany the condition of affairs is very similar to that in the United States; each state of the Empire, as each of our States, fixes the pay of its teachers and the manner of appointing them. The order given in the work from which we have obtained our information is that followed here in presenting it in the form of an abstract.
The average salary of a position held by a man or woman teacher (high schools for boys and girls excepted) is 874 marks ($213.50) in the country and 1,365 marks ($341.25) in the city, giving an average for the whole country of 1,032 ($258). If to this average salary the average appropriation allowed by the state, according to length of service, rank, etc., be added, the total average amount received by the school master or mistress will be found to be 954 marks ($238.50) for a position in a country school and 1,398 marks ($349.50) in the cities; au average of 1,093 marks ($294.50) for the kingdom. There is a pension system.
The minimum salary of the teacher is as follows:
In communes of more than 10,000 inhabitants 500 fiorins ($215); of 2,500 to 10,000, 450 florins ($130); below 2,500, 350 florins ($150.50). In 1874 the poor pay of the teachers of the smaller communes was betterod. In the communes having fewer than 2,500 inhabitants the minimum salary was fixed at 450 florins ($193.50), and, in communes having 2,500 to 10,000 inhabitants, 500 florins (8215). This increase is to be made at the expense of the State. After ten years of service the teacher becomes entitled to an increase of $22.50, which is doubled for every additional five years he teaches. It is the rule that the teacher in communes of fewer than 2,500 inbabitants has the use of a house adapied to the needs of a family, in addition to his salary.
These minimum figures are always exceeded, either through grants by the commune or by the district fund (Kreisfond) or by grants by the State. In the greater number of the cities the actual pay of the teachers is double that given above. There is a pension system.
Places of 10,000 or few inhabitants, 280 thalers ($210); of more than 10,000, 300 thalers ($225).
In addition the teacher is lodged, and encouraged by an expectation of increased remuneration, which moves on the following scale :
Teachers of schools, of which the average attendance (effectif moyen) does not exceed 40 students, receive at each period an augmentation of $7.50. When the commune lacks the nieans to meet these charges, the State assumes them. There is a pension.
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. Without stopping to give the pay of the other and smaller menbers of the German Empire, we turn to the great Austro-Hungarian Empire, noted for its heterogenious population. We will content ourselves with giving the figures for Lower Austria (German), for Bohemia (Czech), and for Hungary (Maygar).
$300 315 270
...................... Second class..
Third class .... When the school is taught by several teachers, the head of the school receives a suppleinentary amount of: . In schools of tbeFirst class....
............. $90 Second class..
45 Third class...
.. 23 The women are placed upon an equality with men in regard to salary. There is an increase of $23 every five years until the conclusion of the twentieth year of sery. ice. There is a pension.
225 Fourth class..
180 The head of a school taught by several teachers receives a supplementary sum as in Lower Austria. There is no discrimination as to pay between the sexes. The five-years increase is 10 per cent. of the pay.
HUNGARY. The pay of a regular teacher of an elementary school is $135; in addition to this a house and garden are provided. When local financial affairs demand it, a part of the salary is paid in produce. The aumentation for continuity of service is 10 per cent. of the pay. There is a pension.
BELGIUM The salary of the teacher is fixed by the communal conncil, with the approbation of the permanent committee (députation) bat may be appealed to the King. This salary must not be lower than $200 for assistant teachers and $240 for teachers. The teacher is eutitled in addition to a habitation. Every teacher who has not been disciplined has a right to an increase of pay as follows: At the end of
The exponges of primary instruction are borne by the communes, assisted under certain circumstances by the province and the State. There is a pension. The fol. lowing table is fully explained by the heading:
Salaries of elementary school teachers in Belgium during 1881.
The heads of the following columns explain sufficiently well the figures of the tablo. An attempt to give an account of Switzerland as one whole is met by the diffi. culty we have in presenting a similar account of the United States; it is impossible to place the information before the reader in a few words. We, therefore, present the table of salaries only.
Salary of teachers. .
Country...... Schaffhausen.... Appenzell:
Inner Rhodes ...
As to the salary of the teachers the schools are divided into urban and rural, each class being subdivided into three. The minimum salaries were as follows:
The above figures were reduced a third for women, and a half for the underteachers, male and female, while in 1876 all grades of salaries were increased onetenth. There is a pension.
There is no discrimination between the sexes. The salaries are:
In communes of
500 to 1.000 inhabitants .....
40,000 inhabitants............ Madrid ....
165 225 275 330
In addition to the above, the teacher receives from each pupil who is able to pay it, an aniount whose monthly average is in
The teacher is furnished with a suitable lodging for himself or herself and family. There is an arrangement by which the salary of the teacher is augmented.
The minimum salary for teachers of elementary schools is, in the country, $112; in cities, $131; and in the large cities, $168. In addition to this the teacher is provided with a lodging. There is a pension.
Every male teacher receives a fixed salary which may not be less than $294 for the head of a school; $252 for masters having the rank of " chief teacher," who must preside over a school having more than 4 instructors; and $168 for the other masters. In addition the head of a school is lodged and, if possible, provided with a garden. There is a pension.
At Copenhagen the salary of the teacher is for the first year about $281; at the end of four years of service this pay is raised to $364; and at the end of tour years more, to $446. In the other cities and in the country the law of March 8, 1806, has considerably bettered the pecuniary condition of the teacher. Their pay is made up of a fixed annual sam, a certain number of bushels of wheat, the value of which they receive in money according to the current price, a lodging, and in the country a field and a determined quantity of forage and fuel. The sum total of these constitutes a revenue tbat is rarely less than $224, and sometimes exceeds $448 or $504 ; in the average, however, it is between $284 and $392. It should be added that the annual "supplements" to the salary vary from $14 to $28. The salary of the women teachers is in general almost a third less than that of the men. There is a pension.