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England and Wales.
a The value of these percentages depends on whether the figures of column 3 are incladed in column 2. b For six months only.
The candid reader will readily admit that if the whole population of England increased during the period of time covered by the table, the population under sixteen would form the same per cent. of the whole population in 1881 as it did in 1861. The population under sixteen, then, forming the same per cent. of the whole population year after year, it should furnish the same per cent. of the whole number of persons sentenced year after year, and it is therefore perfectly legitimate to compare the per cent. of the population under sixteen sentenced in 1861 with that of any subsequent year. Let us apply this to the three categories of statistics before us, thus for every 100 persons of each category in 1861 there were in
Sentenced. Sentenced to
industrial Adults. Boys. school (boys). 113
1, 240 It is very plain that the number of adults sentenced have increased 58 per cent. while the boys under sixteen sentenced bave decreased 35 per cent., or recurring to column 5 of the large table, which says the same thing in another way, the boys under sixteen sentenced were 9 per cent. of the whole body of men and boys committed in 1861 and only 4 per cent. in 1881. But during this time the increase in the attendance at industrial schools has been 1,140 per cent. It is true that the education act of 1871 has a decided tendency to increase the number sent to the industrial schools, but we have the testimony of the assistant inspector of reformatory and industrial schools that practically the same class of children were sent to the industrial school as truants by the enforcement of the act as has had before attended them. It must also be stated that in the number of children contained in column 2 may be included the num. ber given in column 3; even if such be the case the percentages of column 5 are of value inasinuch as the industrial schools are reserved for vagrant and neglected child. ren under fourteen, which would go to show improvement in the character of the criminality.
We are inclined to think, however, that the number of children given in column 3 is not contained in column 4. If such is the case the connection between an “industrial" or preventative school for every young children and the shrinkage in yonthful criminality is pretty closely established by the figures. Nor are the figures unsupported. “All seem to agree," says Lord Norton, who has been conversant with these schools for a number of years, "that the utterly vicious and criminal class of children, the fruit of national neglect (the reader will be reminded of Quetelet's
dictum), which called first for reformatories no longer exists as a class, and individnally there are fewer and fower such children in any locality; so that a call of them from all reformatories would not furnish enough for separate treatment in two or three schools." In a word, the experience of England seems to show that if you can pick up the vagabond and beggar' at an early age and instruct him in an "industrial school you have cut off the supply of half-grown but thorough-going scoundrels.” 1 On the adult population of law-breakers it seems to have exerted no effect; perhaps wben Elmira-like reformatories for men shall have become general these figures, too, will decline,
Now an essential, some would say the essential, feature of the industrial and of the reform school is manual labor, especially the learning of a trade. “For,” says Superintendent Brockway of the great Elmira, N. Y., reformatory for men under thirty, "no reforioatory system is complete that does not train each subject for a specific industry for which he has a natural adaptation, and actually induct him into it, maintaining supervisory control long enough to insure a good degree of permanence and success. * * There is a most intimate connection between the conduct of reformed criminals and the readiness with which they can suitably support themselves.”
As Mr. Brockway is talking about reformed criminals his remarks may be thought irrelevant to juvenile delinquents and vagabonds; but it would not be difficult to fill our pages with quotations going to show that a trade is very intimately connected with permanent respectability.
Yet, as the statistics for England and Wales have been used, we should refer to them alone. The Royal (English) Commission in their report of 1884 use the following language : 3
* Both in reformatory and in industrial schools an essential feature of the work is the industrial training. The trade or occupation to wbich children are put should be suited to their age and physical strength; it should be adapted to the main purpose of developing their industrial faculties and training them to industrious habits, and should be such as to give the individual boy or girl the means of earning a livelibood at as early an age as possible. It is not absolutely essential that the trade should be one which the child will afterwards pursue, although this is very desirable. If the occupation taught and the skill and habits acquired enable him to compete on equal terms in the labor market with others, and to earn an honest livelihood, the main object has been attained."
Perhaps this subject may best be closed by giving the testimony of Col. William Inglis, inspector of certified reformatories and industrial schools, when examined by the commission:
Question 462. How long have you held your office? Answer. Six years. Question 656. What are the trades which are generally taught in reformatory schools ? Answer. They are very various; agricultural training is one of the best for a reformatory, and wo find it in nearly all of them whose situation permits it; then there are shoemaking and tailoring shops in nearly all schools; besides those there are carpentry, joinering, bookbinding, basket making, and cask making at ono placo. You will find them all in the report on each school, which mentions what industrial occupations are carried on there. In the report which is beforo me, I find that the Stoke Farm Reformatory has a large farm, and market gardening is largely carried on, and it has effective tailors' and shoemakers' shops also. Wood chopping is a great employment for the smaller boys, and firewood making, and in some places they make large quantities of match boxes; in fact there are a great variety of trades.
Question 657. I see that in your evidence on the former occasion you rather suggested that it takes two or three years to learn some of the tradea taught in those schools; what trade is there within your experience of which a knowledge would be sufficiently attained in three years!
Answer. Not a complete knowledge but sufficient knowledge to get boys employment on leaving the school and for them to get enough money to keep themselves. I do not mean to say as much as a practiced workman when they leave the school, but at all events they know as much as an apprentico in his second or third year would know.
Qaestion 658. In that case when he left the school a boy would be fit for an advanced position in an apprenticeabip rather than obtaining his own living by the trade ?
Angwer. That depends a good deal upon whether he is to follow such a trade as carpentry or joinery; that would be the correct view to take of it. * *
Question 664. So that practically we are left without any reliable evidence as to the advantages de. rived by the boys from this emattering of a trade which is taught them in these schools ?
'Though speaking of London only, Mr. Buxton, chairman of the school board of that city observes, * Since 1870. 7.566 chilaren * * * bave been sent to industrial schools. Tho convictions for juve. nile offences are now only half what they were in 1870. The obvious connection between these figures justifies me in putting them together."
* See U.S. Ed. Rept. 1886-87, pp. 857-858.
3 The commission was made up of fourteen members, as follows: Henry Austin Baron Aberdare, John William Earl of Dalhousie, Charles Bowser Baron Norton, the honorable Edward Stanhope, Sir Michael Edward Hicks Beach, bart., tbe honorable Charles Owen O'Conor, Sir Ughtred James Kay. Shuttleworth, bart., David La Touche Colthurst, esq., George Woodyatt-Hastings, esq., Francis Henry Newland Glassop, esq., Charles Dalrymple, esq., Henry Broadhurst, esq., William Ewart, esq., William Egerton Hubbard, jr., esq. Three of the members were barristerg-at-law and one late a liou. tenant-colonel in the army, the majority were men of State.
* See Note B to this chapter.
Answer. I get what I consider reliable ovidence from most of the schools, and it sbows that a great number of boya who are put out to trades are doing well and earning their living: cacb manager will bring you his books and will tell you that, and I am satisfied that generally they are doing well.
Question 665. But so far as you know there is no tabulated information upon that point in your annual report?
Answer. None whatever; it would be impossible. * * * Question 673. But it would be clearly better, would it not, in your opinion, that a boy should be a thorough master of something rather than a jack-of-all trades with no sufficient knowledge of apy!
Answer. The great thing in the training of our boys is to give them habits of industry and habits of using their hands and arms. It does not so much matter what trado they are taught so long as they are tanght to work. When they go out they can go on with the work that they have been taught in the school, or they can turn to some other sort of work. They do not get habits of idleness in the school
NOTE A. On the "third of Brumaire" of its "Year IV" (October 24, 1795), the French Revolntion passed a bill which, it is said, was its “capital work in the matter of instruction, thesynthesis of all its previous doings and projects, its scholastic tostament as it were." This will provided for central schools, whose course of study was to be divided into three sections. Commenting on this course Monsieur A. Duruy, in his "L'instruction publique et la revolution" (p. 217), observes :
"What is immediately noticeable in this new organization of what we now call secondary instraction is the importance accorded by the legislator to certain branches of study. At the threshold of the edifice,' to use the words of Lakanal, 'is drawing, drawing which had been considered until then only as related to painting, but which, as related to the perfectment of the senses, accustoms the eye to seize with vigor the traits of nature, and is so to say the geometry of the eye as music is that of the
" The influence of Condillac and the sonsualistic school," continues M. Duruy, "is very manifest here. Indeed, if the ideas come from the senses, it follows that studies ought to comnience by the recognition (connaissance) and the reproduction of sensible objects. If the view of an old oak produces in us the idea of force, the sight of a swallow that of movement and lightness, what better exercise could be devised for children than to have them copy swallows and oaks! What better, pot only for edu. cating their eye and hand, but still more and especially to put them in a condition to exercise their judgment? The teaching an art or a trade as in *Emile' is no more the only question. Entirely differont and based on another philosophy is the pedagogy of Lakapal and Daunou. The legislators of the Year IV had pretensions to build upon foundations that were entirely new and according to the rational method, that is to say by commencing at the commencement. This is why they placed draw. ing in the first section of their programme, and why they devoto so largo a space to it in the course, The idea was not devoid of merit."
NOTE B. "The Rational Agriculture," said Fellenburg, "which will proceed from Hofwyl and penetrate not only overy district of Switzerland but of the whole civilized world, is the instrument for the physical and moral regeneration of mankind." Upon the basis of an improved agriculture he would banish mechanical study from the school by giving it properly trained teachers who were able to unite the work of the common peoplo with the work of the common school. In the general scientific in stitution which he established in 1808 the pupils were taught to honor agriculture as the primitive vocation of man (Urberuf), and as the only sure foundation for the prosperity of domestic and national affairs. Agriculture, thus ennobled, in addition to holding out a helping hand to the poverty stricken, would cause the wretched and outcast to detest a life of evil, and would restore them to a condition of manly self-conciousness, courage, and strength.
NOTE 0. As there is no intention to write the history of this movement on this occasion, the list of works possessed by the library of the Bureau on the subject is given, in order that those who may wish to investigate the subject may know what we have:
The Importance of Uniting Mannal Labor with Intellectual Attainments in a preparation for the Ministry, by Stephen H. Tyng, A. M., Philadelphia, 1830; with an Appendix Containing Answers to a Series of Inquiries Propounded to Six Manual Labor Institutions by the Editors of the Quarterly Journal of the American Education Society. Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Masonic Hall on the Subject of Manual Labor in Connection with Literary Institutions, June 15, 1831, together with some Particulars Respecting the Oucida Institute at Whitesboro, N. Y., New York, 1831. Keport of a Coinmittee on Industrial Schools ; read at a Stated Meeting of the Working Men's Republican Association of Chester County, January 7, 1832. First Report of the Society for Promoting Manual Labor in Literary Institutions, by T. D. Well, N. Y., 1832. Societies for Promoting Manual Labor in Liter ary Institutions (third edition), by Mathew). Careyl., Philadelphia, March 14, 1834.
"Lakanal, Rapport sur les écoles centrales.
RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
I. Present interest in the subject of religious instruction in public schools.-II. (A) Special inquiry issued by the Office respecting law and practice in this matter in States and citier ; (B) Substance of replies.-III. Religionis and moral training in public elementary schools, England and Wales : (A) Conditions effecting elementary education at the passage of the education act; (B) Analysis of report of the Royal Commission
tion: (1) Summary of returns made to the commission : (2) Analysis of returns made by school boards in response to Parliamentary inquiry ; (3) Oral testimony ; (4) Summary of evidence respecting the quality and value of religious instruction in board and volun. tary schools (5) Moral training : (6) Propositions advanced by advocates of purely secular instruction : (7) Mr. Muendella on Sabbath.school attendance ; (8) Conclusions and recommendations of the commission: (a) Majority report ; (b) Minority report.-IV. Ertracts from addresses made at the public conference on the report of the commission.-V. Status of religious instruction in leading countries of Europe and in certain British colonies, as shown by returns to the commission.-VI. Table showing the distribution of school boards making specified provision for religious instruction.
1.--PRESENT INTEREST IN THE SUBJECT.
The question of religious instruction in public schools, always one of deep interest, has been brought into special prominence during the past two years by several events. It occupied an important place in the discussions before two successive annual meetings of the National Educational Association, viz, at Nashville, Tenn., July, 1889,' and again at St. Paul, Minn., July, 1890. The addresses on this subject excited much attention at the time and were widely copied and commented upon in the public press.
In February, 1889, the Senate Committee on Education and Labor devoted portions of two sessions, viz, February 15 and 22, to hearings upon a proposed amendment to the Constitution respecting establishments of religion and free public schools. The proposal emanated from a meeting of citizens in Philadelpbia, its purpose being to ingraft upon the Constitution of the United States principles formally expressed in the constitutions or laws of many of the individual States. The amendment submitted enjoined upon each State absolute neutrality in respect to religion and the exclusion of all schools, institutions, etc., where any sectarian doctrines, tenets, ceremo-, nials, etc., are taught or inculcated from any participation in funds raised by taxation.
The memorial of the citizens of Philadelphia was supported by delegates from the National Reform Association and from the American branch of the Evangelical Alliance and by individual citizens, and was accompanied also by a petition to the same effect bearing the signatures of above three thousand citizens of Massachusetts. The report of the hearings bas been in great demand.
Although the immediate purpose of the memorialists was not accomplished, the movement which they represented has given rise to a permanent organization of national extent, i. e., the National League for the Protection of American Institutions, incorporated December 24, 1889. The objects of this league are to "secure constitutional and legislative safeguards for the protection of the common school system and other American institutions, and to promote public instruction in harmony with such institutions, and to prevent all sectarian or denoininational appropriations of public funds." It advocates an amendment to the Constitution * as the most efficient measure for the accomplishment of these objects.
See proceedings of the National Educational Association for 1889; addresses of Cardinal Gibbons, Bishop Keane, Edwin D. Mead, and Hon. John Jay.
Proceedings of the National Educational Association for 1890: address of Archbishop Ireland. & See Religion and Schools-Notes of hearings before the Committee on Education and Labor, United States Senate, February 15 and 22, 1889.
•The amendment proposed by the League is as follows: "No State shall pass any law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or nse its property or credit, or any money raised by taxation, or authorize eithor to be used for the purpose of founding, maintaining, or aiding by appropriation, payment for services, expenses, or otherwise, any church, religious de. nomination or religious society, or any institution, society, or undertaking which is wholly or in part under sectarian or ecclesiastical control."
The synod of New York of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America appointed a special committee in 1885 to consider the best means of “ opposing the attitude of indifference to religion which appears both in public school manuals and in the educational systems of reformatories.”] This committee has been diligently at work collecting evidence bearing upon the subjects of its investigations and has annually reported the results of its labors to the synod.
The agitation over the compulsory school laws of Mlinois and Wisconsin was moro or less involved in this same question of religious instruction and has served to in. crease interest in the subject outside of the States immediately affected. The feeling has been intensified by the decision of the supreme court of Wisconsin, March 18, 1890, relative to the reading of the Bible in public schools. The decision was rendered in "the Edgerton Bible case," the history of the case being briefly as follows: "Two of the teachers in one of the district schools of the city of Edgerton were in the habit of reading selections from the King James version of the Bible at the opening of the • daily sessions of the school. To this practice objection was made by the parents of some of the children who attended the school. The school board declining to order the discon. tinuance of the reading of the Scriptures, the complaining parents applied to the circuit court of Rock County for a mandamus to compel them to do so. The grounds on which the application was made will appear sufficiently hereafter.
An alternative writ of mandamus was granted by the court, and to this the school board made return conceding the facts of the reading as alleged, specifying particu. larly the passages that had been read and objected to, denying the illegality of such reading, and maintaining their right and duty to perniit the teachers to continue the practice.
To this answer and return the petitioners interposed a general demorrer. This demurrer was overruled by the court, Judge Bennett delivering an elaborate and learned opinion sustaining the school board. From this decision au appeal was taken to the supreme court, which overruled the decision, sustained the demarrer, and ordered a peremptory writ of mandamus to issue as originally applied for."
In the opinion of the State superintendent, Hon. J. B. Thayer, this decision virtually "declares the reading of the Bible in public schools to be sectarian instruction, to be an act of worship, and a practice of uniting the functions of church and state, and therefore contrary to the inhibitions of the constitution of the State npon those points."3
As a consequence of the lively interest awakened by these various events, many inquiries have been addressed to this Office touching the principles and policies recognized and fostered in States and cities in respect to religious instruction and observances in public schools. In particular, many of the correspondents have sought information as to adjustments which might have been made at any time between denominational organizations and public-school authorities, with a view to giving the former the privileges of the school room for the conduct of religious exercises.
In order that the Office might fully meet these requests, a letter of inqniry was addressed to leading school otticials covering the main points of interest. The replies give a very clear understanding of the treatment of religious instruction in general in our schools, and of the public opinion which prompts and sustains such action, The letter and essential portions of the replies are appended to this statement..
It seems also desirable in this connection to present as clearly as possible the status of this question in foreign countries, and more especially in England, whose policy is frequently cited as a worthy example for our own imitation.
A minute investigation was made into the conduct of religious exercises by the royal commission appointed in 1886 to investigate the operations of the elementary education acts. The portion of their report bearing upon this subject gives a very clear insight into the practical workings of the English policy and presents, in the form of majority and minority reports, a full discussion of the subject considered from opposite standpoints. Incidentally tbe report shows also the practical difficulties in the way of making public schooly the agencies of religious instruction. It forms, therefore, an important contribution to the stock of information and opinions upon the subject. As it was very generally asserted in England that the composition of the commission farored a fuller presentation of the clerical than of the secular view of the subject, it has seemed desirable to accompany the epitome of the portion of their report con. sidered with extracts from addresses made at a public conference held at Exeter Hall immediately after the document was issued. These addresses supply whatever may be wanting to a complete view of the situation.
1 See reports of the committee on religion and pnblic education presented to the synod of New York of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, at its meetings in Auburn, 1887, and in Poughkeepsie, 1889.
2 See a review of the decision of the supreme court of Wisconsin in the Edgerton Bible case, by W. A. McAtee, DD., of Madison, Wis.
3 See superintendent's letter in pamphlet entitled "Decision of the supreme court of the State of Wisconsin relating to the reading of the Bible in public schools."
«See pp. 431-438.