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(3) Elementary education is not gratuitous, as a rule, except for those who can not afford to pay for it; and in secondary schools instruction is not, as a rule, given free of charge, except in the case of scholars who are not only too poor to pay, but have distinguished themselves, when gratuitous instruction is generally available. In some schools, however, there are only a certain number of free places ; but to these, in some cases, in consequence of royal and private legacies, free dinners and suppers, or free dinners, are attached. Fees, however, are in all cases low. Generally chil. Iren have to buy school books, unless in cases of poverty.

(4) Although the gradation of schools is not in all places the same, infant schools are generally the first (although not a compulsory) grade; and these children generally attend from the ages of two to six, but they are by no means always State schools. Indeed, infant schools are not favored in Germany; they tell you “it is settled by all the medical authorities that children have no business to begin to learn before they are six years old.” In the land of Froebel I expected to be impressed with the perfection of the kindergarten schools, and to find them form a part of stato education. In both respects, however, I was disappointed. The infant schools I saw did not excel in discipline or intelligence those that I visited in England and elsewhere; and although they, like all others in Germany, are subject to Government inspection, probably their voluntary character has some bearing upon the absence of special excellence. They are in Germany considered advantageous institutions, although a lady there, the wife of a professor, told me that she regarded them with disfavor because rich people send their infants to them instead of giving the children the superior advantage of home influence and training; and even were it not so, she considered them as only good to the extent of keeping the children off the street, because she is of opinion that they cause children to dislike both play and work. An experienced school inspector in Germany, although considering the schools in question distinctly desirable, also told me that a danger of such schools was found to be that the children acquire habits of playing in school which they carry into the primary schools. Instruction is not gratuitous, the fee charged being generally about three marks per month.

(5) Primary day schools (Volksschulen) are the first compulsory stage of German education ; but many parents have their children educated at the commencement in a preparatory gymnasium (Vorschule), where they remain till about the age of nine, when the secondary school course commences. Class numbers are generally regulated by law. There are no standards, but the time table is a part of the school law and the school regulations of the couutry. Home lessons are usual. There is nothing special to remark concerning school buildings, except that in the cities they are yery fine.

(6) Supplementary (continuation) schools (Fortbildungsschulen), which are virtually secondary schools held in the evenings and on Sunday mornings, are everywhere the next stage, and are especially intended for deepening and extending the knowledge of apprentices after leaving school. But these only apply where a child does not attend a secondary school. Attendance at these schools in many States is compulsory, but not so everywhere. In all cases some preparation for industrial occupations, is taught in them. Instruction in supplementary schools is not in all States gratuitous, although where not gratuitous the fees are always low. In Prussia all tuition is charged for in some, and in others French and English alone are charged for as extras. In Saxony, on the other hand, there is no charge made. The half-timo system does exist, but to do great extent.

(7) Public secondary schools, which are almost always day schools, exist in all the States; but there is not everywhere the same gradation. Where the organization is complete they, and the higher educational establishments, mainly consist of: (a) preparatory schools (Vorschulen) for children from about the age of six to nine; (b) modern schools (Realschulen) preparatory for the upper modern school and the polytechnic; (c) upper modern (Ober Realschulen), in which there is no Latin taught, and which specially prepare for entrance into the polytechnic school to continue scientific education ; (d) polytechnic schools or technical universities; (e) classical schools (gymnasien) preparatory for any of the faculties of the university, or for the polytechnic school; ) universities, of which there are twenty exclusive of the acad. emies of Münster and Braunsberg, which provide the ultimate course of instruction,

In all secondary and higher schools in Prussia fees are charged; but the main support of such schools accrues from the State or municipality. So in Saxony, where the fee is £6 a year. There is no provision at the public expense for the secondary education of girls in some States, but in Berlin, at all events, in the case of a girl who has distinguished herself at a primary school and whose parents are too poor to continue her education, the State pays 481 marks per annum for her tuition at a private school. Science and art training, but especially science, are everywhere fostered. Workshops are not yet introduced into the primary schools, but drawing is therein universally and well taught, and there are apprenticeship schools.

The regulations to insure thorough qualification of all teachers are strictly enforced, There are no pupil-teachers. In the Royal seminary at Berlin for training-masters, pupils must be at least sixteen years old upon entering, and they are not allowed to teach before they have at least attained the age of nineteen and have passed their examination satisfactorily. The education is not gratuitous, except for those who are too poor to pay, in which case it must also be shown that the applicants' testimonials are good. There are probably at this institution 20 free places out of accommodation for 200 pupils. Admission to a normal school can only be obtained after passing an examination, and the term of study there varies from three to six years; and religious instruction is included in the course. There are some normal schools for the training of mistresses, although they are not so numerous as those for masters, “Because in German countries women are much less used in teaching than men. This is especially the case above the three or four lowest classes. They think that many of the subjects in the classes above are not fit to teach." And Mr. M. Arnold thinks the result satisfactory. A part of the training in all such schools consists in practising teaching under the guidance of a preceptor. The main daty of a head teacher in Germany is considered to be that of supervision, and therefore he undertakes only a limited number of lessous. The salaries are very small, and no part of the pay is dependent upon examination or attendance results. Pensions are granted, but deductions are made from salaries for the pension fund; and there are also vol. untary benefit associations formed by the teachers for provision in case of sickness or death.

The school year runs from Easter to Easter, and important examinations, both written and oral, are arranged to take place before Easter and Michaelmas. On the results of examination depends the promotion of students from one class to a higher. In addition to ordinary inspections, each primary school in every third or fourth year is carefully inspected by an expert member of the board of education. There are no state scholarships in primary or secondary schools. Scholarships are provided only in the universities by Royal or private logacies, and are not awarded unless to scholars who combine the two conditions of (a) being poor, and (b) having distinguished themselves; and even then the scholarships are comparatively very small.

In all States private as well as public schools are under state supervision; and where the teacher does not possess the necessary diploma from a "Wissenschaftliche Prüfungs-Commission," he must hold one from a seminary or normal school.

Not only is there as a rule' a school library for pupils, but a school library for teachers, as a part of the regular apparatus of a school.

Material differences between States. The material differences between some States in educational matters relate principally to the (a) gradation of schools; (b) conditions relative to providing religious instruction ; (c) payment of or freedom from fees; (d) compulsory attendance at supplementary schools; and (e) university regulationsas, for instance, at Leipsic and Jena, where students unable to pay may, by petition, obtain leave to attend without fees.

The report of Dr. Laishley has been quoted thus extensively because it states the conditions of the German schools without bias or prejudice.


The population of the United States in 1887 was estimated at 58,713,000. The common schools, including primary, grammar (or intermediate), and high schools, had enrolled in the same year 11,884,914 pupils. This is 20.38 per cent. of the population, or about 1 per cent. more than in Prussia and about 6 per cent. more than in France. If we add to this the percentage of students in secondary institutions not belonging to the common schools, such as academies, colleges, etc., namely, 0.35 per cent., the percentage rises to 20.73.

While this would seem a very flattering state of affairs, it must be stated that the number 11,884,944 is only one basis of computation, inasmuch as it represents the entire number of pupils enrolled. Another basis of computation is found in the average number of pupils attending. That number is considerably less than the number enrolled, namely, 7,682,000, or 13.09 per cent of the population; or, with the addition re. ferred to, 13.44 per cent. But since the basis of computation which yielded the percentage in Prussia (17.2 and 19.51 per cent. respec. tively) is the number enrolled, or “inscribed,” as the technical terın is in Germany and France, the same number must be used for the United States.


Dr. R. Laishley gives much prominence in his report to the American schools. He first sets forth the main principles recognized in the United States as relating to education; then sketches in bold, but es. sentially correct, lines the organization of the common school and the efforts in behalf of secondary instruction, indulges in some criticism which seems fair, coming from an outsider, and then concludes his report by saying:

In the American system there is much that indaces commendation ; especially (a) Large powers of local government, including powers of direct local taxation. (6) Compulsory attendance laws so far as they exist, although they exist only to a limited extent. (c) The promotion of technical instruction, including prominence given to drawing, (d) The requirement in certain States respecting the knowledge of the influence of alcohol on the human body; and (e) The provisions, as far as they ex. tend, against the improper employment of children. But public education in the United States has not arrived at that condition which justifies its imitation as a complete system.

For instance, respecting the States generally, there exists the want of adequate provisions affecting, (a) school accommodation, (b) compulsory education, (c) length

1 We purposely choose the statistics of the year 1837, though those of 1888 are at hand, in order to afford a fair comparison with Prussia and France, the latest available statistics of which are of 1886-57.

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