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of office. Toward the pension fund, deductions are made from salaries. Gratuities are given.

Inspection. The inspection is excellent, although there is no special feature, except that of lady inspectors for infant schools. All inspectors, chief, departmental, and primary, are nominated by the minister, and are recruited * * * from amongst the masters of elementary schools. Each department (province) of the country has a departmental inspector, and as many primary ones as there are divisions or districts. The inspectors' salaries, compared with those of the teachers, are high. The National Educational Association of France agreed that regular medical inspection should be made in every school to avoid epidemic or contagious diseases and injury to eyesight.

Medical inspectors are now employed in large cities.


Before entering into the minutiæ of the work performed in the schools of Prussia and France, it seems well to review the statistics found on previous pages.

For every one hundred inhabitants in 1886–87 there were in public schools between kindergarten and university :

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For the lower schools alone the percentage is as follows:





Primary and Grammar

Schools. 20.38% enrolled.

People's Schools and
Preparatory Classes,

17.2% enrolled.

Primary and Superior
Elementary Schools,

14.45% enrolled,


All the Prussian schools mentioned in the foregoing paragraphs are public, excepting a few in the second group (see Diagram II); that is, they are open to the poorer children, provided the means are furnished them, but in that case special talents must entitle them to the opportadity of associating with aristocracy and plutocracy. The public schools as such are obnoxious to certain exclusive circles, hence they maintain private schools to which none but their own children are admitted. These exclusive institutions are omitted from the foregoing diagram,

ED 89—44

since the comparison is to be between the American common school and such institutions in Germany as are similar in scope and aims.

Tuition in the American common school is free for all cbildren of legal school age. Some States even fix the minimum at four years, while others fix the maximum at sixteen and eighteen years. In Germany, or, to keep within the boundary of comparison, in Prussia, free tuition is granted only to the indigent stratum of society. Though it is the ultimate aim of both the legislative and executive branches of the government to make tuition, at least in the people's schools, free of charge, as yet it has remained a pious wish. Only in rare cases, in the capital Berlin, for instance, the city government has carried this into effect throughout the city's school system.

It is a well-known fact and everywhere admitted that each class of schools in Germany is eminently successful within the limits of its scope; it must be stated, however, that the several classes are not in organic connection with each other, chiefly owing to the different, and even con. flicting, demands made upon them by their patrons and the Govern. ment. The courses of study in schools of one and the same class frequently differ materially. If a pupil of a Prussian people's school applies for admission to a middle or high school, he may be set back .two, three, and four years, as the case may be, because he lacks knowl.

edge of foreign or classic languages. This is merely an illustration of the heterogeneous nature of the various classes of schools.

Here in America, without national school supervision or legislation, the courses of study of common schools thousands of miles apart are so nearly alike that a pupil of the eighth-year grade of a Philadelphia city school may be safely admitted into the same grade of a San Francisco city school without danger of unduly retarding or promoting him. Or, a pupil who has gone through the lower schools in a small town of the West may apply for admission to almost any public high school in the land; he is reasonably sure of finding himself on a level with the requirements of admission.

Though we classify our grades into primary, grammar(or intermediate), and high schools, there is no essential difference between them in treatment of either object or subject. But in Germany, as will be shown later on, there is not only no uniformity, but eren antagonism between the different classes of schools. It is easy to see that while this may be a fruitful source of competition, it is not conducire to harmony, and tends to retard the nationalizing of the schools of Germany.



Before the readeris made acquainted with the minutiæ of the different courses of study in graphic presentation, a few statements concerning the characteristics of the three groups of Prussian schools may precede a comparison with the schools in this country.

(1) The people's school in Prussia varies but little from that of other German States in aims, though it does in organization. Here and there slight differences are noticed owing to local predilections and influences. This school has an eight years'course in cities, a seven years'course in rural districts. Children of both sexes are taught together till they reach the eleventh or twelfth year of age; then, if local circumstances allow it, they are taught in separate classes. When they are “ released” from school they are “confirmed ” in the Protestant Church, or go to "first communion” in the Catholic Church.

No language but the mother tongue is taught (except in the schools of a few border provinces), and this without the aid of a text-book in grammar. From the lowest grade upward careful training in the use of the language without evolving or applying many rules is the object. Arithmetic is not carried on quite so far as is done in this country, and not quite one-half the time spent here is used for arithmetic in Prussia. (For reasons see p. 56.) History is taught quite early, beginning with "home stories;” Prussian and German history both necessitate more than mere glances at general history. All history in this school is of. fered in biographies. Geography is taught within a limited compass, topographical and political as well as mathematical and physical. Nat. ural history is taught in form of object lessons. Only in the highest or sometimes in the two highest grades do physics and physiology como in for much attention. Drawing, singing, and gymnastics are all taught to a greater extent than is done in the average American school. No text-books are used for history, natural history, physics, etc.; all these studies are oral, but are not regarded as mero ornaments. In the read. ers the pupils find much solid reading; these books contain masterpieces of all kinds of prose and poetry, instructive and amusing. Com. posing in words and pictures goes on at every step, and is developed to a very astonishing degree.

(2) The middle schools. (a) Buerger, or citizens' schools, so called, in contradistinction to the people's schools (for many centuries the citi. zens were considered a higher stratum of society than the people, although the word buerger meant originally the denizen of a burg or fortified place), attempt more than the mere elements. Their pupils as a rule come from more cultured families, and speak German with little of the ruling dialect, hence need not spend so much time in learning to use their mother tongue correctly. One or two foreign languages are taught, and the customary scientific branches and mathematics have a wider scope than in the people's schools. Drawing leans toward indus. trial pursuits. Side by side with these boys' schools are the (6) Höhere Mädchen-Schulen, or girls' academics, which in their academic studies go parallel with the citizens' boys schools, but terminate in a post-grad. nate course for the preparation of young teachers. Both these middle schools resemble in their upper grades our common high schools. It may be said that this class of schools offers an education more advanced

than can be given in people's schools, and less extended than a preparation for the university requires. There is more diversity in aims and methods in these middle schools than in

(3) The high schools : (a) Realschule, (b) Gymnasium, (c) Realgymnasium. This array of technical terms is difficult to render in English. A verbal translation would be misleading and a labored circumlocution useless. The Gymnasium is the oldest. It is the classical boys' school par excellence; the Realschule (the first one was founded one hundred and forty years ago) substitutes modern languages for the classics, and gives much attention to natural sciences, mathematics, and industrial drawing and designing. The Gymnasium prepares for the learned pro. fessions, the Realschule trains engineers, surveyors, artists, civil officers, etc. The Realgymnasium is a combination of the two kinds of schools. From the accompanying charts the differences existing between these schools may be gleaned better than from verbal explanations. The great army of business men recruits itself from these higher schools and from the middle schools. The boy of the people's school has a hard time of it in courting success in higher walks of life; still, such cases are not unknown. What gives to the Prussian secondary schools such a remark. able impetus is the fact that their graduates and undergraduates are called upon to serve in the army only one year, while all other able-bodied men must serve three years.


On Chart I it will be seen that the course sketched for the American common school is an average course, such as is found with slight deviations all over this country. It does not show distinctions made here and there, or preferences in favor of this, that, or the other language, and leaves the limit of time spent in the study of grammar undefined, but shows that much time is consumed in mastering the orthography of the English language. It is scarcely necessary for the reader in this country to see the average course of study minutely delineated. Of course, if a selection were made here and in Europe among the schools we might present a picture which would make a just comparison quite impossible. Statistics is the science of averages, and it is the average school, not the exception, which is here delineated.

The courses of the Prussian schools are endeavors, also, to present en bloe the leading features of language instruction. A careful comparison between those of Realschule and Gymnasium, for instance, will reveal the vital difference between them. These charts are the result of the comparison of many courses of study in use published in annual reports of German schools and filed in this Bureau; also of the requirements made by the Prussian Government, notably by the decree of May 31, 1882.

Chart II shows what prominence history as a study assumes in the

XIII.—GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF THE COURSES OF STUDY. Year of School. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Year of life. 17 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 16 17 18 19 20

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Chart I, showing how the time commonly devoted to linguistic studies in the Amorican common school

and the different classes of German schools is divided.

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