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L-For a Gymnasium-Continued. i II.-For a Realschule-Continued.
in connection with reading matter. In
have a greater extent and embrace some
the scientific work in this course. In com-
posing, not only the absence of inaccura-
(5) English.-Facility in applying rules
Fluency in speaking English. (7) Arithmetic and mathematics.-Facil. 1 (6) Arithmetic and mathematics.-Facility in operating with denominate num- | ity and skill in operating with denomibers and business rules. Application of nato numbers, and their application in arithmetic in every day occurrences of practical life; business rules. General practical life. Arithmetic up to the de- arithmetic to geometrical progression. velopment of the binomial theorem, and Algebra to equations of the third degree algebra to equations of the second degree (inclusive). Plane geometry, including (inclusive). Plane and solid geometry, the principles of synthetic geometry; plane trigonometry. In all these branches solid geometry together with the eleattention is to be paid not only to knowl. ments of descriptive geometry. Plane odge resting on a firm basis of thorough trigonometry, the elements of spherical comprehension, but also at skill in its trigonometry as far as necessary to underapplication.
stand mathematical geography. Elements of analytical geometry to conic sections (inclusive). In all these branches attention is to be paid to thorough knowledge and frequent practical application. In bigher grade schools the elements of analytical geometry of space and
differential calculus may be added. (8) History. Knowledge of great (7) History.-Same as for Gynmasium, events in the history of the world which only that the latter is apt to lay stress caused epochs; biographies of leading on ancient history through the study of personages in them, chiefly from the Greek, while the “Realschule" treats
1.- For a Gymnasiun-Coutioned. I II.- For a Realschule-Continued. Greek, Roman, and German history. | modern history more thoroughly through Koorvledge of important dates, and the study of French and English. thorough acquaintance with the seats of historical occurrences.
(9) Geography. -The principles of math-L (8) Geography.-Same as in Gymnasium, ematicalgeograpby. Knowledge of impor- | with this addition : tant topographical conditions of the earth, | Review of the chief commercial routes and the relations between these conditions within and between the countries of the and the present political divisions. More | foremoet nations of the civilized world. extended knowledge of central Europe in both its topographical and political aspecte.
(9) Natural history.—Botany: Training (10) Natural history.—Botany: Knowl- | in observing and describing plants; edge of the most important families of the knowledge of Linné's system and one Datural system and of the classes of the natural system. Intimate acquaintance artificial system of Linné, Analysis of with the most important natural fainilies plants.— Zoology: Knowledge of the most of the home flora. Kuowledge of imilaportant orders of the classes of verte- portant phenomena from the life of brates; also, soie representatives of other
plants. - Zoology: Observation and declasses of the animal kingdom.- Mineral scription of animals of different classes. ogy: Knowledge of the simplest crystal Knowledge of ini portant vertebrates and forms, particularly of important minerals. insects. Thorough knowledge of the an
atomy of the human body.-Mineralogy : Knowledge of the crystal forms; also, of the physical qualities and chemical com
bination of the best-known minerals. (11) Physics and chemistry. Knowledge (10) Physics.-Thorongh knowledge of of important phenomena and laws from important plienomona and laws of the the varions branches of physics; also, the various branches of physics; mathematical simplest parts of chemistry. The essen demonstration of the laws of mechanics, tials of physical geography.
optics, and causality in matters pertaining to physical and mathematical geography,
(11) Chemistry.-Knowledge of important elements and their inorganic conbinations, as well as stoichiometric laws. In higher grade schools, knowledge of important matters of organic chemistry
should be added. (12) Drawing.-Practice of the eye in (12) Drawing.–Practice of the eye in recognizing forms, and practice in mous- recognizing forins, and skill in the use of uring with the eye. Skill in correct ini. the band, as well as the eye in measuring. tation of flat-surfaced ornaments, and of Skill in drawing flat-sursaced ornaments simple solids.
| and sketching simple solids from nature. NOTE. - In Gymnasium, drawing is | Practice in imitating simple plastic ornaobligatory in the lowest grades; in the inents and in presenting phenomena of upper ones it is an elective study. In Real- light and shado. Facility in the use of schole it is obligatory all through the drawing instrumente, descriptive geomecourse,
try (projection), (13) Gymnastics.--Calisthenics, march- 1 (1:3) Gymnastics.-Same as in Gymnaing and gymnastics with apparatus. Ob- sium. ligatory for all grales
(14) Vocal music.-Songs of fonr parts. / (14) Focal music.-Same as in GymnaTheory of music. Students of the upper sium. grades are excused from this.
XVII.-TYPICAL COURSES OF STUDY FOR PRUSSIAN MIDDLE SCHOOLS.
(Note.--Those two schools come nearer the American high schools than the Prussian high schools, hence the comparison is more interesting.)
III.--For Citizens' Schools.
IV.--For Girls' Academies. (1) Religion.-Biblical history of the (1) Religion.-Substantially the samo Old and especially the New Testament. as in the boys' schools (citizens'). Catechism with Bible verses [aud quotation from tradition] serving as evidence. The movable festivals of the church. Memorizing of favorite hymns. Acquaintance with important contents of the Holy Scriptures, especially the New Testament. Religious ethics and creed. Knowledge of the chief events of church history [notably the lives of the great saints.]
(2) German.-Acquaintance with the (2) German.--Reading of selected works most vital rules of otymology and syntax; of modern literature; training in the corintroduction into German literature of rect use of language, oral and written; the classic period. Information regard- only essentials of grammar. Memorizing ing the lives of great poets, also about of selected ballads and memory gems. kinds and forms of poetry. Memorizing Compositions mostly on matters connected of selected ballads and memory gems. with literature. At times compositions Practice in correct oral and written lan in form of letters. History of literature guage, and easy exercises in composition. | in outlines.
(3,4) French and English.-- Correct pro- (3) French.--Substantially the same as nunciation; skill in reading ; practice in in the opposite column, only more pracetymology and syntax. Acquisition of a | tice in speaking and less literature. vocabulary sufficient for the comprehen- (4) English.-Substantially the same sion of the reading matter selected. as in the opposite column, only more atSome practice in copying French and En | tention is paid to the oral use of the glish correctly. Reading of prose, such language, hence irregular verbs and rules as historic and descriptive, and easy
of syntax to be emphasized. Reading of poetry. Some tluency in speaking the English classic productions in poetry and languages.
prose. History of English literature. (5) History.-Acquaintance with the
(5) History.-- Biographical studies from essential events of Greek and Roman his- ancient and modern history. The great tory, but more minute knowledge of Ger women in history. man history from the time of Luther.
(6) Geography. — Elemeuts of mathe- (6) Geography.--Knowledge of home matical ard physical geography, Knowl-widening in concentric circles. Topoedge of important topograpbical condi- graphical, political, and elements of mathtions and their relations to the present ematical geography. political divisions. Special attention to be paid to central Europe.
(7) Arithmetic and mathematics.-Facil- (7) Arithmetic and mathematics.-Facil. ity and skill in operating with denomi- ity and skill in operating with denominate numbers, and their application in nate numbers with constant reference to practical life. General arithmetic to log- domestic application. Of the business arithms and progressions. Algebra to rules, only percentage, interest, partner. easy equations of the first degree. Prin- ship, etc. The most elementary parts of ciples of plane and solid geometry; ele- geometry sufficient for simple mensaraments of plane trigonometry.
tion of planes,
III.- For Citizens' Schools-Continued. | IV.-For Girls' Academies -Continued.
(8) Natural history. - Botany: Training (8) Natural history.-Similar to that in observing and describing plants; | in opposite column. The methods emknowledge of important families of plants ployed in girls' schools are different. and their best known phenomena of life. Physiology or anatomy of the human Zoölogy: Training in observing and de- / body is omitted entirely. scribing animals; a fow representatives of important orders of vertebrates and insects. Thorongh knowledge of the anatomy of the human body.
(9) Physics.-General qualities of bodies (9) Physics.-Similar to that in oppolearned through experiments; the prin- site column. ciples of equilibrium and motion, electricity, magnetism, light, heat, also the simplest laws of acoustics and optics.
(10) Chemistry. The commonest chem- (10) Chemistry.-Similar to that in opical elements and their principal com- posite column. References to domestic pounds. References to commercial facts. facts.
(11) Drawing.--Practice of eye and hand, | (11) Drawing.Imitation of flat-surfacility in drawing free-hand imitations faced ornaments. Application of draw, of flat-surfaced ornaments. Sketching | ing to industrial handicrafts. simple solids, furniture, etc., in outlines from nature. Imitation of simple plastic ornaments with shading. Practice in the use of iustruments.
(12) Tocal music.-Three part music. (12) Vocal music.-Sce opposite column. See course for Gymnasium. (13) Gymnastics. --See Gymnasium. (13) Gymnastics.-Calisthenics and light
XVIII.-TYPICAL COURSE OF STUDY FOR FRENCH MIDDLE SCHOOLS.
V.-Tor the superior elementary schools.
(NOTE.-In order to understand the place and organization of these schools, consult Diagram III.
Asin previous courses, a condensed statement only is made.)
(1) Morals.-Principles of morals; rights and duties of citizenship; elementary ideas of political economy.
(2) French.--Orthography to a reasonable degree of correctness; etymology and syotax. Expressive reading with explanation of text; frequent exercises in composition writing; leading ideas concerning the history of literature. (3) Penmanship. ---Both round and bastard styles. (4) History.-The principal personages of antiquity ; leading events of French history to the present timo; progress of national institutions ; principal epochs of ancient history, Middle Ages, and modern times; biographies of great characters.
(5) Geography.-Topographical and political geography of the five continente; special study of the geography of France and its administration and organization; commercial and economical geography of France; map drawing.
(6) Foreign languages.-One modern language at least. (7) Arithmetic and mathematics.----First year: Theoretical and practical arithmetic; first elements of geometry. Second year: Arithmetic completed ; elements of algebra; plane geometry and its applications. Third year: Algebra to equations of first degree; elements of trigonometry; geometry (plane and solid) completed.
(©) Bookkeeping.-Principal ideas of commerce and bookkeeping; practioal application in keeping a set of books; commercial arithmetic.
(9) Natural history. Organs (and their functions) of man and animals; practical study of the principal groups of animals and plants; application of hygiene to local industry; the principal facts of geology, and examination of the commonest win. erais.
(10) Physics. The most important phenomeria and the principal theories of physics; modern discoveries and scientific facts in their applications upon every-day life.
(11) Chemistry.--Exercisos in observation and examinatiou of such familiar facts as will introduce the study of chemistry. The most useful metals and metaloids; “iron and its lawy;" elementary ideas of orgavic clienis:ry.
(1:2) Drawing.-Geometric figures; flat-surfaced ornaments; elements of shariing; drawing of solids; orthographic and perspective projection ; outline sketches; part3 of machines and building plans; skotching from relief and embossed models.
(13) Vocal music.- Three part music.
XIX.-TYPICAL COURSE OF STUDY FOR FRENCII HIGH SCHOOLS.
NOTE. In order to facilitate comparison with the foregoing conrses a mere outline is given. A
detailed course is found in "Plan d'Etudos des Lycées,” oficial decrea of January 22, 1805.)
(1) French.Grammar finished; extracts from French classics, poetry and prose; compositions, literary and scientific; prosody.
(2) Latin.-Grammar, prosody; extracts from Phaedrus, Ovid, Nepos, Virgil, Cusar's Gallic War, Quintus Curtius, Lucretius, Livy, Cicero, Horace, Pliny, Sallust, Tacitus. Reading, writing, translation.
(3) Greek.-Grammar, paradigms and syntax; extracts from Xenophon, Lucian, Homer, Herodotus, Euripedes, Sophocles, Plato, Plutarch, Arist.bophanes, Demosthenos. Reading, writing, translation.
(4) German or English. ---Grammar. English texts --First year: Edgeworth's 'Tales, Aiken and Barbauld's Evenings at Home, Primer of Euglish History. Second year: Scott's Tales of a Grandfather, Franklin's Autobiography, Primer of Greek History. Third year: De Foe's Robinson Crusoe, Irving's Voyages of Columuns, History of Rome. Fourth year: Vicar of Wakefield, Tales from Shakespeare, Macaulay's History of England, Vol. I. Fifth and sixth years: Julius Cæsar, The Desertod Village, The Traveller, A Christmas Carol, David Copperfield, Extracts from English Listorians. German terte similar to the Euglish.
(3) Elistorij.-First year: Ancient History of the Orient-Egypt, Assyria, Palestine, Phobicia, Persia. Second year: Greece. Third year: Rome. Fourth year: Europe, particularly France from 395 to 1270 A. D. Fifth year: Same up to 1610. Sixth year: Same up to 1769. Seventh year: Cotemporary history and philosophy.
(0) Geography.--First year: Europe and the Mediterranean basip, the oceans. Second year: Topography of Africa, Asia, Oceanica, and America ; principal states, cities, commercial ports, European possessions. Third year: Topographical and political geography of France and Algiers. Fourth year: Physical, political, and commercial kovraphy of Europe. Fifth year: The other continente. Sixth year: Physical, political, and commercial geography of France and its colonies, also administrative and economical aspects.
(7) Arithmetic and mathematics.-First year: Review of fundamental rules ; common and decimal fractions; mensuration ; elements of mathematical geography. Second year: Rule of three, percentage, simple interest, discount, mensuration of solids arithmetic completed. Third year: Plane geometry. Fourth year: Algebra through fractions, plane geometry completed. Fifth year: Algebra through equations of the seeoud degree; solid geometry. Sixth year: Geometry and trigonometry; cosmography