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or astronomy. Seventh year : Review of entire course in mathematics with practical applications.
(8) Natural history, physics, and chemistry.—First year: Zoology (vertebrata and articulata). Second year: Botany; grand divisions of vegetable kingdom (phanero. ga!ia and cryptogamia), Third year: Geology. Fourth year : Physics; properties of matter; mechanics. Fifth year: Plysics, electricity, magnetism, acoustics. Sixth year: Chemistry, inorganic and organic. Seventh year: Physics and chemistry, optics, and review of both sciences extended in practical applications. Anatomy and physiology of animals and plants.
(9) Philosophy in seventh year: This course consists of lectures and the reading of one Latin, one Greek, and two French authors. It includes an account of sensibility, intelligence, and volition, of formal and applied logic, of conscience and duty, facrily and country, of political duty, of labor, capital, and property, ot immortality and natural religion.
(10) Drawing.-First and second years: Perspective with shadows, drawing from opaments in relief, from architectural fragments, from the human head. Third year: From architectural fragments, the human body, from prints of bas-reliefs; some me. chanical drawing of architectural designs. Fourth, Gifth, and sixth years: Decorattive figures, caryatides, friozes, Dorio, Ionic, and Corinthian columns, the human figure, and figures of animals.
XI.-AN AMERICAN OPINION ON THE VITAL DIFFERENCES BE
TWEEN GERMAN AND AMERICAN SCHOOLS.
Ip answer to the question, What is the vital difference between a first-class German school and an American school of the same standing? the editor of the Popular Educator (Boston) makes these pointed remarks:
Generally speaking, we should say that the difference between the two schools is that which one would expect when the temperaments and the governments of the two peoples are compared. The German boy is quiet-dall he sometimes seeds to be to the American eye, and he is trained by the laws and customs of his country to strict obedience. The German boy, therefore, knows more of books, has greater ability of inental concentration than the American boy at the samno age. The teacher, too, because of these traits, is not obliged to be so apt in governing as the American teacher; and so, if not always so brilliant as our best teachers, he is broader and more thorongb. But the German teacher dislikes the Ainerican boy. And this is eridence, given the boy aurl the teacher (and the fact that adaptability of the one to the other is essential to successful teaching), that the difference between the Gorman teacher and the American is one of kind rather than quality.
The German school differs from the American school more in its curriculum of work than in anything olse. Germany has taken care that the schools shall not only be filled by competent teachers, but that these instructors shall be supervised and assisted by equally competent educators. There are no polities in the Gernian schools. From end to end of the Empire reaches the oversight of the minister of instruction. Teachers are selected with great care, are officers of the state, and retired at the proper time ou a pension. With us there is no systemu. Committees come and go, and so do the officers they elect. The result is, that, while our first-rate schools are, so far as the teachers are concerned, quite as good as those of Germany, nowhere will there be found the same care and thought in adapting the work to be done to the growth of the child, in supplying the school rooms with the necessary apparatus and material for work, and the consequent all-round development of the child. There may be a compensation for our defects in these particulars-defects which we shall have to attribute to our democratic institutions.
XXI.-FRENCH STUDENTS IN GERMAN HIGII SCHOOLS.
The superiority of German public schools over those of other nations has been acknowledged repeatedly, but it has of late been recognized by the French school officials in a manner which is both unique and acceptable. In “European Schools" an account is given under the above heading which may be quoted here as circumstantial evidence of the superiority of German schools :
It is now nearly twelve years since the French national school authorities resolved upon a direct acknowledgment of that superiority by sending annually several graduates of French lycées to attend the last two years of the courso in German high schools. No indifferent material is sent, to be sure, but only boys who have won the first prizes. As it is stated elsewhere (see also page 36 of this report), the German secondary schools are well adapted to talented pupils, while weaker ones are weeded out. These French boys, then, coming as they do like “picked nines," are not objected to by German school authorities. They say there is no reason whatever to refuse them admittance, inasmuch as they conduct themselves properly, and asually are a credit to the schools they attend.
These boys are directed to stay a half year or a year at one school and then go to another. They are not allowed to stay two full years in one town, lest they might enter into ties too close to suit the French Government. They are directed to take board and lodging in private families and to live exactly as the pupils of German gymnasiums do. The Government pays all expenses during their stay in Germany. At the close of each year the students are required to send in a report of what they experienced and the manner in which they utilized their time. Of course the free quent changes of schools and place of habitation are inconvenient, but they enable the young men to see a good deal of the country.
The author says further: I had opportunities to learn something of the contents of the report sent homo to the minister of instruction, and must confess that they are mostly true to life and tally with my own observations. Most of the young men are very much pleased with the reception they find among the people, the teachers, and the pupils. * * * All, however, are loud in praising the instruction they get in school.
They are unanimous in saying that the German high schools are superior to the French lycées. Especially in mathematics, they think, the German schools prove superior. The way the students are made to work out problems in geometry, trigo. nometry, oral arithmetic, etc., the self-activity to which the pupils are lod, and the independence and self-dependence in thinking, are commended. Instruction in the sciences also is thought superior to that in France. Particularly enthusiastic are the reports about gymnastic drill. This is not astonishing if we consider that the indulged French youth is not drilled much at home in bodily exercises. An equal share of praise is given to the teaching of music. In referring to this the young Frenchmen spoak with animation of the German songs which they consider very melodious.
As far as instruction is concerned they have but one opinion; but they do not like the rigid discipline exercised in German high schools. The slightest deviation from the straight road of virtue is punished severely. They are "not treated as gentlemen,” but “as boys,” are obliged to doff their hats when they pass a teacher, and are generally treated as unripe youths. In another particular the German high
D. Appleton & Co., New York,
schools find condemnation on the part of these French students. · They say Germans pay less attention to show that is, to legitimate show. For instance, they care naught for rhetorical polish, and their recitations are considered good when the egsential facts are brought ont correctly. The garment of thought is neglected. Their teaching of drawing is also less refined than that in France.
With whatever reserve these juvenile opinions may be accepted, they are very interesting and point out the vital differences between the schools of the two countries mentioned.
XXII.-AN ENGLISHMAN'S VIEW OF THE GERMAN SCHOOLS.
Mr. Samuel Smith, M. P., wrote in March, 1888, to the London Times as follows:
"The salient fact which strikes all observers is the universality of good education in that country. There is no such thing as an unedu. cated class; there are no such things, speaking broadly, as neglected and uncared-for children. All classes of the community are better edu. cated than the corresponding ones in our country; and this applies quite as much to primary as to secondary education. Nothing struck me more than the general intelligence of the humbler working classes. Waiters, porters, guides, and others have a knowledge of history, geog. raphy, and other subjects far beyond that possessed by corresponding classes in England, and the reason is not far to seek. The whole popu. lation has long been passed through a thorough and comprehensive system of instruction obligatory by law, and far more extended than is giren in our elementary schools. I went through several of these schools and observed the method of teaching, which was simply admirable. The children are not crammed, but are taught to reason from the earliest stages. The first object of the teacher is to make his pupils comprehend the meaning of everything they learu, and to carry them from stage to stage, so as to keep up an eager interest.
" I saw no signs of weariness or apathy among either teachers or scholars. The teaching was all viva voce, the teacher always standing beside the black board and illustrating his subject by object lessons. The instruction was through the eye and hand as well as the ear, and question and answer succeeded so sharply as to keep the whole class on the qui vive. The teachers are, as a body, much better trained than in England, and seem to be enthusiasts in their calling, and the school holds a far higher position in the social economy of the country than it does with us. What I am saying here applies equally to Switzerland as to Germany, and, for educational purposes, Zurich will compare with any part of the German Emire. The main advantage, however, that primary education has in Germany over England lies in the regularity of attendance and the longer period of school life. There is none of the difficulty of getting children to school that exists in England; the laws are very rigid and permit no frivolous excuses, and, what is even more important, the people entirely acquiesce in the laws, and are inclined rather to increase tban relax their rigor. It is well known that in London and all our great cities a large part of the population seek to avoid school attendance by every means in their power, and consequently the attendance is most irregular. There is very little of this in Germany; at least I have not found it so. Then, in our country, a great portion of our children are withdrawn altogether from school after passing the fourth or fifth standard, at the age of eleven or twelve, whereas in Germany almost everywhere attendance is compulsory until fourteen for boys, though in some places girls are allowed to leave at thirteen. .
“ This last point is the one I wish to emphasize. The great defectI might almost call it the fatal defect--of our system is that it stops just at a time when real education should begin. It allows a child to leave school at an age when its learning is soon forgotten and its discipline effaced. It is hardly too much to say that the two years' additional training the German child receives in the elementary school doubles its chance in life as compared with the English child.
“But this is not all. The Germans are rapidly developing a system of evening continuation classes, which carry on education for tro or three years louger. In Saxouy the boys who leave the primary school, if they do not go to the higher schools, must attend for three years longer-say until they are seventeen-continuation classes for at least five hours per week. But teaching is provided for them, and they are encouraged to attend twelve hours per week. So complete is this sys. tem that even the waiters at the hoiels up to the age of seventeen attend afternoon classes, and are taught one or two foreign languages. I take Saxony as one of the most advanced States; but the law is much the same in Württemberg and Baden, and the system is found to work so well that it is in contemplation to extend it to all the States in the German Empire, and Austria will probably follow suit. This is confi. dently expected to happen in the course of 1858. I must state as an undoubted fact that in Germany and Switzerland, and I believe in some other continental countries, the opinion is ripening into a conviction that the oducation even of the poorest classes should be continued in some forın or other to the age of sixteen or seventeen. They find by experience that wherever this is adopted it gives an enormous adrautage to the people in the competition of life, and above all, trains them to habits of industry and mental application. I believe that it is owing to tbis system of thorough education that Germany has almost extinguished the pauper and semipauper class, which is the bane and disgrace of our country.
" Wherever I have gone I bave inquired how they deal with the rag. ged and squalid class of children, and I have been told in every city I visited-Zürich, Stuttgart, Nuremberg, Chemnitz, Dresden, and Berlin-that such a class practically does not exist. I do not mean that there is not porerty, and plenty of it, in Germany. Wages are much lower than in England, and many have a hard struggle to live; but
there does not seem to exist to any extent that mass of sunken, degraded beingy wlio with us cast their children upon the streets, or throw their on the rates, or leave them to charity. Some half a milliou children in the United Kingdom are dependent more or less on the alms or the rates of the community, and probably another half-million are miser. ably underfed and underclad. Nothing to correspond with this exists in Germany. The poorest people tbere would be ashamed to treat their childreu as multitudes do with us. Indeed, I have not seen since I left home a single case of a ragged or begging child. I repeat that the great cause of this both in Germany and Switzerland is the far greater care they have taken of the education of the children for at least two or three generations, whereas we have only taken the matter up seriously since 1870, when Mr. Foster's great act was passed.
“Let us contrast the general condition of our London children, for instance, at the age of fifteen or sixteen with that of the same class in Berlin, or Dresden, or Chemnitz. With us nine-tenths of the chil. dren have long since left school, and a too large proportion of them are receiving no training but the coarse and brutalizing education of the streets. Most of the retain little of what they have learned at school, except the power to read the penny dreadful,' which stuffs their minds with everything a child should not know. They are to a very large extent adepts iu profane and obscene language and are freqneuters of the public house and similar places ; a great many of them are learning no useful trade or calling, but are drifting helplessly into the class of wretched, ill-paid, casual laborers. Very many of them marry before they are twenty and are soon the parents of a numerous progeny, half starved and stunted, both in body and mind. Compare, or rather contrast, this with Germany. At tifteen or sixteen a great part of the children are still under excellent instruction. Exceedingly few are to be found roaining about the streets. They are prohibited, at least in some parts of Germany, from entering the public houses (except with their parents) until the age of seventeen, aud I am told are everywhere prohibited from smoking until sixteen. In fact there are, both by law and public sentiment, barriers placed against the corruption of the young which do not exist in England.
“No country has ever suffered more from the abuse of the iilea of individual liberty than England has done. Owing to this overstrained idea we did not get compulsory education until long after the advanced nations of the Continent, and still we are far behind them in the care we take of our children. It is intolerable that this state of things should continue longer. Democratic government everywhere insists upon good education, and expects each citizen to fulfill his duties to the state.
“Public opinion in our country will certainly insist, and that before long, that we shall not be forever disgraced with the residuum of drunken, demoralized, and utterly incapable population to be found in any modern state. It will insist that some time be spared for the solu