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TABLE 18.-Number of children enrolled in school in the various countries of Europe and
b No reports available. Nore. The numbers for sections of the United States do not include all who are included in the guin total of the United States, beuco the apparent discrepancy.
TOPICAL OUTLINE.--Political Description of England-Educational System Compared
with that of the United States-Limitations of the Expression Educational System as Applicd to England-Salient Characteristics of Provision for Secondary and SuperiorSummary of Educational Statistics.-System of Elementary Education : (I.) Relation of the State to ;(II.) Schools, How Established ; (III.) Statistics—(IV.) Administration and Supervision: (1) Central; (2) Local-(V.) The Teaching Force : (1) Classification and Qualification and Vinimum Staf'; (2) Appointments, Salaries, and Pensions, and Composition of Present Force; (3) Training of ; (4) Demand vs. Supply of Trained Teachers-(VI.) Subjects of Instruction : (1) Obligatory; (2) Optional; (3) Work of Current Year as shown by Examinations-(VII.) Conduct of Studies and Discipline: (1) Intellectual Tone of the School; (2) Moral Quality ;(3) Methods of Instruction; (4) (5) Corporal Punishment-(VIII.) Organization of Schools : (1) Local Freedom; (2) Essential Characteristics of Elementary Schools ; (3) Board vs. Voluntary Schools; (4) Infant Classes and School8; (5) Night Schools ; (6) Size and Grading of Elementary Day Schools ; (7) School Buildings and Premises ; (8) Variable Character. istics (Coeducation, Attendance and Length of Session, Compulsory School Age); (9) The Annual Grant, Effects of, Mode of Distribution-(IX.) Training Colleges : (1) How Established ; (2) Governmental Requirements; (3) Course of Study; (4) Conduct of ; (5) Grant to; (6) Statistics--Recapitulation of Chief Characteristics of the System : Schools for Special Clas8c8; Auxiliary Institutions ; Chronological Table.
Area-Population-Civil Divisions.-Great Britain, constitutional monarchy; area (England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland) 121,186 square miles; population (census 1851), 31,884,813. England and Wales, 58,186 square miles; population (census of 1881), 25,974,439; estimated population, 1889, 29,015,613.
The civil divisions of England are various and complicated. The 40 English and 12 Welsh counties are divided into 14,946 poor law or civil parisles, i. e., districts in each of which a separate poor rate may be levied; but the same ground is covered by about 13,000 ecclesiastical parishes, and again by 14,777 high way parishes; nor is this enumera. tion exhaustive. These divisions have been made at different times aud for various purposes, without any regard to previous boundaries. Moreover, the units of a division may be combined; thus for purposes of poor law administration the civil parishes are formed into 649 unions, 25 of which are single parish unions. It is desirable to have this fact
"For enumeration of divisions, soo Government Year Book, p. 65.
in mind on account of the relation of parishes and unions to school boards. Thas in 1889 there were in England and Wales, besides the London board, 162 municipal boards and 2,111 boards including 2,983 parishes. Boards of the last class comprised in some cases a single parish, and in other cases parish unions.
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF ENGLAND.
The conditions under which education is fostered in England are in many respects similar to those characteristic of the United States. In neither country are the different departments of education welded into a system as they are in France, and as are secondary and superior in. struction in Germany. The words 6 secondary” and “superior" are in. deed not terms of precision in the English-speaking countries, and in Great Britain are not so generally used as the specific expressions, university, college, and school. The universities and colleges of England, under their acts of incorporation and subsequent acts, have control over their own affairs, being subject to goverument only in respect to the fulfillment of their charter obligations.
From this independence there results a diversity of institutions and an individuality in each, greater even than are noticeable in our own country. In England, also, as in the United States, technical and in. dastrial training are matters of recent interest, deriving their support chiefly from municipal and private sources. Finally, in both countries there is a distinct and very positive recognition of public responsibility with respect to elementary education.
In their practical operations, however, the scholastic institutions of England differ widely from those of the United States.
Until a very recent period superior education was the privilege of a select class; secondary education is much less widely diffused than in our own country, indeed is scarcely within the reach of the common peo. ple, while in its present stage the elementary system resembles that of our own country in little save the recoguition of public responsibility in the matter.
In the absence of organic union between the higher grades of institutions in England, the expression “educational system," as there used, is understood to mean the system of elementary schools. Before entering upon the detailed consideration of the system, taking the word in its limited sense, it is desirable to note the salient characteristics of the provision for secondary and superior education.
UNIVERSITIES AND DETACHED COLLEGES,
Omitting London University, which is an examining body, there are in England four universities, Oxford, Cambridge, Durham, and Victoria, and about fourteen independent or “detached” colleges, as they are called, to distinguish them from colleges included in the university