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foundations. Each of these institutions is a law to itself within its charter limits in respect to studies, discipline, the composition of the teacbing force, and internal administration.
The universities receive annual grants from the Crown or by vote of Parliament for specific purposes. For example, Oxford has about $5,000 applied to the payment of public professors (Report of Oxford University Commission, 1852, p. 127); but these grants are an insignifi. cant item in the total income.
The budget for 1888–89 contained, for the first time, a small appropriation ($264,550) to provincial colleges. The main support of all these institutions is derived from the income of their endowments and from tuition fees.
According to the report of the universities commission (1872) the total income of Oxford and Cambridge universities, including all their colleges, in 1871, was £754,405 7s. 11d., or about $3,770,000. Of this amount, 81 per cent. was included under the head of exterual income, that is, income from properties.
Professional schools of theology are included in the older universities, and endeavors are made also to attract to them professional students in law and medicine. Cambridge has been particularly active in furnishing the scientific equipment necessary for a strong medical course. Professional education is, however, pursued mostly outside of the uni. versities. The principal medical schools of the ccuntry are found in the cities, being maintained in connection with the great hospitals. London, it need hardly be said, is the chief seat of this work. According to the present system of medical licenses established by the medical act of 1838, the universities, and certain medical corporations, in all nine. teen bodies, are recognized as the licensing authorities. Every person holding a license, diploma, or degree from one of these licensing authorities, is thereby entitled to have his name entered upon the Medical Register which was instituted by the act, and declared to be an exhaustive list of the medical practitioners known to the English law.
The “ Inns of Court,” often characterized as a great “university of law,” exercise a controlling influence over preparation for, and admission to the legal profession.
AGENCIES FOR SCIENCE, TECHNICAL, AND ART INSTRUCTION.
Through the Science and Art Department the Government gives support to scientific, technical, and art training. This work is also promoted by many institutions founded by individuals, by manufacturing companies, by public subscriptions, and by the great trade guilds. Most prominent in this respect among the guilds is the “City Livery Companies,” which, in 1879, established “ The City and Guilds of London Institute” for the purpose of fostering technical instruction in the metropolis and in provincial manufacturing towns. London bas natu. rally been the chief field for the operations of the institute, but several other cities, notably Manchester, Birmingham, Sheffield, and Bradford, have also become great centers of technical training through tbe com. bined action of this and the various other agencies mentioned. Underthe general head of technical instruction may be included also the Royal Naval College at Greenwich, the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, and the Royal Military College at Sandhurst.
Secondary education is the province of three classes of schools-endowed, proprietary, and private. This classification has respect to their social rather than their educational relations. Papils enter at about 7 years of age, and coutinue until 14, 16, or 18 years of age.
The endowed schools, like the universities, derive their income from property and fees. It has been recently estimated that the yearly income from educational endowments in England, universities and schools included, is about $10,000,000.
The endowed schools include the nine great public schools,' which are attended almostexclusively by the sons of the nobility and the wealthier middle classes. In 1858 the aggregate income of the nine schools was $325,000. There are also above 800 endowed grammar schools whoso aggregate income amounted in 1865 to $1,385,000. The number of en. dowed schools of all classes is above 4,000.
Although many of the endowments were intended by their founders for the benefit of the poor, they bare been very generally diverted from that purpose, and the institutions which they maintain, like the proprietary and private schools, minister to those who can afford to pay for the instruction of their children. Hence the expression “iniddle class," so commonly applied to the schools which carry instruction beyond the elements. The endowed schools act of 1869 coustituted a commission for the reorganization of endowed schools chiefly with a view to extending their benefits.
The proprietary schools are the property of individuals, companies, or corporations; private schools are the property of the masters or mis. tresses who conduct them. The list of agencies for secondary instruc. tion includes also “ladies' colleges,” inost of which, like the seminaries for young women in our own country, combine, in some measure, secondary and superior courses.
No recent reliable statistics of these several classes of secondary schools have been collected.
! Eton, Wincbester, Westminster, St. Paul's School, Merchant Taylor's School, Charter House, Harrow, Rugby, and Shrewsbury.
The following table presents the latest general statistics attainable for all classes of schools:
a In 1871 (vide Report of Commission).
Statistics for one college only, viz, Durbam. c Includes Owens College, Manchester, University College, Liverpool, and Yorkshire College, Leeds. d Includes 768 evening students and 60 women.
e Includes 819 evening pupils and 168 medical students. There are in addition 1,580 evening stadents not included.
f Includes 15 professors of medical colleges. g Vot additional to students in elementary and secondary schools ; enumeration for entire Kingdom. h Science. iArt.
For all the purposes of the department, including administration appropriations to museums, etc. k Parliamentary grant, $16,414,725.
Relation of the state to.—Elementary education was carefully organ. ized by the education act of 1870. By this act the Government assumed the responsibility of securing adequate accommodation in pablic elementary schools for all children of school age in England and Wales, an interest which had hitherto been left to private initiative. The terri.
"The sources of information that have been consulted for the preparation of this statement are the education acts, 1870, 1873, 1876, annual reports of the education department, reports of city boards, report of the royal commission appointed in 1884 to investigate the operations of the system, and educational journals which make weekly records of its movement.
tory was divided into school board districts, provision made for the election of boards and the rates (i, e., local taxes) made contributory to the work. In case of the failure of the rate-payers of a district to take action the Government stepped in and ordered the election of boards. Government grants for education which dated from 1833 were greatly increased and their application extended. Through the operations of this act in six years school attendance was doubled.
The system is under the fostering care of the state, which provides the greater portion of the funds for its maintenance directly from the public treasury in the form of an annual parliamentary grant, and exercises a large measure of control over its operations.
The policy of the Government, however, in the management of this great interest, is that of stimulating and aiding local effort. This is done not only by requiring the rate.payers of school districts to take the initiative in providing school accommodation, but further, by the extension of Government aid to schools established by denominational or private effort, provided that their managers fulfill specified condi. tions. In all cases the Government grant is proportioned to the amount of local funds raised.
Schools, how established.The system includes two distinct classes of schools, viz, board and voluntary; the former established by the school boards elected by the rate-payers; the latter chiefly church schools, but including also a small number of private undenominational schools.
The voluntary schools at the present time make provision for about two-thirds of the school-going children. These schools bear witness to the zeal of religious bodies in respect to education. In England, as in other countries, they began the work of instructing the young. Their ideal was developed from the Christian consciousness of the church ; it had chief reference to the moral nature and immortal destiny of people, and led naturally to the employment of formal religious instruction as the chief means of human enlightenment.
The board schools are the outcome of the political consciousness of the nation, which developed rapidly from the time of the passage of the reform act of 1832. Although the two ideals have much in common, they have come to conflict at many points; at this moment it is apparent that the later ideal is to prevail over the earlier.
The record of the progress of this dual system since 1870, the date of its organization, is interesting and suggestive. In that year 8,281 voluntary schools came into relation with the department. They had accommodations for 1,878,584 pupils, and an average attendance of 1,152,389; the former number being a little over 8 per cent. of the poplation at that date.
The following statistics bring into comparative view the two classes of schools at the date of the latest report. The present enrollment is slightly above 16 per cent. of the present estimated population. The average atteudance shows an increase of 220 per cent. over that of 1870.
STATISTICS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, ENGLAND AND WALES, 1888–89.
Under the codes, i. e., annual regulations of the Educational Depart. ment, preceding that of 1890 the larger proportion of the grant allowed each school depended upon the number of pupils passing the Gorernment examination. Hence, the number present on the day of the in. spector's visit was an important item in the statistics. In 1889 tbis number was 4,307,979, i. e., boys, 2,228,341 ; girls, 2,079,638. Of the registered pupils 31.34 per cent. were under 7 years of age; 64.43 per cent. between 7 and 14, and 4.23 per cent. above 14 years of age.
Finances.—The funds for the support of board schools are derired chiefly from local rates, fees, and the government grant; those for the support of voluntary schools from endowments, contributions, school fees, and the grant. The amount and proportion from each source in 1888–89 were as follows:
TABLE 21.--. Total income for support of schools and proportion from each contributing
Classification of schools.
scholar income for
in arer support. Endow.
Other age at