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Ratio of school rates to ratable values. From a careful estimate, it appears that the amount raised from the rates for the support of board schools bears to the ratable values the following proportions :

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Extraordinary expenditures.—In addition to the current expenditure, large sums are annually required for buildings and other permanent improvements.

The education act authorizes boards to secure loans for these purposes, the repayment being spread over such numbers of years, not ex. ceeding fifty, as may be sanctioned by the Education Department.

In 1889, loans for works of permanent character received by 2,246 boards amounted to a little more than $5,000,000.

The total amount advanced for this purpose from 1870 to 1889 inclusive, is estimated at $105,168,365.

The annual expenditure under this head naturally diminishes as the school provision becomes more and more complete.

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Central administration. The system of elementary education is administered in accordance with the education act of 1870, the subsequent modifying acts of 1873; 1874, and 1876, and the latest annual code.

It is in charge of the Education Department, generally termed the Committee of Council on Education, composed of lords of the privy council.

The nominal head of the department is the lord president of the privy council; the active head is a member of the privy council who is called the vice president of the committee on education; he represents the department in the House of Commons. The department prepares the annual code for the regulation of the schools, which is submitted to Parliament for approval. Local school authorities are subject to the regulations issued by the department, and all contentions respecting school matters may be referred to it. The department also distributes the Parliamentary grant and makes an annual report upon the condition of the schools.

Inspectors appointed by the sovereign, upon the recommendation of tlie department, visit the schools each year, examine the pupils, and investigate the general condition of the schools. Their report determines the amount of grant which each school may claim. Chief inspectors are also appointed for general superintendence over assigned sections of the country.

There are twelve of these superior officials, two of whom are assigned to the charge of training colleges. The inspectorate is an interesting feature of the system, and its operations deserve careful consideration. The incumbents of the office are generally university men, not experienced in the details of elementary school work. The list includes several names of distinction, notably Matthew Arnold and J. G. Fitch. The service which these men have rendered is of great and permanent value and well illustrates the advantage to be derived from bringing into such a work minds having what has been happily called "intel. lectual detachment."

It is very generally asserted, however, that such appointments are exceedingly rare, and do not compensate for the disadvantages result. ing from the ill-directed efforts of the large body of inspectors who lack the practical understanding of their duties that previous experi. ence in humbler relations with the schools might supply. The questions here suggested are constantly discussed, and it is probable that in the future at least a fair proportion of teachers may look for promotion to the more lucrative and more distinguished service.

Local management.-In pursuance of the policy of fostering local effort, large liberty is left to local school authorities in respect to all matters not directly affecting the interests of the Government or of the general public.

For the purposes of the education acts England and Wales are divided into “school districts." These are the metropolis, every borough, two only excepted, and each parish.

School boards may be formed in these districts upon the application of the rate-payers or by order of the department. A school board must be formed in a district whenever there is not adequate provision for the children of school age (i. e., 5 to 13) in schools recognized by the department as efficient.

The rate-payers elect the boards to serve for three years. They are empowered to make by-laws relating to religious teaching, compulsory attendance, etc., and to borrow money for the providing and enlarging of schoolhouses, subject in each case, however, to the approval of the department. Without reference to the department they may levy rates and call for funds from the rates to cover deficiencies in income.

By-laws relating to religious teaching and attendance must not violate the clauses in the act which protect religious liberty and prohibit sectarian teachings in board schools.1

At the latest date of report the total number of boards (England and Wales) was 2,274. Of these, 162 were in boroughs, whose populations ranged from 750 upwards, by far the larger proportion, i. e. 85 per cent., comprising each above 5,000 inhabitants. The remaining boards were in parishes. Above 75 per cent. of these parishes had less than 2,000 inbabitants. The election of boards had been compulsory in 36 of the boroughs and in 1,045 of the parishes.

The powers, save only that relating to the raising of money, may be delegated to a board of managers of not less than three persons. This privilege is exercised to some extent by the school boards of London and Liverpool with apparently good results. The Birmingham board, which has always been one of the most progressive in England, has no managers, but employs a corps of paid inspectors, and in addition seeks in various ways to promote the interest of parents in the schools and to : establish bonds of union between parents and teachers.

If a school district be nut within the jurisdiction of a board, a school attendance committee may be appointed in a borough by the town council; in a parish by the guardians. They must report infractions of the law with respect to school attendance or the employment of chil. dren. Such committees have been appointed in 125 municipal boroughs and in 619 other districts. The population of England and Wales under school boards in 1889 was 16,481,753, and under school attendance committees 9,492,686, or a total equivalent to 894 per cent of the entire population.

Voluntary schools are not under the school boards, but are controlled by their own committees. Local authorities of all classes are termed in general “ managers.” They are responsible for the conduct of their schools, for their maintenance in efficiency, and for the provision of all needful furniture, books, and apparatus, and in particular of

(a) Suitable registers. (6) A portfolio to contain official letters. (c) A diary or log book. (d) A cash book. (e) The code and revised instructions for its application for each year.

See p. 97.

THE TEACHING FORCE.

Classification and qualifications. The teaching force for elementary instruction comprises pupil-teachers, assistant teachers, provisionally certificated teachers, certificated teachers, and evening-school teachers.

A pupil-teacher is a boy or girl engaged by the managers of a public elementary day school on condition of teaching during school hours under the superintendence of the principal teacher and receiving suitable instruction.

The managers are bound to see that the pupil-teacher is properly instructed during the engagement, and the department, if satisfied that this duty is neglected, may decline to recognize any pupil.teachers as members of the staff of a school under the same managers.

Candidates, in order to be engaged as pupil-teachers, whether at the end of a year of probation or without probation, must be presented to the inspector for approval at his annual visit, must produce certificates as to health, character, and attainments, and must pass an examination in the work of the two highest years of the elementary school. They must be not less than fourteen years of age at the beginning of their engagement. The engagement may be for four, for three, or for two years.

Pupil.teachers who have passed certain specified examinations may be recognized as assistant teachers, or if specially recommended by the inspector on the ground of their practical skill, may be recognized as provisionally certificated teachers in charge of small schools. No certifi. cate (i. e., diploma) is issued to provisionally certificated teachers, nor can they serve in this capacity after the completion of the twenty-fifth year of their age.

To be recognized as an assistant teacher one must bave passed the Queen's scholarship examination, which admits to a training college, or some one of the examinations recognized by the department. These include, among others, the unirersity higher local examinations, and the College of Preceptor's examination for the teacber's diploma.

Teachers, in order to obtain certificates, must be at least twenty years of age; must pass two examinations at an interval of one year or more, and must bare given satisfactory proofs of their professional abil. ity in actual service for two years as provisionally certificated, or for one year as assistants, before they can be admitted to the first examination. There is but one class of certificates, but a distinction is made as regards the rights to superintend pupil-teachers.

A certificate may at any time be recalled or suspended, but not until the department bave informed the teacher of the charges against him and given bim an opportunity of explanation.

Iu estimating what is the minimum school staff required, the department consider the principal certificated teacher to be sufficient for an

That is the diploma awarded by the College of Preceptors, a private body.

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average attendance of seventy if trained, and of sixty if untrained, eachi assistant teacher for an average attendance of fifty, each pupil-teacher for an average attendance of thirty, each candidate for a pupil-teachership on probation for an average attendance of twenty.

The teachers of day schools must belong to the laity, a restriction which does not hold in respect to evening classes.

Appointments, salaries, pensions.— Teachers are appointed and their salaries adjusted by school boards, or in the case of voluntary schools, by the managers thereof. There is no uniform scale of salaries. The average salary of certificated masters is now £119 12s. ($590), as against £94 18. ($170) in 1870. The average salary of a certificated school-mistress is £75 98. ($378), which is about the same as in 1870.

The following table shows the several grades of salaries, and the number of certificated teachers in receipt of each.

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In addition to their other emolaments, 5,906 out of 17,449 masters and 4,673 out of 26,139 mistresses are provided with residences free of Tent.

The sum of $31,629 is voted annually for pensions, donations, or spe. cial gratuities to teachers in Great Britain engaged prior to May 9, 1862. The rules governing the distribution are embodied in the code.

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