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out this feature very prominently. No other nation can equal the French in making things speak for themselves. The formation of school museums has been stimulated until a large per cent. of the schools are well provided.

The impulse of the French people that leads to centralization also causes a pressure against parochial schools. In the past there has not been that separation of church and State which exists in the United States. We have seen that England has still 60 per cent. of its pupils in parochial schools. France has something like 20 per cent. of its pupils in parocbial schools. The struggle towards separation of church and State is more intense in France because the question is comparatively new, as it is in all Catholic nations. In the United States the number of pupils in private schools, both secular and parochial, amounts to only 10 per cent. of the whole; in France to 20.8 per cent.; in England to 62 per cent. With us the friends of public schools do not desire the abolition of all private and parochial schools. They furnish a safe-guard against the degeneracy of the public school management. When there are dangerous extremes adopted in the methods of discipline or instruction. at once the pendulum swings towards private and parochial schools, until the better miud of the community is warned and a reaction sets in. There is always a tendency in State schools towards too much mechanism, and the private school furnishes a nursery for individuality in methods of instruction besides providing a safety-valve, so to speak, for the discontent of that class of people who love the freedom to depart from the customs followed by the great majority.

The present trend of French education is towards further separation of the public from the parochial education, and also towards a sharper discrimination of modern branches of study from the traditional classic course. The questions of the function of Latin and Greek and the place of science in the school course as compared with literature and the humanity studies, and, above all, the secondary and higher education of women, receive great attention and sharp party lines are drawn. One may predict that classical studies will not be abolished, but will be seen for what they are worth in furnishing the youth with that necessary acquaintance with the two strands of his civilization that were derived from Greece and Rome. But science will be fully recognized and adopted into the curriculum.

The education of girls in the elementary schools has already become quite as extensive as the education of boys. But in secondary schools the girls amount to only 6 per cent. of the entire number, and the num ber under superior instruction is quite insignificant. In America the girls in secondary schools outnumber the boys. The bigher education of the women acts powerfully to reënforce the education of the children in the following generations. It will tend to increase the centritugal force of the French character. It will make it more independent of central authority, but at the same time will render the central authority more stable by forming in each family and in each individual an authority based on reason and in harmony with the central government. The newspaper age is an age (already arrived in America) in which a public opinion is formed by the universal contemplation of the same common public issues of the day and a general discussion of them. Each morning all citizens see a presentation of all noteworthy things and erents, near and far off, a survey of the entire world, so to speak. Each person, too, reads and hears the comments of all on the various features of the common spectacle, and forms his own opinion in regard to it. The net result of this daily survey of the world and its discussion is the formation of public opinion, and this governs indirectly but inevitably. The English-speaking nations are almost entirely governed by this agency. Continental powers, with their effective public school systems modeled on those of France and Germany, are rapidly coming into the same kind of government wherever the freedom of the press is encouraged. Where illiteracy is abolished and the newspaper is read by everybody public opinion gives great stability to the government by preventing sudden and disastrous explosions that follow from government suppression. Reforms take the place of revolutions.


Although all the nations of Europe are largely of Teutonic stock, yet there have developed wide departures from the parent stock which has remained at home in Germany. In a certain sense Germany furnishes a deep contrast to England in its mental characteristics. The modern German like the ancient Greek has theoretic tendencies and art tendencies, while the Englishman like the Roman has tendencies to will power and practical experiment. While it would never do to say that the Germans lack will or that the English lack intellect, yet to understand their difference in character it is necessary to say that there is a very different emphasis placed on the two sides of mental power by the two races. The tendency of the German is to think before he acts, while the tendency of the Anglo-Saxon is to act before he thinks. The English way is to learn through doing and to use its will rather than its intellect in the attainment of knowledge. It takes pride in making an inventory of the facts as it finds them where they actually exist-it prizes real experience and original observation, and makes small account of reflections and reasonings and a priori truths. Its national form of mental activity is empiricism. It knows the world as it is and not as it ought to be or might be. But the German, on the other hand, makes up his mind first and acts afterwards. This at least is his tendency. His mental habit is to seek out all that is known on a given question and review it carefully; then he proceeds to verify this by comparing it with an actual inventory made by himself. Ile settles the object to be attained and the proper means to be used, and then at last acts with great effect in accordance with his deliberately formed plans.

Of course there are exceptions. This is not a fixed and absoluto difference between the two national characters. But it is the distinction that we must make and keep in view if we would understand the two trends and explain the methods followed and the results obtained by the two peoples. The German loves system quite as much as the Frenchman, only the latter looks more to the realization of his central unity into the art forms of regularity and symmetry, while the former looks more to dynamic features and wishes to make sure the connections between the highest and lowest links of power and authority. . While the English people lay great stress on immemorial usages and privileges that have grown up by compromises in the past, the Germán wishes above all to have a consistent and reasonable system. It is more important to him that the government shall be reasonable than that there shall be individual freedom to act out one's desires and caprices.

From the German idiosyncrasy it is evident why they have invented gunpowder and the art of printing rather than the steam engine and the telegraph ; why they have lahored most efficiently in the lines of comparative science rather than in the inventory of isolated data, They wish to see each branch of knowledge in the light of all others. They have created comparative philology that reveals to us the profoundest traits of mind as exhibited in the structure of language. They have created the science of comparative history, giving us an insight into the sum total of the striving of each nation that has flourished on the earth. They have reënforced comparative history by comparative studies in religion, art, jurisprudence, and psychology. Each new comparative study gives a new critical point of view from which to confirm or reject what has before been held. In this way the German scientific industry tends to reach a stable result in the science of nature and also especially in the science of man.

But this discovery of the trends of nature and human history brings the intellect into a condition where it decides upon the practical questions of the day and leads to action. Having summed up the case in view of all the provinces in any way related to it, the will may now act with the most intense conviction. The present generation has seen a new kind of national power rise into the world history out of Germany. Goethe said in 1792, after the battle of Valmy, where he saw a French army representing the people and officered by the people defeat the army representing the nobility and officered by them: “From this place, and from this day forth, commences a new era in the world's history." Democracy would from that time be a power to be reckoned with. The new German empire is founded on science and means many things of the utmost importance to future civilization. Comparative science brings together all the kindred provinces and discovers the net result. It attacks problems of the utmost complexity, none more so

than that of war with surrounding nations. It delivers its decisions to the executive power of the nation and preparations are made in view of all the contingencies. An absolutely accurate survey of all strategic points, giving with precision every stone fence and every bridge and ford, the whole nation trained to military service, the means of transportation prepared so that the whole power of the nation may be concentrated without fail in the least possible time on any point of the frontier—these things belong to science. The intellect converts itself into will-power by settling in advance all problems that may arise, so that in the field nothing can occur that will surprise the commander. At every point he will be stronger than his enemy.

The practical outcome of the rise of Germany to a new world-power is the necessity of the universal education of the people. Germany, with its principle of the supremacy of conscious intelligence and the reenforcement of the will-power by comparative science, had all along consistently moved towards an efficient system of education. The powers of the individual may be indefinitely increased by education. An educated nation is far more powerful than an uneducated nation of equal population and wealth. Education of all the people in schools renders possible great strategic combinations in war, commerce, and industry.

It is this principle which distinguishes the modern German people. The Greeks were great in plastic art and literature and philosophy. The German is equally great in music and philosophy. His philosophy is based on psychology where the Greek philosophy took the form of ontology. The German turns science into philosophy by making it comparative, and thus completing a total survey of an entire province.

Feeling this national principle at work in his soul, he finds popular education the most natural of all human interests to him. Studying the comparative aspects of science, he becomes observant of methods. He neglects this fact and that fact to look at the process by which they arrived. Nowhere else is there so much exercise for this quality of observation which sees method as in pedagogy. Upon the study of method depends the arrangement of the course of study and the development from one grade of school work into the next. Upon the study of method depends the art of teaching and the discipline and management of the school.

Germany has established all grades of instruction, from the kindergarten to the university, and it enforces by a rigidly executed compulsory law the education of all its children from the age of 6 to 14.

In chapters II and y prepared for this Report by a specialist* of the Bureau it is seen how thoroughly this work of providing for school education is accomplished.

As early as 1717 the Prussian King issued a royal edict requiring that all parents should send their children to school.

* Dr. L. R. Klemm,

As soon as Frederick the Great had finished his long struggles with the neighboring powers for the recognition of his nation, he turned his attention to national housekeeping and gave a great impulse to education. He began the work of secularizing education and making it a matter of State provision. After the defeat at Jena by Napoleon Bonaparte, Prussia began her reconstruction by laying new stress on her schools. Pestalozzi's principles were very early adopted, and the atteution of teachers was directed to the method of arousing the child's mind through sense perception. The German national character, as has been shown, leans in the direction of knowledge and science rather than in that of adventure and the moasurement of personal strength by contest of will-power. The German child is more ducile than other children. He juherits a dominant love for knowledge.

The German teacher is not hampered by the necessity of expending a large amount of nervous energy on the “ discipline” of his school. It is sufficient if he makes bis instruction interesting. The pupils will not be disorderly. They will conspire with the teacher rather than exert their will-power to oppose and circumvent him. Whereas the pupils in Euglish-speaking countries have always a primary impulse, not for acquiring knowledge but for measuring the strength of their will-power with the teacher and with each other. The Anglo-Saxon branch of the Teutonic family has preserved in this peculiar form the old heart hunger for recognition which has always characterized the Teutonic stock since the time of Tacitus, who described it as “ securi adversus homines, securi adversus deos," a race that respected neither men nor gods. For they had a deep feeling that in the substance of their human nature they were divine. Hence they demanded personal recognition as the meed due them from men and gods. This is the reason why Christianity took such a hold on the Teutonic peoples and why the Franks and the purest Teutonic stocks adopted Trinitarian Chris. tianity rather than Arianism which became the religion of the Goths for a while. They found the doctrine of the divine self-sacrifice of God for the sake of man an act of recognition which completely satisfied their heart hunger, for it was an infinite personal recognition.

The Teutonic stock that remained in Germany finds its highest satisfaction in the theoretical contemplation of the world as a whole-the scientific exhibition of reason in nature and history, while the AngloSaxon has drifted, not accidentally, in another direction and finds his satisfaction in the personal recognition of his power to mold nature to his will and to organize and govern men, chiefly lower races. It may be said that while the German insists on the right of private judgment, the Anglo-Saxon insists on the right of expressing it freely in public.

The docility of the German pupil is therefore not to be regarded as an artificial product of German methods of pedagogic discipline. Those methods fail in American schools to tame the restless, adventure-seek.

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